US 2644771 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Patented July 7, 1953 GRGSS REFERENCE UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE PROCESS OF COATING STRUCTURAL SURFACES James L. Kempthorne, Montclair, N. J.
No Drawing. Application May 10, 1949, Serial No. 92,507
4 Claims. 1
The present invention relates to coating compositions and it particularly relates to coating compositions which may be applied externally and internally for coating walls, rooms, structural members and similar surfaces.
It is among the objects of the present invention to provide coating compositions and a coating procedure which will largely eliminate dust and floating spray and which will enable rapid and fast application of the composition to ceilings and walls of rooms or other surfaces without the necessity of using masks and without the liability of the coating spray being carried to other surfaces than those which are to be covered.
Another object is to provide coating procedures and compositions which will give a uniform spread or coating and which will assure secure application and attachment of the coating material.
Another object is to provide novel coating compositions and procedures which are particularly adapted for application to buildings and structures to render them fire-proof, weather-proof and water-proof.
Still another object is to provide novel coating compositions and procedures for application to structures and particularly building surfaces or steel framework, which will enable the most effective coating even though such structures or surfaces be negatively charged and which will further assure a controlled rust-proofing, waterproofing and fire-proofing coating of high effectiveness.
Still further objects and advantages will appear in the more detailed description set forth below, it being understood, however, that this more detailed description is given by way of illustration and explanation only and not by way of limitation, since various changes therein may be made by those skilled in the art without departing from the scope and spirit of the present invention.
According to the present invention, the surface structure or building to be covered or coated is first treated with a coatin solution consisting of a dis ersion or emulsion in which said dispersion or emulsion is stabilized by a cationic surface F. active agent.
T en a second dispersion or emulsion is applied, stabilized b an anionic surface active agent.
Although usually two coatings should suffice, these alternating cationic and anionic stabilized emuls s or spersions maybe" alternatelyap- "filled umu a coating" of desired thickness is obtained.
Although the coating or surfacing materials (Cl. 117-70) V 2 may be dispersed in both the cationic and the anionic stabilized material, it has been found most satisfactory, according to one embodiment of the present invention, to disperse such materials as cement, lime, aluminufifi'f'tfier insoluble soaps mates, woo Ho ,rock wool, asbestos, 'fifgrfints, graphite, metal powders, lass Beads Worm in the anionic stabilizefi dispersion or em 51 n. 10 The anionic stabilizer may be a sodium mtas sium or amine soa or salt of a igh mo eculaf we aci or example, it may consist of sulphonated naphthenic ether or a sulphogated ker enzene or various soa s or sodium salts of sul honated fatty acids iatt alcohols, fatty esters or even napfitfiaien'e or other aromatic compounds.
As specific examples of anionic stabilizers which may be utilized are the following compounds known commercially as Triton NE or 720 or 770.
Ige on T or other collamias, I e 11 AP, Kemmol san to rise, Cardinal, 5501 an i511 onol, Arctic g ntex M or I, N'yon 518, Nacconal in or fifi,
Vi l lg ltrawe Ne a Q, Aerosol 61', NE 01' NAO Ter itols.
Collamids are generally of the i where R is an alkyl group having 12 to 22 car: bon atoms. Igepon T is a typical commercial J0 example and Has as its alkyl group CnI-Ias and I is the sul honated stearic acid amide of taurine.
Arctic Syntax 1s a so a sul honated co ami Tri on 7'70 is a polysulpfionate of an aromatic a olvalkylene ether sulphazehaving the formula Ary1(SO3H) O(CnH2nO)4(CnH2nSOaH) Triton 720 is the corresponding sulghate. Arctic Syntex M is a sulphate es er such as h lauryI sulp'fioacetate and Has the general formula CH3 (CH2) 12 to zoOOOCI-IzCH (OH) CH2SO4N a N on 218 is a condensation prgduct of alkyl- Q thropfienol with 10 to 15 ethylene oxide units.
- 3 Nekal 151g is tri (2 ethyl butyl) sodium sulphotricarBa y ate.
