|Publication number||US2642866 A|
|Publication date||Jun 23, 1953|
|Filing date||Feb 3, 1951|
|Priority date||Feb 3, 1951|
|Publication number||US 2642866 A, US 2642866A, US-A-2642866, US2642866 A, US2642866A|
|Inventors||Smith Arthur F|
|Original Assignee||Smith Arthur F|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (9), Referenced by (15), Classifications (20)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
A. F. SMITH BLOOD cou'mmm AND unmon OF MAKING June 23, 1953 THE SAME Filed Feb. 3, 1951 ,v mu
v r JNVZzNToR Patented June 23, 1953 BLOOD CONTAINER AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME Arthur F. Smith, Webster, N. Y.
Application February 3, 1951, Serial No. 209,243
13- Claims. 1
This invention relates to a container for human blood. For many years, great use has been made of human blood, not only for the benefit of persons suffering from peace time accidents or diseases but especially for the benefit of persons wounded in warfare. This use of blood, particularly the warfare use thereof, involves the collection of blood from civilian populations at a remote distance from the sceneof combat, and the transportation of great quantities of blood through great distances, frequently thousand miles, to the scene of combat where a plentiful supply of blood should be kept on hand for quick use. Since the blood must usually be transported over these great distances by aircraft, and since weight and bulk are of far greater importance in air transportation than in surface transportation, it becomes highly important to provide a safe and eflicient blood container of the least practicable weight and bulk. Also, because of the stress and pressure of circumstances under which blood may be administered in combat areas, it is highly important that the blood container be unbreakable and otherwise relatively fool-proof.
An object of the present invention is the provision of a generally improved and more satisfactory blood container.
Another object is the provision of a blood container of substantially lighter weight than the glass containers heretofore" commonly used for the transportation of blood.
Other objects are the provision of a satisfactory blood containerwhich may be collapsed to occupy a relatively small space, for ease of transportation when in empty condition; one which may be easily sterilized; and one which is of relatively low cost.
Still another object is the provision of a blood tainers, to indicate the date the blood was'taken,
the blood type, or other particulars; a I Asti-ll further object is the provision of a blood container so-designed that it maybe filled com pletely full without danger of rupture, th s ducing the agitation of the contents during trans portation.
A still further object is the provision of a con several tainer which is substantially fool-proof, in that ings forming a part hereof, in which:
Fig. 1 is ap'lanof a plastic sheet from which the container body is made, in its initial blank form;
Fig. 2 is a side elevation of a metal tube around which part of the plastic sheet is wrapped to form the neck of the container;
Fig. 3 is a side elevation of the rubber stopper for closing the neck;
Fig. 4 is a side elevation of the completed container;
Fig. 5 is a top plan view thereof;
Fig. 6 is an edge view thereof; and
Fig. 7 is a fragmentary vertical section through the neck tube and associated parts at'the upper left corner of Fig. 4, on a larger scale.
The same reference numerals throughout the several views indicate the same parts.
Except for the tube used at the neck of the container, the body of the container is made entirely of a single sheet ll of a suitable plastic material blanked out to the shape shown in Fig. 1. The plastic material may be of any suitable type which has such strength and flexibility as will allow the walls 'to collapse and expand and will safely withstand all expected handling and usage, and of a kind which will withstand the necessary sterilizing temperature without flowing or becoming sticky or otherwise producing undesirable effects. A very satisfactory material for the body II is a sheet of plasticized polyvinyl chloride having a thickness of the order of about 0.004 of an inch, such a sheet per se being well known. This material has the further advantage that it is slightly resilient or elastic.
in its preferred form, this body sheet H is substantially symmetrical about the center line [3. minor deviations from a true rectangle, in order to provide a container having interiorly curved edges rather than abrupt angles, while at the same'time the exterior edges are approximately ber 15 around which one edge of the plastic sheet It is of roughly rectangular shape, but with H is wrapped to form the neck opening of the container. This tube I is made of substantially rigid material, preferably suitable metal which is light and yet sufliciently strong to withstand the outward pressure of the rubber stopper which is forced tightly into the neck of the container. Conveniently the member 15 may be a ring or short tube of aluminum, having, for example, a wall thickness of about 0.025 of an inch, a diameter of about of an inch, and a length of about /2 inch. Extending exteriorly around the circumference of the tube l5 at its upper end is a thickened portion or flange 11.
