US 2644552 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
July 7, 1953 A. s. MacDoNALD METAL PLANK 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed April 16, 1946 A. s. MacDQNALD July 7, 1953 METAL PLANK 5 sheets-sheet 5 Filed April 1e, 194e a, im@ ,vr/m@ /7 J U a, Pf/f ffm@ y July 7, 1953 YA. s. .MacDoNALD METAL BLANK 5 She'ets-Sheet 4 Filed lApril 16, 1946 July 7, 1953 A..s. Macn'oNALD METAL PLANK Filed April 1e', 194e 5 sheets-sheet 5 Patented July 7, 1953 METAL PLANK Angus S. Mac-Donald, near Rapidan, Va., assignor to The Globe Wernicke Co., a corporation of Ohio Application April 16, 1946, Serial No. 662,504
6 claims. (C1. 18e-34) This invention relates to improvements in metal planks of the character used in building construction to provide a building unit therefor, either for inside or outside building walls, panels, floors, or other parts of the building.
In the construction of buildings, it has been the practice generally heretofore to form the wall or floor units of studding or sills with plaster or wood covering applied thereover, in a fabricated structure. Some attempts have been made to lprovide panel units, especially for pre-fabricated buildings, but these have not been entirely satisfactory, because of the considerable weight that is objectionable in transportation and handling, or the complexity of structure that renders the units expensive to manufacture and use. Furthermore, such panels usually have required nailing or other fastenings at the joints thereof, which did not facilitate the assembly and connection of the panel units in a simple and expeditious manner. i
One object of this invention is to improve the construction of a building unit or plank to provide a sturdy and rigid construction which is, v
nevertheless, of light weight, that is adaptable to various finishes for an'attractive appearance and yet is very practical to use because of its supporting qualities, as well as its insulating effect against heat or cold.
In accomplishing this object, I prefer to construct the plank or building unit with spaced Walls joined together to provide an enclosure which will serve not only as a dead air space, but may receive therein insulating material that will insulate effectively the plank or building 'unit against the passage therethrough of heat or cold. Moreover, the construction, `preferably of metal, also interconnects the side walls thereof, but without the direct transfer of heat through conduction along the plank or unit from one side wall to the other, thus further increasing the insulating effectv of the unit. The side walls, being formed of sheet-metal, are capable of decoration to any desired extent without requiring the use of plaster or other supporting material for the decorating effect.
A further object of the invention is to improve the construction of the `joint between adjacent planks or building units, whereby these may be interconnected readily and yet effectively, without the necessity for using fastenings for securing the parts in place. This is particularly important in the construction of pre-fabricated buildings where the wall and floor units. should be ttedtogether without the necessity for cutting and fitting during the. erection process.
In constructing the plank or building unit of sheet-metal, provision may be made at the edges thereof for the interfitting of the adjacent planks `in a simple and effective manner through a resilient connection between the edges that will make a tight joint', even with-out the necessity for the use of separate fastenings. This is made possible by providing rounded spring connections and intertting sockets on the respective oppo- 1 site edges of the planks, whereby a spring tongue on one edge of one plank will interfit with a socket on the adjacent edge of the next adjacent plank. These tongues and sockets are provided preferably on both opposite sides of each plank, whereby the tongues on one plank will embrace the edge portion of the adjacent plank and hold it securely, that will be effective to provide a tight joint, but without the necessity for the use of iastenings therebetween.
The invention is illustratedin certainembodiments thereof, in the accompanying drawings in which: f Y Fig. 1 is a perspective View showing a joint between interconnected planks made in accordance with this invention;
Fig. 2 is a top plan view illustrating the end construction of the planks.;
Fig. 3 is a detail elevation showing an edge of a plank;
Fig. 4 is a side elevation of a wall formed by an assembly of planks;
Fig. '5 is a horizontal sectional view through an intermediate portion of a plank;
Fig. 6 is a detail cross section through an edge of the plank showing a modified connection therein; f
Fig, 7 is a cross section through a joint between planks showing a further modified construction;
Fig. 8 is a diagrammatic end View showing one method of assembling the planks;
Fig. 9 is a detail transverse section showing a further modified form of plank; and
Fig. l0 is a similar view of the opposite edge of the plank showing still another modification thereof.
