US 2642574 A
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June 23, 1 v. K. ELORANTA 2,642,574
HELMET FOR PROTECTION AGAINST LOW-TEMPERATURES Filed Feb. 7, 1952 v 4 Sheets-Sheet l INVENT OR ATTORNEY June 23, 1953 v. K. ELORANTA I HELMET FOR PROTECTION AGAINST LOW-TEMPERATURES 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Feb. '7, 1952 I I INVENTORN ATTORNEY June 23, 1953 v. K. ELORANTA 2,642,574
HELMET FOR PROTECTION AGAINST LOW-TEMPERATURES 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed Feb. '7, 1952 INVENTOR A? /0/'an/0 I ATTORNEY June 23, 1953 v. K. ELORANTA HELMET FOR PROTECTION AGAINST LOW-TEMPERATURES 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed Feb. 7, 1952 Va/b z/ol f ATTORNEY Patented June 23, 1953 HELMET FOB PROTECTION AGAINST LOW-TEMPERATURES Vaito K. 'Eloranta, Boston, Mass, assignor to the United States of America. as represented by I the Secretary of the Army Application February 7, 1952, Serial No. 270,307
My inventionrelates to a protective face and head covering for use in low temperature regions. A primary object of the invention is to provide a protective helmet suitable for use by military personnel in Artic regions or the like.
- A further object is to provide a helmet of the above type which is easy to don and doll, and which will not interfere with use by the wearer of a-rifie or the like.
A further object is to provide a helmet of the mentioned character embodying novel means to direct fresh air across the goggle'of the helmet to prevent-fogging or frosting of the same.
A further object is to provide a'helmet of the including a face above-mentioned character having a closure near the mouth which may be opened to facilitate eating, talking, and the like.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will be apparent during the course of the following description;
In the accompanying drawings, forming .a part ofthis application, and'in which like numerals like parts throughout are employed to designate the same, v
Figure 1 is a perspectiveview of a; helmet em-' bodying my invention,
Figure 2 is a rear elevation of the same with the hood'rolled back to show the inner side of the face mask, part broken away,
Figure 3 is a rear elevation of the helmet with the hood in the donned position,
Figure 4 is a central vertical section through the helmet, parts broken away.
Figure 5 is a'horizontal cross-section taken on line 55 of Figure 4, part in elevation, and
Figure 6 is a fragmentary plan view of the helmet with the hood rolled back to expose the top of the face mask, parts broken away.
In the drawings, where for the purpose of illustration is shown a preferred embodiment of my invention, the numeral l5 designates gen- 5 Claims. (01. 2205) erall-y a moulded face mask. The face mask comprises an inner moulded rubber sheet or wall l6, shaped to fit the average face, and including a continuous fiexible'marginal flange I! which contacts the faceand preferably has substantially .an airtight fitthereagainst. Flexibility of the sheet l6 audits flange ll permits the sheet to conform to the natural contours of a given face when the mask is applied thereto and held firmly against the face by means to be described hereinafter.
The lowermost transverse portion it of the continuous flange 11 engages under the chin of the wearer, while thetop transverse portion I9 of the flange bears against the forehead below the hairline. The generally vertical side portions of the flange I! contact the sides of the cheeks, and the arrangement is such that the inner rubber sheet It covers substantially the entire area of the face forwardly of the ears and between the top of the" forehead and chin.
The inner sheet I6 has a generally central oralnasal opening .21] which is generally triangular and tapers upwardly as shown in Figure -2. A
' continuous bead or gasket ,2 I is formed upon the most transverse portion 23 engages the chin below the lower lip. I v
A narrow transverse elastic band 24 is prefera'bly provided for integrally connecting the When the mask is donned, this band 24 bears against the: upper lip directly 'below the nose and aids in positioning the mask upon the face and maintaining the bead 2] in airtight contact with the face.