To make the container from these parts H and [5, the neck tube I5 is first coated with a resin paste, as by being dipped into a polyvinyl chloride paste of any suitable composition known per se, for example a paste of polyvinyl chloride and a non-toxic plasticizer such as the 141" plasticizer sold by Monsanto Chemical 00., so that all surfaces of the neck tube are completely covered and coated by the paste. (The same non-toxic plasticizer may be used in making the body sheet I l.) Preferably the neck tube is hot at the time of dipping, and more heat is applied after removal of the tube from the paste dip, to complete the conversion of the paste which remains adhering on the tube, to a continuous coating of solid material, as shown at H) (Fig. '7). The thickness of the paste deposit on the neck tube may be controlled by varying the viscosity of the paste into which it is dipped, and preferably is so adjusted that when the paste coating is finally solidified, it will have a thickness of about 0.005 of an inch. In order to set the paste coating to solid form, the heating should be to the neighborhood of about 350 F. or more, and this heat may be applied in the same step in which the plastic body sheet is heated to seal it, as mentioned below.'
Now using a neck tube which has been coated with paste as mentioned above (but not necessarily set or hardened to solid form as yet) the plastic sheet [I is folded or doubled upon itself about its center line l3, the tube [5 being placed at the fold line at the top of the container blank, so that the plastic sheet is folded around the tube with the thickened portion or flange l7 spaced just a trifle above the top edge of the plastic sheet. The sheet is folded tightly all the way around the tube and then the rest of the sheet, with the two layers thereof overlying or superimposed upon each other, extends radially with respect to the tube as indicated in Fig. 5.
The sheet thus folded upon itself and with the tube l5 enclosed therein, is then subjected to heating in a zone extending around the neck tube and around or near the free or open edges of the perimeter of the overlapped layers, to complete the solidification of the coating on the neck tube if not solidified, to seal the sheet to the neck tube, and to seal the two layers of sheeting firmly to each other. Heating to the neighborhood of 375 F. is adequate to sea-1 the superimposed plastic sheets to each other along the line of heat and also to complete the conversion of the paste coating on the neck tube to solid form and to seal the encompassing part of the body sheet to the coating on the neck tube. This heating is preferably accomplished by electronic heating by means of high frequency currents (conveniently of the order of 50 megacycles) passed through a jig or fixture of suitable shape to apply the heat to the plastic sheet just in the intended zone. The heated and sealed zone, other than that around the neck tube, is shown in plan by the shading in Fig. 4. The sealed zone seals the plastic sheeting tightly all the way around the exterior surface of the neck tube l5 (or rather around and to the coating I 9 on the tube l5), then seals the two layers of plastic sheeting to each other across the top of the container as indicated for example at 2|, then in a sweeping curve around the upper right corner when viewed as in Fig. 4 and down the right hand side as at 23, the sealing line or zone at the right hand side being spaced somewhat inwardly from the right hand edge 25 of the perimeter so as to leave an unsealed marginal zone 21 as further mentioned below. Then the sealed zone extends leftwardly in a sweeping curve across the bottom of the container as at 29 and curves upwardly until it reaches the left edge of the container which is constituted by the fold line l3 where the plastic sheeting is doubled back upon itself. These sealed zones 2|, 23, and 29 thus completely encompass and seal what would otherwise be the free edges at three sides of the folded plastic sheet, the fourth side needing no heat sealing because it is integrally sealed by the fold of the plastic sheet itself. This provides a container having no opening except the neck opening through the tube l5.
