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Publication numberUS2646210 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 21, 1953
Filing dateMay 5, 1951
Priority dateMay 5, 1951
Publication numberUS 2646210 A, US 2646210A, US-A-2646210, US2646210 A, US2646210A
InventorsGustav Zellbeck, Hans Kohlmann
Original AssigneeEberspaecher J
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Turbocompressor
US 2646210 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

July 21, 1953 Filed May 5, 1951 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 HAN 5 KQHLMANN. GU5TAV ZELLBECK.

ATTORNEY.

INVENTOR5.

July 21, 1953 H. KOHLMANN ETAL TURBOCOMPRESSOR 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed May 5, 1951 INVENTORS.

HANS KOHLMANN; GUSTAV ZELLBECK.

July 21, 1953 H. KOHLMANN ETTAL 2, 0

TURBOCOMPRESSOR Filed May 5, 1951 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTORS HANS KOHLMANN. GUSTAV ZEZLLBECK.

ATTORNEY.

Patented July 21 1953 TUR ocoMPREsson Hans Kohlmann, Esslingen' (Neckar) and'Gustav Zellbeck, Oberesslingen (Neckar) Germany, assignorsto J. Eberspacher, Esslingen (Neckar),

1 Germany Application May 5, 1951, Serial N 0. 224,724

17 Claims. 01. 230-116) The present invention relates to a radial hot gas turbine driving a compressor and forming with the latter a mechanically. self-contained unit. The unit may be used for compressing air for many different purposes but particularly for charging internal combustion-engineshaving four or six cylinders.

It is an object of the invention to provide a turbo-compressor unit suitablefor charging an internal combustion engine having four or-six.

cylinders and whose turbine is provided with a nozzle device having two separated gas admission conduits and being so designed as to be conveniently inserted in axial direction and removed through the exhaust side of the turbine.

, A further object of the invention is the provision of a turbo-compressor unit having extremely small overall dimensions and weight and being so constructed as to substantially reduce manufacturing cost and simplify assembly.

Another object of the invention is to provide a turbo-compressor unit having air-cooled bearing and support means reducing consumption of lubricating oil and in which the bearing means are not only insulated by air but also shielded against heat radiation from the 'hot turbine parts. I g p Alfur'ther object of the inventionis the provision of a turbo-compressor unit in which undesired vibration of the rotor is prevented by the provision of an additional bearing loaded to counter-balance otherwise unbalanced forces.

:Other'objects will appear from the following description of this invention. The manner in which the foregoing objects are achieved is shown in the appended drawings, wherein like numerals designate like parts throughout the several views, and in which:

Fig. l is a longitudinal'sectional viewof a turboblower unit according to the invention;

Fig. 2 is a cross-sectional view of the shaft of the unit shown in Fig. l, the section being taken along line 11-11 of Fig.1; r

Fig. 3 is a perspective view of the rotor of the turbine of the unitaccording to Fig. l at the moment when the last core is removed after the rotor has been cast in a chill mould;

Fig. 4 is a, cross-sectional view of the casing .of

the turbine of the unit according to Fig. l, the

section being taken along line IV--IV of said figure;

Figure 5 is a transverse' section taken at line V.-V ofFig. 4; x Y 4 Fig. 6 is a longitudinal section through a modifiedbearing arrangement;

2 r Fig. 7 is a transverse section taken at line VII--VII of Fig. 6. V

Y Referringmore particularly to Fig. l, the unit according to the invention comprises a centrally disposed hollow bearing support member I containing. lubricating oil. A ball bearing is 'pro-' vided ateach end of member I, the bearings being designated by numerals l8 and 20. They support a shaft 9 made in one piece with a turbine rotor to. 'Air lock chambers '4 and 4'. are provided at the left and right ends, respectively, of member I, which chambers are interconnected and contain air under the same pressure. A casing 6 is disposed at the right side of member I for receiving a radial turbine having a stationary nozzlemember 5 and the aforementioned rotor H). At the left side of member I is a radial blower having a rotor II and a spiral casing I2.

