US 2643684 A
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June 30, 1953 M. M. TAYLOR 2,543,684
REED FOR TEXTILE PURPOSES AND METHOD OF MAKING SAME Filed A ril 17, 1951 AWMS Patented June 30, 1953 REED FOR TEXTILEPURBOSES AND METHOD OF MAKING SAME Matthew Michael Taylor, Spondon, near Derby, England, assignor to British Celanese Limited, a corporation of Great Britain Application April 17, 1951, Serial No. 221,360 In Great Britain April 27, 1950' This invention relates to reeds for textile purposes and to a method of making such reeds.
According to the invention a reed is formed by 13 Claims. (Cl. 139 192)- of other textile fibres while disposing each reed and the longitudinal members relatively to one another. It this manner each end of each of the wires can be secured and spaced in relation to its neighbours so that the wire are bound top and bottom to form the reed. The resulting reed thus comprises a series of reed wires or dents, secured between pairs of longitudinal members at the top and at the bottom, and uniformly spaced apart by means of a helical binding of yarn extending round each pair of longitudinal members and having a content of thermoplastic textile fibres and a content of other textile fibres, the yarn, the reed wires and the longitudinal members being fixed relatively to one. another by the coalescence of the thermoplastic fibres in said yarn.
The reed of the present invention, and the method of making it, combine the advantages of two kinds of reed commonly used in looms for weaving, namely the pitch-band reed, in which a series of wires are secured between pairs of longitudinal members by a helical binding of cotton yarn, the binding being secured in positionby means of pitch, and the all-metal reed in which a wire is similarly used to secure the dents between pairs of longitudinal metal members and is fixed in position by soldering. The reed of the present invention has, in common with the pitchband reed, a degree of flexibility that gives better weaving with yarns of slightly varying diameter, e. g. singles yarns of staple fibres, is less costly to produce than an all-metal reed, and is easier to repair Whendamaged since it avoids the complicated and expensive technique of soldering. On the other hand, as in anallmetal reed, the wires can be more accurately spaced than in a pitch-band reed, a feature that is of great importance for weaving fine yarns of uniform thickness, e. g. continuous filament yarns. Furthermore, the reeds of the present invention are less liable than pitch-band reeds to sufier from the softening, in hot climates, of
the substance which fixes the wires, the lon- .gitudinal members and'the binding yarn to one another.
The yarn used for binding the reed wires for the purposes of the present invention has a basic of textile fibres of a kind that remains unaffected when the thermoplastic content of the yarn is softened. For this purpose it is preferred to use continuous artificial filaments of regenerated cellulose, and particularly filaments that have been stretched in the course of their production; so as to impart to them a high tenacity. Thus continuous filaments of cellulose acetate or other organic ester of cellulose can be stretched in the presence of moist steam under pressure to 5, 10 or more times their original length so as to increase their tensile strength, and then saponified to convert the substance thereof into regenerated cellulose. Instead of using continuous filaments of regenerated cellulose as the non-thermoplastic basis of the yarn, other non-thermoplastic materials can be used for this purpose e. g. cotton or linen fibres, or even artificial fibres (and preferably continuous filaments) of high melting synthetic linear polymers such as polyamidcs, which can be associated with thermoplastic filaments that can be softened without softening the high melting filaments.
The most convenient material to use as the thermoplastic content of the yarn is cellulose acetate, preferably in the form of continuous filaments. Other thermoplastic materials of a filament-forming nature can be employed for this purpose, however; For example, other organic esters or mixed esters of cellulose can be used,
such as cellulose propionate, cellulose butyrate,
cellulose acetate propionate and cellulose acetate stearate or cellulose ethers such as ethyl cellulose, or polyvinyl compounds such as copolymers of vinyl chloride with vinylidene chloride, vinyl acetate or acrylonitrile.
One way of associating the difierent filaments together to form the binding yarn is by doubling may be applied by means of a wrapping or lapping operation of the kind used for applying insulating yarns to electrical conductor wires. Alternatively, the covering may be applied by a braiding operation in which the thermoplastic filaments are braided round a low-twist core of the filaments forming the basis of the yarn. Or again, the latter filaments may be applied as a braided cover round a core of thermoplastic filaments, so as to ensure very thorough penetration through the yarn on softening of the thermoplastic material.