While the inventionmay be used in manydifferentapplications in building construction, such as for walls, doors, ceilings, and other parts thereof, it is described more particularly asapplied to a wall construction merely for purpose of illustration and because its more immediate application appears to bein the construction of walls of pre-fabricated buildings.
A wall will be formed preferably of a plurality of upright planks arranged in edge-to-edge relation, as shown in Fig. fl, in which adjacent planks 'therearound as shown in Fig. 2.
are designated generally at I and 2, and succeeding planks at 3 and 4. These planks may be constructed, respectively, according to this invention, and interconnected in edge-to-edge relation to form the desired wall or other part of the building. For a wall, the planks extend preferably throughout the heightvof the wall,uusually of one story height; Y although it' is" possible to construct them so that they will extehd'ft'o a height of two or more stories, if that should be desired. Where the planks are used in pre; fabricated buildings and the length is to be. that of one story, these may be constructed of selected lengths which will vary ordinarily from seven feet to ten feet, according? to the'-` height of the building story and the use thereof, as for outside or inside walls. For most pre-fabrio,aiu-idL buildings, a width of twelve inches is preferred, bcause of its adaptability to fitting in dineret building plans. For these dimensions, a thickness of about six inches has been found practical for manufacture. VThese dimensions are given, however; merely for purpose of illustration ofa construction that is adaptable' for factory manu-V facture in pre-fabricated building construction and; of course,the invention is not limited as to size'y or proportions ofthe planks.
VThe ,planks I and 2` are shown interconnected in Eigsland 2; Each of these is shown as constructed in like manner and only one need be described in detail, s Y
EachV plank is' shown as formed in two sections, preferably made, of sheet-metal, such as steel, aluminum, or otherA prefabricated materials.Y Itis preferred to use col-d rolled sheet aluminum alloy for the purpose; because of its lightnessr in weight and adaptability to be fabricated, as well as having a stiff springiness that will facilitate the connection of the planks at the -joints therebetween, as hereinafter described.
Each of the plankgsections has opposite side walls,Y as indicated at 5 and 6, respectively, which walls extend substantially parallel in spaced relationrand maybe corrugated,- as illustrated in Figs. 1, 2 and 4, or plane, as shown in Fig. 5, whichever is desired, according to Vthe use and ornamental effect to be obtained. The wall sectionthas inturned end sections 1 and 8, vprojecting inwardly from the opposite end portions of the wall; The Wall 6 has corresponding inturned end sections 9 and I0, substantially in transverseY alignment with the end sections I and 8, respectively. The opposed .end sections are preferably shaped at. acuteangles to each other, so Athat the end sections of adjacent boards are arranged substantially in diamond shape, as shown in Fig. 2; providing external grooves in therespective boards to accommodate the fastenings between the sections of each board,
The respective side wall sections of each board are connected together, through crimped joints or wooden connections, in which insulating means is preferably` incorporated as hereinafter described. Each of these, joints is shown as formed by an outturned ange I I formed `on the respective end sections 8 and I0 an d embraced by a folded-over crimped flange I2 that extends These parts may be held in spaced relation for insulating effect, as hereinafter described, but will effectively secure the side wall sections together and hold the parts ofthe board in secure assembly. These crimped joints may be bent transversely in serpentine fashion, as indicated at I3 in Fig. 3, if desired, to increase the'holding effect there; of, between the sections.