. Near the top of the oral nasal opening 120,.the inner sheet IIB is ,further provided with a large generally rectangular, transversely "elongated eye opening 25, and the uppermost portion 22 of the bead 2| protects above the lower transverse edge 26 of the eye opening 2I5,1Figure '2. A narrow elastic band 21', like the band 2'4, is preferably provided at the transverse centero-f the eye opening 25, and this bandhas its lower end integrally secured "to theiupper head portion 22 and its upper endintegrally secured to the upper most portion 1.9 of the rubber sheet IB.'T116 band .21 is disposed at the transverse cen 0f the mask, midway between the eyes, andis so narrow that it does not interfere with vision. The band 21 aids in maintaining the proper shape of the mask when the same is app-lied to the face.
The mask I5 further comprises a forwardly projecting wall or sleeve 28, formed integral with the inner sheet 16 and surrounding the oral nasal opening 29 and forming an oral nasal passage 28 leading forwardly from the oral nasal opening 26. As best shown in Figure 4 the forwardly projecting wall 28 has a lower transverse portion 29 and an upper inclined portion 39. The side portions of the wall 28 preferably converge upwardly and are substantially parallel to the sides of the oral nasal opening 26. The forward end ofthe wall 28 defines a circular opening 3|, Figures 4 and 5. A short annular sleeve 32 is formed integral with the wall 28 and projects forwardly of the same, as shown.
A generally horizontal transverse top wall 33 is formedintegral wtih the inner sheet l6 and extends forwardly of and substantially entirely across the same. Asviewed from above, Figure 6, the top wall 33 is curved. longitudinally to follow thetransverse curvature of the upper sheet portion [9, which in turn is curved to fit the forehead. Thetop wall 33 is spaced above the forwardly projecting wall 28 in superposed relation thereto, but the forward edge 34 of the top wall terminates rearwardly of the forward end of the wall 28 defining the passage 28. The top wall 33 has a longitudinal row of spaced air inlet apertures 35, as shown.
A forward rubber sheet or wall 36 is integrally secured about its marginal edge 31 to the inner wall 15, and the forward wall is spaced forwardly of the inner wall l6 and also integrally joined to the forwardly projecting wall or sleeve 28. The forward wall 36 defines with the inner wall I6 and forwardly projecting wall 28, deep downwardly tapering recesses 38, at the sides of the forwardly projecting wall 28 and laterally outwardly thereof. The recesses 38 also taper transversely outwardly, toward the junctions 31 of the inner and outer walls, Figure 5. The lower ends 39 of the deep recesses 38 are closed, and their upper ends are open.
The forward wall 36 is provided adjacent to the eye opening 25 with a companion eye opening 40, somewhat larger than the eye opening 25 but having the general shape as the same. A transparent goggle lens 4! of a suitable somewhat flexible plastic material is mounted within the forward eye opening 46 and has its marginal edge secured in a groove 42, formed in a marginal rubber flange 43. surrounding the" opening 49. The goggle lens 4| is formed of material which possesses the optical qualities necessary for good visibility. V
A goggle chamber 44 is formed between the goggle lens 4! and inner wall I6, and the topof this chamber is defined by the top wall 33, while its bottom is defined by the forwardly projecting wall 28. The tops'of the deep recesses 38 are in open communication'with the goggle chamber 44, and. lead downwardly from the ends of the same, upon opposite sides of the passage 28'. When the mask is donned, the goggle chamber 44 is sealed from the oral nasal passage 28' by the bead or gasket 2!, which prevents the exhaled breath from entering the goggle chamber 44, through the 'eye opening 25. I I
Check valve means are providedlto prevent exhaled air from reentering the goggle chamber 44 via the recesses 38. Such means comprises mem- '4 brane flutter valves 45, carried by small plates 46, which are fixedly secured within openings 41 formed in the sides of the forwardly projecting wall 28. The plates 46 have openings '48 beneath the membrane valves 45, and the membranes 45 are adapted to be raised from the plates 46 to admit inhaled air passing downwardly through the recesses 38 to the oral nasal passage 28'. When the wearer of the mask exhales, the membranes 45 are seated upon the plates 46 and cover the openings 48 so that exhaled air cannot enter the recesses 38. During inhaling, fresh air is drawn in from above the head through the apertures 35, and this fresh air passes downwardly through the goggle chamber 44, and ventilates the inner surface of the goggle 41, to prevent fogging or frosting of the same.