A cylindrical shaft portion l6 connects the turbine wheel or rotor III with the shaft 9; the bore'or cavity of portion l6 being so dimensioned that the transverse section. of portion I6 is not greater thanone half of the cross-section of shaft 9 and the moment of inertia of portion I'B'is the same as that of shaft 9. The described construction reduces the flow of heat from the turbine wheel to the shaft. v

As seen in Fig. 3, the blades l3 of the turbine wheel have a rectangular transverse sectional configuration and extend at a right angle from the rotor disc. The channels formed by the blades l3 have bottoms l4 which form an angle with a plane at a right angle to the rotation axis of the rotor, the axial inclination of the bottoms l4 beginning at the inlet end of the channels and increasing progressively toward the center of the rotoryso that the. gas operating the turbine exhausts in axial direction.

r The entire outlet portions l5 of the blades l3 are so bent in circumferential direction that the gas leaves the buckets in a direction assuring wheel is cast with a hollow shaft trunk l6 and connected with the shaft 9 by pressure-buttwelding. The cavity I! in the shaft trunk I6 is closed by a pressed-on'cover [9 to prevent entry 7 of hot gases into the cavity.

A disc 3 rotating with shaft 9 is provided between bearings l8 and 20. The disc picksup oil w from the bottom of chamber or cavity 2 and throws it in finely divided or atomized state into the upper part of the chamber wherefrom the oil enters the inside of bearings l8 and 29. The oil is also conducted toward the outside of the bearings through openings 65 and 65 in member I and through chambers formed at the outsides of said member by means of covers 34 and 34. Escape of oil from the spaces within covers 34 and 34 is prevented by the compressed air at the outside of covers 3:2 and 34', which fills the previously described spaces 4 and 4 which are supplied with compressed air from the spiral casing l2 through conduits 38 and 39 and are closed at their outsides by covers 36 and 37. If the rotational speed of the unit changes, the pressure changes in the air chambers 2 and 4 and alsoin'the oil chain-- ber 2, and oil may enter the air chambers if the speed is reduced. To prevent this, a longitudinal bore 39 is provided in shaft 9 which bore connects the inlet 26 of the blower with transverse bores 29 terminating in an annular channel or groove 32 in a sleeve 3| rotating with the shaft. See Fig. 2. Channel 32 is connected with the oil chamber 2 by means of bores 33. The pressure in chamber 2 is thus maintained lower than in the chambers 4 and 4, there being always a flow of air from the air chambers into the oil chamber and therefrom throughconduits 33, 32, 29 and 39 to the outside wherefrom it is drawn into the compressor. Flow of oil through conduits 33, 32, 29 and 39 is prevented by placing the conduits 33 preferably at a right angle to the bore 29 in shaft 9 as seen in Fig. 2.

As indicated in Fig. l, a sleeve 21 rotating with shaft 9 is provided at the left side of bearing 20, which sleeve abuts against the compressor rotor l l, the latter being pressed to the sleeve by a nut 64. A spring washer 27 is interposed between the nut and the rotor. Each end of sleeve 21 is provided with an interior recess or groove forming annular channels 22 and 22 which are interconnected by one or more longitudinal grooves 23. Channel 22 is connected by radial recesses or bores 26 with the space inside cover 34 and therefore with the oil chamber 2. The hub of the compressor wheel I i has interior grooves 25 connected with radial grooves 28 at the outer end of the hub, so that air may flow from the oil chamber through conduits 24, 22', 23, 22, 25, and 28 to the outside. Simultaneous escape of oil is prevented by placing the radial grooves 24 at other points of the circumference of shaft 9 than the grooves 23.

The covers 3% and 36 enclosing the air chamber 4 at the compressor end of the unit and the covers 34 and 3'! enclosing the air chamber 4' at the turbine end are made of thin sheet metal, covers 34 and 3 each having a curved rim portion which is press-fitted into member I. The disc portions of covers 3 34', 35, and 37 adjacent to shaft 9 are adapted to hold packing rings 35.

Conduit 38 conducting compressed air from the compressor to the bearing member I has a branch 46 conductingcooling air into a space 8 formed by cover 3? and turbine casing 6 and extending over the whole side of member l facing the turbine. Cover 3? is so formed relatively to a flange (ii on the turbine casing t as to produce a throttling passage 4i forcing the air coming from conduit Gil to be distributed equally in the annular space 8 and to flow radially inward toward the shaft trunk 16. From there the air fiows radially outward along the. back of the turbine wheel and. is mixed with the gas operating the turbine in the clearance between the turbine rotor and the turbine nozzles. The described construction provides two adjacent air spaces, 4' and 8, 4|, between the hot turbine casing and the shaft bearing and an emcient heat insulation for the latter. A third air space insulates the back of the turbine wheel from the turbine casing portion facing the bearing.