The top and bottom sides of the plank are partially closed by -diaphragms I4, fitting in the respective sections of the plank with their inner edges spaced from each other, as will be evident from Figs. 1 and 2. Each of the diaphragms I4 is formed with a. surrounding flange I5 thereon, fitted in, abutting relation with the corresponding sidewall sectiorifto increase theistiifness of the diaphragm a'd the bracing"y effect thereof on the plank. While the diaphragm stiffness Iii-I5 Iriay be welded to the plank sections, if desired, If ave shown a punched and rolled connection, gen rally indicated at I6, therebetween, formed by" tool' which punches through the sheet-metal forming' the end section of the plank and the adjacent portic'nk o'f the flange I5 on the diaphragmr and which tool also rolls the punchedout nietal into a tight roll that will hold the parts securely together. Y
Additional diaphragm stiffeners may be provided at intervals along the-lengthof; each plank, as indicated at I4 in Figs.4 land 3,v and secured in place" by similar punched and rolled connec-a tionsn I5'. These intermediate diaphragme will reinforce and strengthen the plank intermediate the ends thereof.1 The number and spacing of these intermediate diaphragm stiffener-s will dea pend somewhat upon the use ofthe plank, but
ordinarily a spacing of about eighteen inches willV be sufficientfor wall construction, although somewhat closer spacing willbe required where the plank is used for a door construction.
It will be noted thatV the diaphragmv stiifeners It, I4' are secured at the respective opposite edges of the plank, while they abut the side faces 5 and t of the plank insuch a way as to stiften the whole structure without requiring any fasten-ing through the plankn faces. However, these stiffeners may be welded at the anges it, if desired,- to the side faces 5 and- 6. v
To provide for an intertting joint between the boards or building units, I have provided ra yieldable tongue and groove connection therebetween at the respective opposite sides of each board. Each of the end sections 3 and 9, at the juncture thereof with the side walls 5 and 5; is turned inward asA indicated atV Il, tu form an indented groove of arcuate cross section in the outer corner portion thereof, which groove, nevertheless, is bounded on one edge by a lateral face diverging outwardly in the direction of the adjacent edge of the plank and joined to a rib I8 having'acom vex arcuate section, the outer edge of which is spaced from the longitudinal central plane of the board a distance greater than the distance from the bottom of the groove Il to said plane. (7Jo-Y acting with the groove I1 is a tongue I9 formed as a rounded loop in the sheet of metal which provides the side wall 5er e and the adjacent end section 'I or I6. This tongue I9 is shaped complementarily on its inner side with the groove I1 and rib I8, and preferably is formed with a curved surface. ofrevolution more than a semi,- circle in Vcrossasection which makes it Apossible to use a hard alloy to lprovide a stiff springiness in the tongue without cracking of the metalin the bending of the sheet t0 provide the extended tongue. It willbe 'evident from' Figs; l and 2 that such a tongue and groove F11-1li) formed 4at each opposite face of the boardprovides not only for' Aan interlocking connection between the boards, but an effectively tight joiht theiebea tween. Furthermore, this joint may be closed and the parts fitted ltogether merely by pressing one board edgewise Aagainst the other which `will facilitate the assembly; enabling the` building` structure to be set up very quicklyand without requiring any fastenings between the boards.
One method of assembling the planks at the joint therebetween is illustrated diagrammatically in Fig. 8. The planks I and 2 are assembled, for instance, by engaging the tongue I9 at one edge of the plank 2 in the groove I'I of theadjacent edge of the plank I, and then swinging the planks into transverse alignment as indicated by the arrows. In thus swinging the planks into place, a wedging action is exerted at the joint, whereby the planks snap into place and are held effectively in their assembled relation.- Another method of assembling the planks is to interengage them in direct alignment at one end, as, for instance, at the upper corner, and then swing the other end of the plank into place but directly in alignment edgewise, so that a similar wedging action is exerted. If desired, the joint can be painted to match the surface of the wall, or filled with a mastic or with caulking, as indicated at 20 in Fig. 5, to provide a continuous uniform surface on the wall and to exclude the passage of airor water through the joint.