A rigid metal sleeve or ring 49 is mounted within the annular flange 32, and an outer binding strip 56 of friction tape or the like surrounds the flange 32 and binds the same tightly to the sleeve 49. The sleeve 49 is equipped at its bottom with hinge I knuckles 5i, coacting with companion hinge knuckles formed at the bottom of a pivoted closure or door 52 of sheet metal or the like. This 49, and the door 52 has a hollow central body portion, including spaced innerand outer walls 54 and 55. The hollow body portion of the door 52 enters the sleeve 49 when the door is closed,
and the door is swingable downwardly for open-V ing the same to facilitate talking, eating, and
. the like, Figure 4.
The inner wall 54 of the door 52 has a plurality of openings 56 formed therein, and a forwardly opening membrane check valve'5'l is secured at 58 to the outer surface of the wall 54 and covers the openings 56. The arrangement is such whenthe door 52 is closed, and the wearer of the mask exhales, the membrane valve 51 is raised and uncovers the openings 56 to permit passage of thebreath through the openings, the check valves 45 being closed during exhaling, as previously.ex--
ber or the like for the hollow sheet metal door 52, and such cover includes a marginal flange 63 which engages about the flange 53 and serves to secure the cover 62 to the door. The cover62 has an outer side 64, spaced forwardly of the wall55 by lugs or spacers 65, formed integral with the; cover and bearing against the wall 55. At its lower end the cover 62 has a short dependingspout 66, integral therewith, and the web 59 and depending lip-66 extend into the upper end of the: spout 66 to support the same, and maintain the:
front wall 64 spaced from the wall 55. The spout 66 is in direct communication with the discharge opening 6|, so that exhaled air may pass through the spout 66 to the atmosphere. A dead air insulating space is formed between the outer wall 64 and wall 55 of the'closure 52. i
An upstandinghinge plate 6! is rigidly secured to the toprof .the ring 49, and has pivotally connected' therewith an inner section 68 of a twoposition cam latch 69. The cam latch 69 further includes a forward handle portion 19, which has cam earsil formed thereon to engage an. up-
standing. catch plate :12, rigidly secured to the. top of the closure 52; therev being a slit formed in the top of the 'rubbercover '62 to reoeivethe catching plate 12'. Thehandle section carries a leaf spring 7.3 at its rear end for. engagement upon the inner section 168 and serving to releasably lock the handle section 1.0 in the. .elevated or unlocked position shown in dotted lines -.inIFigure 4.. A small torsion spring 14 is mounted upon the hinge pin of the plate 61, and has an .end engaging the inner section .68 of the cam latch 69. to urge the same downwardly into .locking engagement with the .catch plate .12. When the handle portion 10 is swung downwardly to the position shown in Figure. 4, the-cam ears I I. force the catch plate 12' rearwardly and the .fiange that .a continuous downdraft of air through the goggle chamber 44. is maintained.
' it isto. bemoted that. the construction of the moulded face mask [5 is such that substantially the entire area of the. face is protected by a double-walled insulating construction. Theinner and forward walls 16 and 36 are .spaced apart andv form an insulating airspace therebetween,
' and the hollow construction .of the door 52 and 53 is clamped tightly against the outer end of the sleeve 49, with the. rubber flange. .63 therebetween to .form an airtight seal. The cam latch 69 elevated above its position shown'dotted. Figure 4 and against the force of the torsion spring 14, to entirely "release the catch plate 12 and allow the closure :52 to be fully opened.
The protective face mask L5 .is stitched into .a lined poplin head covering .or hood 75,- adapted to cover the entire head and :open at its lower end for receiving the head. Thehood T5 stitched to the mask l5 around the margin .of the rubber flange 43'. The flexible sides I] of the inner sheet 16 may also be tacked to the hood 1:5 by lines of stitching 1.1, Figure 2. The. hood has an opening in the mouth area, forming a sleeve 13 which extends over the rubber sleeve 32 and lies beneath the binding tape-50.
