US 2644296 A
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July 7, 1953 M. c. sANz ETAL 2,644,296
LAMINATED JET VANE Filed Jan l5, 1948 2 Sheets-Sheet l [l .Muss cAsrELFkANco F/G. 5 /4` BY Y A 7' TORNE Y July 7, 1953 M. c. sANz Erm.
LAMINATED JET VANE Filed Jan. l5, 1948 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTORS:
MANUEL C. SANZ JAMES CASTELFRANCO ATTORNEY Patented July 7, 1953 UNITED.v STATES PATENT oFFlcE franco,` South Gate, Calif.; assignors to North AmericanAviatio, Inc.
erplieeiien Jennery 15 194i Seial.. Ne. 2.46.5 iacaims. `(ci. so-35.6)
This invention relatesfto. vases forassstieg in the guidance and control of jet,"propelledA 'ver'v hiciese-such as rockets-,during launching and the initial Dart of their flight.
These vanes are operatively positioned either partially within or just outside of the ,divergent section of the exhaust nozzle and within the path of the'jet stream. Asta result, vane efficiency has` been somewhat lovvlbecause` of the character of erosion to which the, leading .edges @me varies have been subjected.`
Accordingly; it is an objet of .this` invention, to provide a vane which maintains asliarp leading edge.
` It" is a further `object of this invention to. p ro- K in which Fgsf; l and 2 are side elevational views, partly tion, .of` typical vanesfused prior to this in'- vention, showing their condition before Aand after being"` 4subjectedv tothe erosive effects of hot enf haus'tgases.
Figs. 3'and 4 are views similar to` Figs. 1 and 2, respeotivelyfillustrating` an embodiment of `the invention and'showing', in Fig. 4,v thecontour which the leading edge maintains under condi,- tions of hot gas erosion; Fig. 5is a crosssectional form of the invention;
Fig. 6 is a sectional view of still another .modied. form of construction;
Fig. '-7 isa side elevational View `of yetanother modified formof the invention;
Fi`g,..8 isa plan view of the arrangement shown in Eig. 7;` Y
. 9 is yet another modified type of construetionffand particularly an, insert and retaining means, therefor;
10 is a plan view of yet another modified typeofconstruction showing a pair of superim-` view of a @and posed plates overlying` the upper and lower sur fates efiile main bedr et the vane parent `"from the, following fdescriptionftaken" in' connection with the accompanying drawings.'
Fig. 11 is a sectional view along line ll--ll of 1U and additionally showing vane holding ms.,
12 is a partial perspective View showing th arrangement'of'the vanesv with respect to the rocketinotor.
'Referring to the drawings, there is shown in Fig. 1 aconv'entio'nalvane l, prior to being subjected to the blast'of holt gases emanating from the rocket'motoi.' `It maybe noted that vane l isprovided witha relatively'sharp leading edge 2. In Fi'gffz the vane isshwn after having been subjected tothe eros'v'e 'eifect of hot exhaust gases' the sharp leading edge 2 having been eroded away 4vvith the 'result'that it has become blunt or'rundedas'atl In Figl'ther is illustrated a vane 4 constructed in'a'ocor'daice withth'e invention, comprising an inner 'sheet of relatively stiif material and an outer 'covering 'B'shapd in the form of a vane. Inner sheet 5 isfof material which has a higher tensile "'stren'gthmthan the material of covering "6. In the 'preferred embodiment of the invention sheet 5 an'devering' 6 'are formed of molylode numw and4 copper," respectively. Molybdenum has" greater resistanceto rosion, or tendency to comb" re"eheiii'cally with the exhaust products `of :the comloust'i'ifof theA rocketmotor, than the` copper "'material. Accordingly, when subjected to the exhaust gases, the copper erodes as shown inFig. leaving a sharp leading edge 'I` of thefrlatively tlfi'"central"material,` and a pair of vfstrearnli'ne'siirfa'ee's 8 whichprovide the vane witha sharpedgefeifect.' In'this particular construction the 'coppeifhaving high conductivityA characteristics, tends "t'cenv'ey the heat away from thefniolybdeni'rfwith the result that, in effect, a co'ntrolled'burning of the leading edge isobtairiei,
"By remason-aof the` construction shown in Figs. 3 and 4, there obtains'greater control efficiency of the roelget during take-olf and the initial poition 4oi itsw flight, which vofficiei'cy' isv maintained duringv the effective life thev'anefromlthe standpoint of theareodynamic effect which'it has upbh. ihegeidaric. of' the' rotkei! AIn the" fied form" of the invention illustrate@ in r1 ..5 there, sshown a vane?) 0f Sandwich construction, composed o f a series of 1arninas'.""1f1ius. insigne' may .be competed' 0f an nine Sham .fifi membrana. aai. or the like. andsuccessivelayers` I'l, l2, and i4; of copper, chromium, melybderliimy. and. meer respeetvf 1y- IifS i@ 'euedrsioedl 0i @etree that 'difalsmavb'e use iin different arrang .es t9 gemieden-ea In the embodiment of the invention illustrated in Fig. 6 the vane I5 is composed of a molybdenum sheet I6 and a copper portion I'I, similar to that in Fig. 3, but with the addition of a leading edge portion I8 of sheet I6 which is provided with a nose portion of increased sectional thickness, as illustrated. This arrangement increases the initial life of the vane and particularly during the launching operation in View of the higher melt-` ing point of the molybdenum nose section I8, as contrasted with the more readily consumable copper. i3 tending to become rounded, as in the arrangement shown in Fig. 2, it will, upon consumption, result in an arrangement similar to that in Fig. 4. This embodiment of the invention may be However, instead ofthe nose 'section chrome plated, if desired, as at 21. A coating 28 of ceramic material also may be provided.