The turbine casing comprises two symmetric substantially semicircular conduits 42 disposed in a common plane and in opposite relation, as illustrated in Figs. 4 and 5. Each channel has an inlet portion 33 and the two inlet portions are separated by a wall 46. The semicircular crosssection of the channels diminishes gradually, resulting in atongue portion 45 of the casing which portion is diametrically opposed to wall 44.

The back wall 46 of the turbine faces the bearing member l and has an opening 41 through which the turbine shaft extends. A funnelshaped flange 6! projects from wall 46 and is provided with an annular portion 1 which is bolted to member I. Flange BI is thin and does not conduct much heat. It is cooled at its outside by the surrounding air. Cover member 3'1 has an annular portion interposed between the annular portion 7 and member I. The inside of flange Eil is cooled by the air flowing radially through space 4i. Opposite wall 46 is a large cylindrical portion 48 receiving the annular nozzle or guide blade member 49. Tongue 45 and wall M terminate at the circumference of the nozzle or guide blade member 49.

Member 49 is provided with an even number of nozzle blades 50. Two diametrically opposed blades each have an outwardly extending por: tion, portion 5! abutting the inner end of tongue 35 and portion 5i abutting the inner end of the separating wall 4%. The gas streams in the two channels 42 are thus separated from and cannot interfere with each other. This is of particular importance if the unit is used for supercharging internal combustion engines. The nozzle member it is open at the right side, as seen in Figs. 1

and 5, and is closed by a cover 63 closing also the right side of the cylindrical clearance between the nozzles and the turbine wheel and having a cylindrical portion 63 for guiding the turbine exhaust gases. The latter are additionally guided by an exhaust conduit 52 which is connected with the turbine casing by means of an annular membrane member 53 which equalizes expansion and tension caused by heat between the exhaust conduit 52 and the turbo-compressor unit.

The radial compressor together with cover 36 is bolted to the left side of the bearing member I. The described arrangement facilitates assembly of the unit.

Since perfect balancing of the turbo-compressor rotor and reduction of the bearing clearances to zero is practically impossible, the rotor will make a circular movement in the bearings causing additional unbalancing, particularly. at high rotational speeds, and additional stresses and operating noise. To avoid this, a third bearing, 54, may be provided between bearings 18 and 20, according to the invention and illustrated in Figs. 6- and 7, which is externally so much loaded that the bearing reactions in bearings i8 and 2d are always at least equal to the forces produced by the residual unbalance of the rotor, which forces counteract the bearing reaction caused by the static load of the rotor. External loading is effected by two compression springs 55 disposed symmetrically with respect to the radial center port memberjfi to thecasing 61. The other ends one-end 'of 'eachr-of the satan c on the threadedi'portion 68 for securing thesupof springs 55 rest on a second support part formed by lateral extensions 51 of. a pin 69 which is longitudinally slidable and guided .in a bore of part 58, which bore extends radially of bearing 54. Part 51, 89 rests on and is forced against a block 58 in which bearing .54 is mounted; To prevent rotation of part '1, 69 about the axis of pin 69 and for guidance of springs .55. studs or pins 59 having ends screwed into part 56, 68 extend through spiral springs 55. The free ends of studs-59 extend through holes 69 in the extensions 51 and into recesses inmember 59 and thus not 7 only prevent rotation of member51, 69 but also sliding of member 58 along the axis of shaft 9.