The hood has :a slit '19 through its lower edge, at the back thereof, Figure 3. A drawstrmg 89 extends through a passage formed :by a. hem 80" at the bottom of the hood, and serves to draw the lower end of the hoodabout the neckof the wearer. The hood 15 extends over the top wall 33 of the mask and is spaced therefrom during the wearing of the helmet. Air is drawn through the top of the hood during'breathing, the hood being porous and loose fitting enough to permit breathing without undue difi'ioulty. The hood is, however, wind resistant and warm.
The hood [5 is further provided with an adjustable harness 8|, including an elastic strap 82 having its forward ends'stitched at 83 to the sides of the hood near the mouth area. This strap 82 is adjustable lengthwise by means of a slide clasp 84 and buckle '85, and the strap extends about the back of the headjand is arranged substantially horizontally, as shown. A vertical adjustable strap 86 has its top end stitched at 81 to the top of the hood at the transverse center of the same. The strap 86 is looped about the elastic strap 82 for supporting the latter .at the rear of the helmet, and the strap 86 has, an adjusting buckle 88, as shown.
In use, the helmet is donned and adjusted by means of the'harne'ss 8i and draw string 80 and the helmet shields the entire head and face from the cold. When the closure 52 is in the closed position, the wearer can breathe normally, and this breathing ventilates the goggle chamber 4 1 and eliminates clouding of the goggle lens, asv
previously explained. The one-way check :va1ives 45 prevent exhaled air from reentering the goggle chamber 44, and the one-way check valve 51 likewise prevents' inhal'ed air from passing into the oral nasal passage 28' way of the spout 66; the inhaled air being drawn in throughthe top. of, the. hood .and through theapertures. so
I temperatures comprising an inner flexible heet.
the space between the rubber cover 62 and closure 52 further insulates the face from the effects of low temperatures.
The helmet may constitute the entire cover-- ing for the head of the wearer if desired, .or the helmet may be conveniently worn beneath a heavy outer hood such as the hood of thestandard army arctic parka. The helmet is compact,-
fits the head rather snugly, and is freefrom large projections. The helmet in no way interferes. with thepa-rka hood when the same is worn over thehelmet.
It should further he pointed out that the :construction of the helmet is such that there are no excessively large projections extending forwardlyof the face. The .proj ection caused by the closure 52 and associated elements is as small as possible and is not objectionable. Thus, the helmet does not interfere with the firing of a rifle or the like by military personnel, and the large goggle provides maximum visibility- It is to be understood that the form of this invention herewith shown and described is. to be taken as aipreferred example of the same,
and that various changes in shape, size and arand month, an outer wall spaced forwardly of said inner wall and forming an insulating air space between the walls, the outer wall having a first opening in the region of the eyes and a. second-opening adjacent'to the second opening of the inner wall, a transparent pane mounted within the first opening of the outer wall, a closure member carried 'by the mask and covering the second opening of the outer wall, a forwardly extending sleeve connecting the inner and outer walls between the second openings, a top perforated wall connecting the inner and outer walls above the first openingsand allowing air to pass into the space between'the inner and outer walls,
a check valve mounted upon said forwardly ex tending sleeve to permit air from the space between -the inner and outer walls to enter .the sleeve, and. a check valve mounted upon the closure member topermit 'exha-ling when the closure member is closed.
2. A mask for protecting the face against low first opening to receive the nose andmo-uth of the wearer, asubstantially tuloular wall secured to the inner sheet adjacent to the second opening of the sheet and extending forwardly of; the
secured tolthe substantially tubular wall near the forward end of the latter, a top generally horizontal apertured Wall arranged above the first opening of the inner sheet and connecting the inner sheet and forward wall, the forward wall having an opening adjacent to the first opening of the inner sheet, a transparent goggle pane mounted within the last-named opening of .the forward wall, one-way check valves carried by the opposite sides of. the substantially tubular wall foradmitting air to the interior of the substantially tubular wall, andaone-way exhaust check valve carried by the closure element.