Either before or after the container is sterilized, as may be preferred, a rubber stopper 3| (Fig. 3) is forced firmly into the neck tube I5. This rubber stopper has at its top a peripheral flange 33 to engage over the top of the tube [5 to prevent the stopper from being thrust too far into the neck of the container. Also the stopper has, at its center, a depression or recess 35 constituting a hole extending about half way through the length or thickness of the stopper. This depression 35 constitutes a convenient place in which to insert the hollow needle when thrusting it through the stopper either for the purpose of inserting blood or withdrawing it from the container. The term rubber as here used is intended to include either natural rubber or syn thetic rubber or rubber substitutes.
Under most conditions, the tight forcing of the rubber stopper into the neck tube [5 will hold the stopper sufficiently firmly in place, by friction. But if it is believed that the container may be subjected to unusually severe handling, the stopper may be additionally sealed in the neck tube by means of a sealing band of approximately U-shaped cross section, wrapped circumferentially around the outside of the stopper and neck tube, as indicated at 4|, this band having a top flange 43 overlying the top of the stopper and a bottom flange 45 underlying the fixed shoulder or flange I! of the neck tube. Conveniently this band is made of thin metal such as aluminum, and it may be readily stripped or cut off in order that the stopper 3| may be removed, if necessary, as when taking coagulated blood out of the container.
The purpose of leaving the marginal flaps 21, between the sealed zone 23 and the extreme perimeter edge 25 of the overlapped sheet, is to provide a convenient and protected pocket-like place for attaching the label containing the necessary information as to the type of blood, the date it was obtained, or other desired facts. Such information may be written on a long narrow strip of paper; then the free edges 25 of the two layers are opened up and pulled slightly away from each other, as shown by dotted lines in Fig. 5, and the strip of paper is inserted between them and held therein by any suitable adhesive," and the two layersof materialfl are allowed to spring back into their normalposition, em'-" bracing the data strip'tightly between them; The data written on this strip maybe read through" the plastic sheeting-since the latter is transparent. If necessary, however, the free edges 25 of the flaps 2'! may again be separated to obtain access to the data strip. While the container is. being transported and handled, the information on the paper strip is safely protected by the two layers of the flap 21, against being soiled, scuffed, or smudged.
An opening or aperture 49 is provided through the sheet material near the corner opposite to. the neck 15, and in a location slightly outside the inner edge of. the sealing zone; that, is, outsidethe outline of the interior cavity of the container. When blood is to be removed, the containerimay be hung up by a suitable hook or'other support inserted through the opening 49, whereupon the neck l5 of the container will hang downwardly. This opening 49 may be punched through the otherwise finished container after the layers of sheeting are sealed to each other, or may be formed by punching two holes in the flat sheet blank before it is folded, as indicated in Fig. 1.
The container of the present invention is extremely compact. It may be shipped to the filling point in a completely collapsed condition, the major part of the container having a thickness only equal to two thicknesses of the sheet material of which it is made, the container being slightly thicker, of course, at the corner where the neck is located. This collapsed condition is indicated in Figs. 5 and 6. Because it is initially collapsed, it contains no air, and consequently it may be filled with blood merely by inserting the usual hollow needle through the rubber stopper, without any need to provide a second opening to allow escape of air, as is necessary when using a glass bottle or other rigid wall container. Similarly, it may be emptied of its fluid contents merely by inserting a hollow needle through the stopper and turning the container upside down, hanging it from the hole 49. It is not necessary to provide a second opening to allow entrance of air as the blood drains out, for the walls of the container will simplycollapse against each other as the fluid leaves. Thus, in use, even under trying conditions as in a com- Another important advantage is that, due'to the elasticity and'resilience of the plastic sheet-- bat zone, the container is practically fool-proof,
because no special pains must be taken to get the needle into a particular location in the stopper so as to enter a glass tube previously fixed to the stopper, as is the case in certain blood containers previously used.