The softening of the thermoplastic content of the binding yarn can be effected by the application of heat, to facilitate which, a plasticizer for the thermoplastic material may be included therein. Preferably, however, the softening and coalescence of the thermoplastic content is effected by the application of a liquid solvent for the thermoplastic material.
The reed according to the present invention is of particular advantage, like reeds of the pitchband type, for use as the beat-up reeds in looms. Reeds for other purposes, however, e. g.- for use in the dressing of warps, can be made by the method according to the invention.
By way of example, some forms of textile reed in accordance with the invention will now be described in greater detail with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which Figure l is a front elevation. of a reed,
Figure 2 is a cross section taken on the line 2, 2 of Figure l,
Figures 3 and 4 are diagrams showing the method of forming the bindingyarns used in the reed, and
Figures to 8 are cross sections, similar to the upper part of Figure 2, of four alternative forms of construction.
Referring to Figures 1 and 2, the reed shown therein comprises a pair of end members H, to the top and bottom of which are bolted pairs of baulk members or ribs I2, each having the cross section of a segment of a circle as shown in Figure 2, and being disposed one on each side of the end members II both at the top and at the bottom of the reed. Between the ribs I2 of each pair are disposed the wires or dents I3 of the reed, which are secured in place by a helical winding I4 of a yarn of a character described hereafter. The upper and lower ends of the wires I3 are bent over at I5 to clinch them in place.
The yarn It used for binding the dents I3 in place is constructed in the manner diagrammatically shown in Figure 3. The yarn is made up of eight ends I6 of continuous filament cellulose acetate yarn, and eight ends 11 of yarn made by stretching a continuous filament cellulose acetate yarn in the presence of moist steam under pressure to times its original length so as to impart a high tenacity to it, and then saponifying the stretched yarn so as to convert it to a high tenacity regenerated cellulose yarn. Both the ends I6 and the ends II are multi-filament yarns, each of 225 denier. Two of the ends I6 are doubled with two of the ends IT to form each of four doubled yarns I8, and the four yarns I8 are further doubled together in the reverse direction to produce the yarn I4 by which the wires I3 are bound in position. The turns of the yarn I4 space the wires I3 along the length of the reed and the uniformity of cross-section of the yarn Id, resulting from its continuous filament character, ensures that the wires I3 are accurately spaced. The proportions between the number of ends I6 and the number of ends H can be varied if desired. By using three ends I6 and one end I! in each doubled yarn I8 a softer and more flexible yarn I4 is produced, and reversing these proportions results in a harder and more rigid yarn I4.
After the wires I3 have been bound in, which is effected at the top and bottom of the reed simultaneously, each baulk (comprising a pair of members I2) is dipped in acetone for a short period to soften the celluloseacetate content of the yarn I4, and is then allowed to dry. The softening of the cellulose acetate material fixes the wires I3, the ribs I2 and the binding yarn I4 to one another. The ribs I2 may be made either of wood or of metal. In either case it is desirable, in order to promote the adhesion of the yarns I4 thereto, that they should be painted with a compound that will adhere firmly both to them and to the yarn I4. For this purpose a priming coat followed by a top coat of acetone-soluble paint, applied to the ribs before their assembly into the reed, has been found very suitable.
In Figure 4 is shown an alternative method of making a yarn suitable for use in place of the yarn I4. The yarn, indicated at 28, has as a basis a low twist yarn 2I of continuous high tenacity regenerated cellulose filaments made in the same way as the yarn I! of Figure 3, and having. a total denier of 2200. The yarn 2I is first covered with 4 ends 22 of denier multifilament cellulose acetate yarn lapped in one direction at l2-l5 laps per inch to form a covered yarn 24. The yarn 24 is further covered with four ends 25 of 100' denier cellulose acetate continuous filament yarn lapped in the opposite direction to the yarns 22, so as to form the doublecovered yarn 2B. The lapping operation is of the kind used for applying insulating yarns to electrical conducting wires. This method of making the binding yarn, while more expensive than the doubling method used for the yarn I4, has the advantage of producing a well-rounded and compact yarn 26 without necessitating any substantial degree of twist in the continuous filament yarn 2I forming the basis of the yarn 26, and secures even more accurate spacing of the wires I3.