3. A mask for. protecting the face from the ele ments comprising an inner flexible sheet for engagement with the face and covering a major portion of the area of the face and having a first opening adjacent to the eyes and a second opening for receiving the nose and mouth, there being a bead formed about the second opening for sealing engagement with the face to prevent exhaled air from entering the first opening of the inner sheet, a forwardly extending substantially tubular wall integrally secured to the inner sheet about said second opening and defining an oralnasal passage leading forwardly of said second opening and having a forward opening to facilitate talking and the like, a closure member mounted upon the mask adjacent to the forward opening for covering the same, a one-way check ,valve carried by the closurermember to permit exhaling through the closure member, a forward wall spaced forwardly of the inner sheet and integrally secured to the forwardly extending tubular wall and defining an insulating space between the inner sheet and forward wall, the forward wall also being integrally secured to the inner sheet near the side margins of the forward wall, a generally horizontal apertured partition arranged above the first opening of the inner sheet and extending between and integrally secured to the inner sheet and forward wall, there being an opening in the forward wall adjacent to the first opening of the inner sheet, a transparent goggle pane mounted within the lastnamed openin of the forward wall, there being deep recesses formedbetween the inner sheet and forward wall on opposite sides of the substantially tubular wall, and one-way check valves mounted upon the sides of the substantially tubular wall near the bottomsof the deep recesses to permit inhaling into the oral-nasalpassage from said deep recesses.
4. Armask for protecting the facefrom the elements comprising aninner sheet to bear against the face and substantially covering the face and having a first opening'in the region of the eyes,
and a second opening below the first opening for receiving the nose and mouth of the wearer, a
forwardly projecting sleeve secured to the inner sheet around the second opening and forming an oral-nasal passage forwardlyof the inner sheet, the forward end of the oral-nasal passage,
having an opening, a closure member hingedly connected to the mask adjacent to the last-named opening for covering the same, exhaust valvemeans carried by the. closure member to-permit exhaling through the closure member, a forward wall spaced forwardly of the inner sheet, and se-,
cured to the inner sheet near the side marginal portionsof the forward wall, the forward wall beingv secured to the forwardly projecting sleeve for defining'deep passages. on opposite sides of-the sleeve which have their lower ends closed, the
parent window in said outer wall forwardly of'the first opening of said innersheet. V
5. A mask for protecting the face from the elements comprising an innersheet to bear against the face and substantially covering the face and having a first opening in the region of the eyes and a second opening belowthe first opening for receiving the nose and mouth of the wearer, a forwardly projecting sleeve secured to the inner sheet around the second opening and forming an oral-nasal passage forwardly of the inner sheet, a substantially rigidvring secured to the forward end of said sleeve, a closure member hingedly secured to the ring for movement to open and closed positions, latch means carried by the ring for engagement with the closure member to releasably hold the same in the closed position, the closure member havingan exhaust passage leading from the oral-nasal passage, a membrane check valve carried by the closure member and disposed within the exhaust passage of the closure member to permit .exhaling through the exhaust passage and preventing inhaling through the same, a forward wall spacedforwardly of the inner sheet and secured to theinner sheet near the sides of the forward wall, the forward wall being secured to said sleeve'and defining deep recesses on opposite sides of the sleeve which have their lower ends closed, the sleeve having openings in its opposite sides for connecting the oral-nasal passage and deep recesses, membrane check valves mounted within the said openings of the sleeve and permitting air from the deep recesses to be drawn into the oral nasal passage during breathing and preventing exhaling from the oralnasal passage into the deep recesses,.a generally horizontal perforated wall arranged above the first opening of the inner sheet in spaced superposed relation to the forwardly projecting sleeve and connecting the inner-sheet and forward wall, said perforated wall forming with the inner sheet, forward wall and sleeve an air chamber .abov ethe deep recesses and leading into the deep recesses,
whereby inhaled air drawn downwardly throughisaid air chamber, and a transparent element mounted within saidouterwall adjacent to the first opening of the inner sheet.
I VAITO K. ELORANTA.
References Cited in the' file of thifs patent v UNITED STATES 'InN'rs' Date