The board constructed according to this invention is capable of very effective insulation by the incorporation therein of insulating means which will insulate against the passage of heat or cold through the board. This may be provided by incorporating in the board a sheetof insulating material, generally indicated at 2|. This insulating material is shown, in the example illustrated, as a bat of rock wool enclosed between paper sheets '22, as illustrated in Fig. 5. The
rock wool is usually light and fluffy, so that the bat may be introduced into the board even after it is assembled, if not incorporated during the assembly, by compressing the bat and squeezing it through the space between the diaphragme I il, and then allowing it to expand, as will be evident from Fig. 3. The intermediate diaphragms Ill will retain the bat in place, and it .will be held also by expanding edgewise against the end sections of the board. The bat will be suspended in spaced relation from the opposite side walls of the board, so that any condensation which may form thereon will not collect on the bat either to loosen the paper sheets thereof or to injure the insulating qualities ofthe material. l
' If the bat is inserted into the board during the fabrication of the latter, it may be held generally by continuing the paper sheets along the edges thereof,v asindicated at 22 in Fig. 6, and turning these paper sheets over and around the flange II of the joint, between the latter flange and the crimped flange I2, whereby these paper sheets will not only be secured in place by the crimped joint between the side sections of the Y plank, but the paper in the joint will serve also to insulate the sections against the conduction of heat or cold from one side wall to the other of the plank, which would result from a metal-tometal contact between these wall sections.
If the edges of the paper are not thus continued through the crimped joint, it is preferred that a separate strip of non-metallic material be incorporated in the crimped joint, as indicated at 23 in Fig. 5. A suitable material found effective for this purpose is an insulating material or tape made of synthetic rubber and sold under the trade name of Neoprene Any other suitable material may be used as desired.
Further insulation may be provided. if desired, by a coating 24 on the inner surface of the side heat from one side to the other of the plank, is
illustrated in Fig. 7. In this form, wooden or other heat insulating strips 25 are incorporated in the joint of each plank. These strips are shown as secured by nails 26 to the flanges I I carried by the side walls 5 and 6', as described above. Two wooden strips are shown incorporated in each edge of the plank, projecting to different extents, as shown in Fig. 7, to overlap corresponding strips in the edge of the connected plank.
In the form shown, the wooden strips 25 sup-v port therebetween a sheet of aluminum foil 21 extending along the center of the plank to stop the transfer of heat by reflection. These vstrips 25 serve not only to support `the aluminum, and to prevent` the transfer of heat'by conduction, but also add to the structural value ofthe plank when used either as a column or when used as a beam.
In this modified form, the diaphragm stiffeners are indicated generally at I5 in Fig. '7. These are used at intervals along the length of each plank, as described above.
In the further modifications shown in Figs. 9
- and 10 the side walls 35 and 35', and 36 and 36 vsaid spring tongue. y the planks to be slipped together and held in are formed of sheet metal each with a looped spring tongue at one edge of the plank, as indicated |at 39, and with a corresponding groove et in the opposite edge of the plank to receive This construction permits resiliently attached relation, as described above.
Instead of securing the inturned edges of the sheet metal sides kdirectly together, these may be connected through interposed strips 4I and 4I which are shown and preferably of wood. These strips 4I and 4I extend lengthwise throughout the length of eachy edge ofthe plank. The edge portions of sheet metal are joined thereto as by nails i2 and d2. These strips 4I and 4I close the edges of the plank between the spaced portions of the sheet metal, as will be evident fro Figs. 9 and 10.