Trisodium monostearyl sulphotrioarballylate may also be employed.
Aerosol OT is a io sul hosuccinate. Aerosol NAQ is disodiuin mono-oley sup succinate.
Nacconol LAL is sodium lauryl sulphoacetate. Igepon KP is sodium s ear '1 suphoprgpignate. N-octacecyl disodium onipoun s such as sulphosuccinate and N-oc a ecly (N-I Z- war..- Boxy-ethyl) tetra-so um sulp osuccinate may aso be used.
Tergitg] is a higher se ondary fatty alcohol sulphate.
antomerse is an alkylated diphenyl disulhonic aci Triton NE is an alkyl-aizl or Real phenyl ether sulphonate in which e a y group contains about 12 carbon atoms and the sulpho group is attached to the aryl group.
Gardinol Duponol and Avirol are sulphated or sulphonated higher primary fatty algo o,s con aining 14 to 22 carbon atoms.
These anionic stabilizers may be used in amounts ranging from 0.1 to 10%.
M Among the cationic materials which may be employed in aqueous solution or emulsion in amounts ranging from 1 to lQi/ are combina- 1 tions including the followiii g'"amines, namely:
monoethanol amine, diethanol amine, triethanol am e, diethylamino-ethanol, tri-iso-propanbl' am 3e, phenyl-ethanol-aminef eth lhenvlethanolam ne,p en iethano -ai'nine,diarninoropanol, amyl-diethanol-amina' and fiydroxy e ny ene-cliamine." Non-hy roxy ated amines may be employed,
as e eiamine, tetra-ethylenepentamine, propylene-diamine, alpha- -naphthylamine, ani me dimetfiyl-anili'ne, dipfienylamine urea, o-tolui me and Eenyl methylamine, but
generally these organic amines can only Be readily iused in mixtures with ethanol or other alkanol tinned yceri es.
The fatty acids may be deriv ed frcm partial or total hydrolysis of sperm gil, co'd'""liver oil, menhaden oil, 'alibut oil, castor oil, coconut oil, peanut o1, palm oil, olive oil, mustard seed oil, tea seed oil, cottonseed oil, rape seed oil, nea sfoot oil, lard oil, tallow, spermaceti, japan wax, wool grease or lanolin aiicfhydrogenam and ve etable oils.
The best results are obtained where the fatty acid containing from 12 to 18 carbon atoms, or their glycerides or 0 er esters are com med with glyalkylene olyamines 0r hydroxy amines containing ram 2 to 10 carbon atoms, 1 E 3 amino groups and with hydroxyamines from 1 to 3 hydroxy groups.
The anionic solution or emulsion may contain 1 to 10% of the odium, otassium or ammonium soapsofaiiy of hea ove fatty acids. The vari- It was also found that tetra-benzylammoniumhydroxide and similar gua ernary ammonium ous amines listed above may also be combined with e atty acids listed to giye s ich anionic s ace; M
It is also possible to use binders 0r adhesives 5 and either the anionic or cationic stabilized coa ing solutions.
The binders or adhesives which may be used in amounts of 5 to 25% may be casein, starch, dextri gum tragacanth, gum ara 1c, ritis fictm synthet cgrnatura a ex or emulsie p enol e, ureaormaldehyde s y rene, me acry a e or ..,y rocar on 11 making up the above dispersions or emul- 15 sions, desirably the surface active a ent is added in amounts of 1 to 1026 while the finely divided spraye upon the sur ace. enera y as a finished surface, it is desirable to apply a sodium silicate emulsion or dis ersion or a pigmented emulsion or dispersion containing a"?ispersed resinous'or plastic material. Instead of part or all of the aqueous base, it is possible to use orianic solvents.
ursuant to the instant invention, the coating compound may be applied rapidly and efficiently to buildings and other structures to provide a coating which is hard and cannot be washed off with a fire hose. Pursuant to the instant invention, a hard continuous moisture-proof barrier is applied to the warm side of a structure to prevent transmission of moisture-laden heat to the cold side.
A stable dispersion is obtained by virtue of the use of surface active agents. After application. the coating is tamped firm and dries.