-While the preferred embodiments of this in vention are shownand described, modifications other than those disclosed herein may be made without':departing from the spirit of the invention, and reference istherefore made to theappended claims for a definition of the scope of this invention. a

What is claimed is: V

1. A turbo-compressor comprising, in'combination, a radial turbine, a casing therefor, a

radial compressor, a casing therefor, a support member disposed between said turbine and said compressor and havinga side to which said tur bine casing is bolted and a side to which said compressor casing is bolted, atleast two axially.

aligned bearings borne in said support member, a shaft interconnecting said turbine and said compressor and extending through said bearings, a cooling air chamber disposed between said support member and said turbine, a; cooling air chamber disposed between said support member and said compressor, a conduit interconnecting both said chambers for equalizing the air pressure therein, said support, member having a cavity containing lubricating oiland communicating with both said bearings, said compressor having a wheel having a'hub portion, a sleeve on and rotating with said shaft and disposed between said hub portion and the one of said bearings which is next tosaid compressor, said sleeve having an interior annular groove adjacent to.

said hub portion and an interior annular groove adjacent to said bearing, at least one longitudinal internal groove in said sleeve communicating with bothsaid annular grooves, radial conduits extending from the annular groove which is adjacent to said bearing, to the outside of said sleeve for conducting-air from said cavity into said last mentioned annular groove, and conduit means in said hub portion connecting the annular groove, which is adjacent to said hub portion, with the suction side of said compressor for drawing air from the annular groove adjacent to said 7 bearingthrough said longitudinal groove into the annular groove adjacent to .said hub portion and through said conduit means to the outside forventilating said cavity.

. 2.. A turbo-compressor as set forthin claim 1,

said radial conduits being placed at a different 3. A turbo-compressor -as set forth in claim 1,

said shaft extending through said hub portion,

- said :conduit means in; said hub 'portioncomprisinglongitudinaljgrooves adjacent to said shaft,

and conduits extending radially in said hub portion from saidlast mentioned grooves to the: outside. n

4. Aturbo-compressorcomprising, in combination, a radial turbine, a casing therefor, a radial compressor, a. casing therefor, a support member disposed between said turbine and said compressor'and having a side to which said turbine casingis bolted and a side to which said compressor casingiis bolted, at least two axially aligned: bearings borne in said support member, ashaft interconnecting said turbine and said compressorand extending. through: said bearings, acboling air chamber disposed between said support member and. said turbine, a cooling air chamber disposed between said support member and :said compressor, a conduit interconnecting both said chambers for equalizing the air pressure therein, said. support member having a cavity containing lubricating oil' and communicating with both said bearings, aconduit extending from the intake side of said compressor and longitudinally through. said shaft and ending therein, a transverse conduit in said'shaft connected with said conduit and having an intake end at the outside of. said shaft, a sleeve on and rotating with said shaft and covering said intake end, an annular interior groove in said sleeve adjacent to said intake end, andra'di'al conduits in said sleeve extendingfrom said annular groove to the outside of the sleeve'for receiving air from said cavity and conducting it into the conduit extending through said shaft.

5. A turbo-compressor according to claims, said radial conduits being angularly displaced with respect to said transverse conduit.

. '6. A turbo-compressor comprising, in combination, .aradial turbine having :a casing, a radial compressor having a casing, a support member disposed between said turbine and said compressorand having a side to which said turbine casingis bolted and a side to which said compressor casing is bolted, at least two axially aligned bearings borne in said support member, a shaft interconnecting said turbine and said compressor and extending through said bearings, an air lock chamber disposed between-said supportlmember and said turbine, an air lock chamber disposed between said support member and said compressor, a conduit interconnecting bothsaid chambers for equalizing the air pres--. sure therein, said support member having a cavity containing lubricating oil and communicating with both said bearings, an annular recess at each side of said support member, a cover plate disposed at either side of said support member and having a ,disc'portion axially spaced from the support member and having a rim portion bine havinga casing, a radial compressor having a,casing,'-a support member disposed between :said turbine and said compressor and having a a turbine and said compressor and extending.

acagcjaic through said bearings, a cooling air chamber-at either side of said support member, one of said chambers being disposed betweensaid support member and said turbine and the other between said compressor and said support member, a conduit interconnecting both said chambers for equalizing the air pressure therein, the air chamber between said support member and said turbine having an outside Wall, and an additional air chamber disposed between said outside wall and said turbine casing, extending around said shaft, and having an annular portion of relatively great diameter and axial extension and having an annular portion of relatively small diameter adjacent to said shaft, a compressed air conduit connecting said first annular portion with said compressor, said additional air chamber havin an intermediate portion of relatively small axial extension between said annular portions, said intermediate portion constituting a throttle passage for throttling 'the flow of air toward said shaft and affording uniform distribution of the air in said additional chamber.