The form of invention illustrated in Figs. 'l and 8` provides a vane I9 having an insert 20 of. molybdenum, or the like, fastened to copper portions 2I by means of rivets Z2 which may .also be of copper. The molybdenum in this modification of the invention may take ntheuform of an insert extending only partially along the length of the vane to the line 23, as shown in Fig. 8.
The leading edge of the nose section may be cut at an angle rearwardly, as shownat 24. In this form of the invention the molybdenum and copper are consumed back to line 23 until rivets 22 give way and are no longer effective to hold the molybdenum insert to the body of the vane, whereupon the unconsumed portion of the in sert becomes detached, exposing the remaining body of the vane to the hot exhaust gases. By this time the rocket is already launched Iand in the initial period of its flight, whereupon the vanes are no longer needed and, to obtain reduced drag, rapid consumption of thesame is desired. Release of the insert-and exposurejof the .remainder of the vane to the exhaust gases facilitates such rapid consumption. f
The form of invention illustrated in Fig. 9 is similar to that in Fig. 8 except that the rivets orv retaining pins 22 are located in the` tongue portion of the vane ratherthan being exposed directly to the hot gases as in the arrangement illustrated in Fig. 8, Y v i In Figs. l0 and 11 there is illustrated still another arrangement of a molybdenum insert 25J, of copper side walls 2| and rivet or vpin holding means 22, together with atongue arrangement 25 adapted to engage a suitable groove in the holder 2B in the rocket motor. v
The vanes are adapted to be held in operative position with respect to the rocket motor by means of tongue 25 adapted to t in a suitable groove 23 in holder 26 which, in turn, is positioned on motor 3@ of rocket 3l as illustrated in Fig. 17.
The rocket is provided with fixed horizontal and vertical control surfaces, 32 and 33 respectively, and movable horizontal and vertical control surfaces, 34 and 35 respectively. The movable control surfaces are interconnected with other mechanism, such as gyros or' the like, for guiding the rocket. Functioning of the guiding mechanism depends upon the aerodynamic effect obtained on the movable control surfaces `by passage of the rocket through a fluid medium. Dur`v Ying takeoff and asmall `portion of the initial flight there is insuicient aerodynamic effect on such surfaces to control the rocket as desired.V
tached to the movable control surfaces so as to be utilized in conjunction with exhaust gases from the motor 3B for that purpose. Obviously, it is desirable that vanes I9 become detached as quickly Ias possible when they have served their function. 1
It is to be understood that different materials could be used than those described and illustrated herein. Although the central material has been generally described as molybdenum and the outer material as copper, it has been found that the central material Ydoes not necessarily have to have a higher melting point than the outer material. Neither is the construction limited to the combination of the materials shown. The central material may be of appropriate size, shape, and configurations, according to the results desired. Further, the central material may extend for any predetermined portion of the length of the vane and may have vany predetermined configuration, depending upon the results Y desired. Thus, a vane is obtained which maintains its aerodynamic characteristics until the portion thereof having an effect upon the guidance of the rocket is consumed, at which time that which remains, if any, becomes automatically detached. In the variousY laminated types of construction, different materials may be selected, depending uponv their rates Aof consumption, which will give the desired contour of the'vane during consumption and predetermined guide characteristics.