The following is a summary of the method of application pursuant to my invention and more fully outlined above:
The first ste of my process consists in spraying a sg tfietic emulsion binder, containing a amidafitbffifififf'oe to be coated. This changes the charge of said surface to a cationic or plus (2222.138.
e indfi' can be applied in sandwich form by building layer upon layer, if so desired.
Secondly, there is applied, by spraying, a slurry, consisting of a compound of cement l i mefgiumium s arate yvat erpro rer)-d, an an inert sater alplus an anionic wetting agent, such assulfihated naphthar'i'atef his slurry is added simultaneously with the fi b r e which consists of rock wool and g bestos, and other fibrous materials, 0 all of which constitutes the dry portion. Anionic or -$9 9. isaas i. asies n isme botfiprg a inorganic, such" ispersTed pastes being prepared with a non-ionic dispersing agent, may be added to the slurry in the form of water 5 dispersion non-ionic pigments. Upon building up e asehf'tffhhf concentrated slurries, containing such color pigment dispersions, may be applied as a finishing coat.
The embodiment of the invention shown and 7 described herein is to be considered merely as illustrative, as the invention is susceptible to variation, modification and change within the spirit and scope of the appended claims.
Having now particularly described and ascer- 7 tained the nature of the invention, and in what 5 manner the same is to be performed, what is claimed is:
1. The method of forming a hard, continuous moistureproof fibrous asbestos insulation coating on a structural surface to insulate said surface, consisting of alternately spraying cationic and anionic dispersions thereon until a coating of desired thickness is built up on said surface, said cationic dispersions comprising essentially a synthetic resinous binder containing 1-10% of a stabilizing cationic, surface active amide, and a carrier liquid therefor, to impose a cationic charge on said surface, and said anionic dispersion comprising essentially a mixture of cement, lime, aluminum stearate and an inert material dispersed in water plus a stabilizing anionic wetting agent, and introducing a comminuted fibrous insulation material into the anionic dispersion during spraying thereof onto the surface being coated.
2. A process of coating structural surfaces such as walls and ceilings for producing tightly adherent fibrous asbestos insulation coatings thereon, which comprises applying to the surface as a ground coatin a cationic emulsion comprising essentially a cationically charged amide dispersed in a carrier liquid together with a binder for the said amide, overlying the said ground coating with an anionically charged coating composed essentially of an anionically charged wetting agent, incorporating in one of the emulsions, prior to its application to the surface being coated, a mixture composed essentially of cement, lime, and aluminum stearate, and introducing into the last mentioned emulsion, a comminuted fibrous insulatin material simultaneously with the application thereof to the surface being coated.
3. A process of coating structural surface such as walls and ceilings for producing tightly adherent fibrous asbestos insulation coatings thereon, which comprises applying to the surface as a ground coating a cationic emulsion comprising essentially, an aqueous dispersion of a cationically charged amide together with a binder therefor, overlying the ground coating with an anionically charged aqueous emulsion compound essentially of an anionically charged wetting agent, incorporating in the anionically charged dispersion, prior to application thereof to the ground coating. a mixture composed essentially of cement, lime and aluminum stearate, and introducing into the anionically charged emulsion a comminuted fibrous insulating material simultaneously with the application thereof to the surface being coated.
4. The method of forming a hard, continuous moistureproof fibrous, asbestos insulation coating on a structural surface to insulate said surface, consisting of alternately spraying cationic and anionic dispersions thereon until a coating of desired thickness is built up on said surface, said cationic dispersions comprising essentially a synthetic resinous binder containing a stabilizing cationic, surface active amide, and a carrier liquid therefor, to impose a cationic charge on said surface, and said anionic dispersion comprising essentially a mixture of cement, lime, aluminum stearate, and introducing a comminuted fibrous insulation material into the anionic dispersion during spraying thereof onto the surface being coated.
JAMES L. KEMPTHORNE.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 2,255,834 Taylor Sept. 16, 1941 2,468,086 Latham Apr. 26, 1949 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 575,379 Great Britain Feb. 15, 1946