Extending transversely of the length of each plank at the opposite sides thereof are stiffener members t3 and d3' also preferably formed of wood. These stiffener members are spaced apart distances of approximately 12 inches or 18 inches along the length of Veach plank and are in abutting relation with the side Walls thereof for stiffening purposes. They are secured in place by nails 'M and 44. Y
For insulating effect, the inner face of each side wall of the plank is provided with a lining i5 or 45 `of suitable heat insulating material,`
such, for instance, as Insulmastic described above. yMoreover, the inner space of the plank is provided with a suitable heatinsulating material such as a glass or rock-wool bat indicated generally at 46 in Fig. 9, or one or more strips of aluminum foil indicated at 41 in Fig. 10. The aluminum foil may be glued to the inner edges of the wood stiffeners 43 as well as having the edgesthereof secured between the endsof these Wardly in the direction of the adjacent edge of the plank and turned inwardly through a convex arcuate section laterally of the adjacent edge of the plank, said indented grooves and lastmentioned arcuate sections being substantially complementary to the spring loops for lspring engagement by spring loops of an adjacent like plank therewith upon relative swinging motion thereof for yieldably retaining the spring loops of said adjacent like plank thereon, means connecting said laterally extending portions of said sheets and cooperating therewith forming the edge portion of the plank, longitudinally spaced stiiiener members extending transversely of the length of the plank in bearing relation against the inner faces of the side walls, said stiiiener members having inner edges spaced apart in the direction of the thickness of the plank, and insulating material extending in the plank between opposite side walls thereof and between said inner edges of the stirfener members.
5. A metal side wall plank comprising spaced opposite side walls of separate elongated ilexible metallic sheets, each of the sheets being turned longitudinally back upon itself in an elongated transversely yieldable spring loop and thence laterally of one edge of the plank, said elongated spring loop being formed in an external convex surface of revolution extending through more than a semi-circle and joined by an arcuate section to the laterally extending portion of the sheet, the opposite edge portion of each side Wall having an indented groove therein of arcuate cross section with a lateral face diverging outwardly in the direction of the adjacent edge of the plank and turned inwardly through a convex arcuate section laterally of the adjacent edge of the plank, said indented grooves and lastmentioned arcuate sections being substantially complementary to the spring loops for spring engagement by spring loops or an adjacent like plank therewith upon relative swinging motion thereof for yieldably retaining the spring loops of said adjacent like plank thereon, and strips extending lengthwise of the opposite edges of the plank and connecting said laterally extending portions of said sheets and cooperating therewith forming the edge portion of the plank.
6. A structural joint comprising a pair df metal planks arranged in edge-to-edge interconnected relation, each of the planks comprising spaced opposite side walls of separate elongated spring metallic sheets, each of the sheets of one plank being turned longitudinally back upon itself in an elongated transversely yieldable spring loop and thence laterally of one edge of the plank, said elongated spring loop being formed in an external convex surface of revolution extending through more than a semi-circle and joined by an arcuate section to the laterally extending portion of the sheet, the adjacent edge portion of the other plank having each side Wall sheet thereof formed with an indented groove therein of arcuate cross section with a lateral face diverging outwardly in the direction of the adjacent edge of the plank and turned inwardly through a convex arcuate section laterally of the adjacent edge of the plank, said indented grooves and last-mentioned arcuate sections being substantially complementary to the spring loops of the first-mentioned interconnected plank and having spring engagement therewith upon relative swinging motion thereof for yieldably retaining the spring loops of said rst-mentioned plank thereon, vand means connecting said laterally extending portions of said sheets of each plank and cooperating therewith forming the edge portion of each plank.
ANGUS` S. MACDONALD.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 624,603, Zoerb et al May 9, 1899 968,321 Boyer Aug. 23, 1910 1,312,663 Young Aug. 12, 1919 1,593,718 Gehnrich July 27, 1926 1,706,769 Buck Mar. 26, 1929 1,895,667 Junkers Jan. 31, 1933 2,048,457 Mauser July 21, 1936 2,086,009 Walker July 6, 1937 2,142,305 Davis Jan. 3, 1939 2,196,781 Saino et al Apr. 9, 1940 2,205,730 Morgan June 25, 1940 2,231,216 Nystrom Feb. 11, 1941 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 151,352 Great Britain 0f 1920