The physical and chemical properties of the materials used in the fabrication of jet vanes of the sandwich construction type are 'of such a nature that the rate of consumption of the core is slower than that of the outer layers. The
@relative rates of consumption are such as to allow the maintaining of a leadingedge of eilicient aerodynamic configuration for a predetermined lengthV of time, depending upon the amount of guidance desired. 'Variations in temperature,Y
time, and jet stream characteristics permit the obtaining of these desirable features with dif` ferent types and combinations of materials. For instance, thecore may be composed of molybdenum, tungsten, or chromium, or alloys-or metallic carbides orpoX-ides thereof, whereas the outer layers may comprise coppenaluminum, silver,
or alloys thereof, or Wood, laminated phenolics, resin impregnated glass, graphite, or metallic carbides or oxides. Also, one or more of these materials may be coated with a suitable material such as chromium or the like for the purpose with said hot gases, and said sheets being super- Accordingly, the vanes I9 are interconnected,
of better controlling its rate of consumption.
Although the invention has been described and illustrated in detail, it is to be clearly understood that the same is by way of illustration and example only and is not to 'be taken by way of limitation, the spirit and scope of this invention being limited only bythe terms of the appended claims.
1. A vanejadapted forusejin guidance and control of a `iet motor .propelled vehicle during launching and initial ightand associated with such motor in such a manner as vto be eventually consumed by the hot gases thereof, comprising a vane formed of a plurality of sheets of different material, one of which is centrallydisposed, said materials differing in thermal condii'ctivity and melting point :and having differing reaction rates imposed with those of higher conductivity and lower melting point covering those with lower conductivity and higher melting point whereby as said vane is consumed progressively from leading edge to trailing edge by action of said hot gases its aerodynamic effectiveness as ya vane is preserved through-out a major .portion of its life.
2. A vane as recited in claim 1 in which the outer of the plurality of sheets are streamlined in contour and in which said sheets are arranged over said centrally disposed sheet in order of decreasing resistance to destruction by said gases to thereby maintain a streamlined shape throughout a major portion of the life of the vane.
3. A vane as recited in claim 1 in which the. lcentrally disposed sheet is molybdenum and the other sheets are copper to thereby provide the vane with a sharp leading edge throughout its life.
4. A vane as recited in claim 1 in which said centrally disposed sheet is attached to the other sheets by predeterminately spaced consumable fastening means to thereby provide for jettisoning of said vane when the usefulness thereof has ended.
5. A vane as recited in claim 1 in which said centrally disposed sheet is molybdenum and said other sheets are copper, all of said sheets being fastened together by copper rivets so spaced as to be consumed when the launching and initial light period is complete.
6. A vane as recited in claim 1 in which the leading edge of the nose section of the vane is placed at an acute angle with respect to the longitudinal direction of the vane.
7. A vane for use in the exhaust stream of a rocket motor comprising a composite streamlined member composed of a sheet of material centrally positioned between layers of other material, said latter material being of higher thermal conductivity and lower melting point than said centrally positioned material and having faster reaction rates than said centrally positioned material with the gases in said exhaust stream.
8. A device as recited in claim 7 in which said centrally positioned sheet is of higher tensile strength than said other material.
9. A vane adapted for use with jet propelled vehicles to assist in guiding the same by use of exhaust gases thereupon and so associated therewith as to be consumed by said hot gases, comprising a vane formed of a plurality of sheets of materials the outer of said sheets being composed of materials having higher conductivity and lower melting point than the materials composing the innermost said sheets.
10. A composite streamlined jet vane for use with a rocket motor comprising a central sheet of high melting point material and a plurality of sheets of alternately low and high melting point materials symmetrically arranged with respect to such central sheet.
11. A vane as recited in claim 10 in which said central sheet is molybdenum and successive pairs of sheets are composed of copper, chrome plate. copper, and steel, respectively.
12. A vane adapted for use with jet propelled vehicles to guide the same and eventually be consumed by the hot exhaustgases. thereof, comprising a member formed of a plurality of sheets of material one of which is centrally disposed and composed of structural material, and the others of which are of a nonstructural material which is less resistive than said structural material to the action of said exhaust gases and has higher heat conductivity than said centrally disposed sheet.
13. A vane as recited in claim 12 in which the other sheets of material are less resistive to the action of the gases thereby to provide a sharp leading edge for the vane during its life.
14. A vane as recited in claim 12 in which said centrally disposed sheet comprises molybdenum coated with a ceramic material.
15. A jet vane for use in controlling the night of a jet propelled vehicle comprising a streamlined plate formed of a plurality of layers of material having differing resistances to the eiects of hot gases from said vehicle, said layers being arranged with the less resistant layers on the surfaces of said plate whereby as said plate is consumed by said hot gases a streamlined shape is maintained.
MANUEL C. SANZ. JAMES CASTELFRANCO.
References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,967,735 Bendix July 24, 1934 2,074,098 Adams Mar. 16, 1937 2,340,133 Martin Jan. 25, 1944 2,394,124 Warren Feb. 5, 1946 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 374,586 France Apr. 22, 1907 848,225 France July 17, 1939