In the modification of the baulk assembly shown in Figure 5, instead of the plainribs I2 there are used wooden ribs 28 having a slot along thelength thereof in which is disposed a metal reinforcing strip 2Q. Another alternative form of rib is shown in Figure 6. In this case, instead of the ribs I2 there are employed ribs BI which consist mainly of cellulose acetate plastic material and in which are embedded steel reinforcement strips 32 of rectangular cross-section. The immersion of the baulks after binding superficially softens the material of the ribs 3I to a slight extent as well as softening the cellulose acetate content of the yarn It, so as to ensure a firm bond between the two. In the modification shown in Figure 7 there are used ribs 33 similar in character to the ribs I2 but formed hollow, with a space 34 inside. In the modification shown in Figure 8, instead of bending the ends of the wires I3 at the top and the bottom, as at I5 in Figures 1 and 2, the ends are left straight at 3'5 and are secured by sliding a tube 36 over the top and bottom baulks of the reed, the jaws of the tube 36 fitting under the ribs I2 while the tips 35 of the wires I3 engage the inside of the tube 36.
Having described my invention, what I desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. A method of making a reed for textile purposes, said method comprising securing a series of reed wires at the top and at the bottom of said wires between a pair of longitudinal members by binding round and round said pair of members a. yarn having a content of thermoplastic textile fibres and a content of other textile fibres while disposing each reed wire between two successive turns of said yarn, and then softening the thermoplastic fibres of said yarn so as to fix the yarn, the reed wires and the longitudinal members relatively to one another.
2. Method according to claim 1 comprising immersing the longitudinal members, after binding, in a solvent for the substance of the thermoplastic fibres so as to soften the thermoplastic fibres of the yarn.
3. Method according to claim 1 comprising coating the longitudinal members with a thermoplastic material adapted to coalesce with the thermoplastic fibres of the yarn on softening.
4. A reed for textile purposes comprising a series of reed wires, secured between pairs of longitudinal members at the top and at the 'bottom, and uniformly spaced apart by means of a helical binding of yarn extending round each pair of longitudinal members, and having a content of thermoplastic textile fibres and a content of other textile fibres, the yarn, the reed wires and the longitudinal members being fixed relatively to one another by the coalescence of the thermosplastic fibres in said yarn.
5. A reed according to claim 4 wherein the yarn has a content of high tenacity regenerated cellulose continuous filaments.
6. A reed according to claim 4 wherein the yarn has a. content of continuous filaments of cellulose acetate.
7. A reed according to claim 4 in which the yarn consists of ends of continuous filament thermoplastic yarns and ends of other yarns associated together by doubling.
8. A reed according to claim 4, wherein the yarn consists of a covering of thermoplastic yarn over a core of other yarn.
9. A reed according to claim 8 wherein the covering is a lapped covering.
10. A reed according to claim 4 wherein the longitudinal members are surfaced with a material that is coalescible with the themoplastic fibres of the yarn.
11. A reed according to claim 10 wherein the longitudinal members are made of wood painted with an acetone-soluble paint, and wherein the yarn has a content of continuous filaments of cellulose acetate.
12. A reed according to claim 4 wherein the longitudinal members are provided with longitudinal metal reinforcements.
13. A reed according to claim 12 in which the longitudinal members are of reinforced thermoplastic material with which the thermoplastic fibres of the yarn are coalesced.
MATTHEW MICHAEL TAYLOR.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 238,538 Stewart Mar. 8, 1881 1,676,513 Andrews July 10, 1928 1,886,778 Andrews Nov. 8, 1932 2,149,204 Bond et al Fe'bp28, 1939 2,180,201 Fish Nov. 14, 1939 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 588,811 Germany Nov. 29, 1933 595,719 Great Britain Dec. 15, 1947