Due to the flexible yet tough nature of the walls of the container, it will travel safely without special packing precautions and without any substantial danger of breakage. Indeed, a considerable number of filled containers may simply be thrown into a suitable box or carton, and will ordinarily travel safely without further care or attention. The weight of the container is much less than that of the conventional blood container of glass, so that there is a great sav- I ing in shipping weight, and some saving in shipping bulk or space when full containers are being transported, and a tremendous saving in shipping bulk or space (as well as in weight) when transporting empty containers, as compared with the use of glass containers. The labeling of the container is easy and quick, and there is no danger of the'label data being scuffed or ing, the container may be filled completely full without danger of rupture. The complete filling reduces the agitation of the contents during travel,'thus reducing-the coagulation or other undesirable changes'iin the blood which are prometed by agitation; j-
This'cont'ainer may be placed in a centrifuge for separation of the blood into its components, which may then be removed fromthe container in any desired manner. As already mentioned, the container will withstand adequate sterilization without damage. I
It is seen from the foregoing disclosure that the above mentioned objects of the invention are well fulfilled. It is to be understood that the foregoing disclosu'r'e'is given by wa 'of illustrative example only, rather than by way of limitation, and that without departing from the invention, the details may be varied within the scope of the appended claims.
What is claimed is: I u
1. A fluid container comprising a substantially rigid neck tube, and a body of flexible plastic sheeting folded upon itself to provide two overlying walls wrapped tightly around said neck tube at one point of the perimeter of said walls, said two overlying walls being sealed to said neck tube and to each other along a line extending approxi mately around the perimeter of their free edges to form a tight enclosure the interior of which is accessible only through said neck tube.
2. A structure as defined in claim 1, in which said plastic sheeting is made of plasticized polyvinyl chloride.'
3. A structure as defined in claim 1, in which the line of sealing said walls to each other is located a substantial distance inwardly from the outer edges of said walls throughout part of their perimeter, to provide marginal wall flaps separable from each other to form a. pocket for receiving a label.
4. A structure as defined in claim 1, further including an aperture through said walls inwardly from the outer edges thereof and outwardly from the inner edge of the sealing line and at a location approximately at the opposite edge of the body from said neck tube, so that said container said neck tube is provided with an externally projecting circumferential flange near its outer end.
7. A structure as defined in claim 6, further including a resilient stopper tightly inserted in said neck tube, and a stopper retaining band extending circumferentially around said stopper and I neck tube and having a top flange overlying a portion of the top surface of the stopper and a bottom flangeunderlying the bottom surface of I said circumferential flange on said neck tube;
8. A structure as defined in claim 7, in which said necktube is of metal and said stopper is of rubber. i
9. A structure asdefined in claim 8, in which said stopper is relatively thick throughout the major portion of its area, and has a thinner porrend'ered illegible tion near its center, through which thinner portion a hollow needle may be more easily inserted.
10. A structure as defined in claim 1, in which said neck tube is of metal and is coated over substantially its entire surface with a solidified resin paste coating.
11. The method of making a fluid container which comprises the steps of providing a substantially rigid neck tube, providing a body of flexible plastic sheeting, folding the sheeting double upon itself and tightly around the neck tube, and heatsealing the plastic sheeting to the neck tube and the overlying layers of the sheeting to each other along a sealing line extending approximately around the perimeter of their free edges to form a tight enclosure the interior of which is accessible only through said neck tube.
12. The method as defined in claim 11, in which said sheeting is doubled upon itself along a fold line which is approximately a continuation of the 8 line on which it is folded around said neck tube. 13. The method as defined in claim 11, in which said neck tube is made of metal and is dipped in a resin paste to coat said tube prior to the folding of the plastic sheeting around said tube.
ARTHUR F. SMITH.
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|U.S. Classification||383/9, 206/459.5, 428/463, 156/227, 156/308.6, 383/96, 222/107, 604/415, 156/308.4, 156/187, 206/527, 604/408, 383/118|
|International Classification||A61J1/00, B65D25/00, A61J1/05|
|Cooperative Classification||B65D25/00, A61J1/10|
|European Classification||B65D25/00, A61J1/10|