8. A turbo-compressor comprising a radial turbine having a casing, a radial compressor having a casing, a support member disposed between said turbine and said compressor and having a side to which said turbine casing is bolted and a side to which said compressor casing is bolted, at least two axially aligned bearings borne in said support member, a shaft interconnecting said turbine and said compressor and extending through said bearings, an air lock chamber at either side of said support member, one of said chambers being-disposed between said support member and said turbine and the other between said compressor and said support member, a conduit interconnecting both said chambers for equalizing the air pressure therein, said turbine casing comprising two diametrically opposed substantially semicircular conduits disposed symmetrically in the same transverse plane to the rotation axis of the turbine and having a semicircular cross-sectional configuration, an inlet portion, a separating wall therein extending radially of the rotation axis of the turbine and dividing said inlet portion into two conduits individually connected with said semicircular conduits, the flow area of the latter gradually diminishing as they extend from said inlet portion, said casing having a tongue portion diametrically opposed to said separating wall and separating the semicircular conduits thereat, said casing having a rear wall at the side facing said support member, an opening in said rear wall receiving said shaft, a flange portion extending from said rear wall and being connected with said support member, said casing having a hollow cylindrical portion extending axially from said rear wall, and an annular guide blade member fitted'into said cylindricalportion, said separating wall and said tongue extending inwardly as far as the circumference of said guide blade member.

9. A turbo-compressor as defined in claim 8, said flange portion being funnel-shaped with the small diameter end at said rear wall, the air chamber between said support member and said turbine having an outside Wall spaced from and facing said fiange portion and said rear wall and forming therewith a cooling air chamber, and a conduit connecting said cooling air chamber for compressed air flow with said compressor.

10; A turbo-compressor as defined in claim 8, said guide blade member comprisingan even lumber of guide blades, two of said blades being diametrically opposed, each of said two guide blades having an outward extension, the extension of one guide blade ending at said separating wall and the extension of the other guide blade ending at said tongue portion for keeping separate in said guide blade member the gas streams received from said semicircular conduits.

11. A turbo-compressor comprising, in combination, a radial turbine having a casing, a radial compressor having a casing, a support member disposed between said turbine and said compressor and having a side to which said turbine casing is bolted and a side to which said compressor casing is bolted, at least two axially aligned bearings borne in said support member, a shaft interconnecting said turbine and said compressor and extending through said bearings, an air lock chamber disposed between said support member and said turbine, an air lock chamber disposed between said support member and said compressor, a conduit interconnecting both said chambers for equalizing the air pressure therein, an oil containing cavity disposed in said support member and communicating with said bearings, and conduit means in said shaft and rotating therewith and communicating with said cavity for removing air therefrom.

12. A turbo-compressor as defined in claim 11, comprising disc-shaped atomizing means extending radially from and driven by said shaft and disposed in said cavity for atomizing the oil therein.

13. A turbo-compressor as defined in claim 11, said turbine having a rotor having a radial disc portion, said disc portion having a front surface inclined in axial direction, the inclination in creasing toward the center of the rotor, and sheetlike blades extending at a right angle from the front surface of said disc portion and radially of the rotor axis, said blades having curved end portions, the generatrices of the curvature of said end portions extending through the rotor axis.

14. A turb-o compressor as defined in claim 11, said turbine having a rotor having a disc portion, an axial bore in the center of said disc portion, and a hollow cylindrical shaft trunk extending from the center of said disc portion toward said support member and being rigidly connected with said shaft and having'a greater outside diameter than the latter, the annular cross-section of said trunk being not greater than half the crosssection of the connected shaft and the moment of inertia of said shaft trunk being therefore substantially the same as that of said shaft.

15. A turbo-compressor according to claim 14, comprising a cover closing the bore in the center of said disc portion.

16. A turbo-compressorcomprising, in combination, a radial turbine having a casing, a radial compressor having a casing, a support member disposed between said turbine and said compressor and having a side to which said turbine casing is bolted and a side to which said compressor casing is bolted, at least two axially aligned bearings borne in said support member, a shaft interconnecting said turbine and said compressor and extending through said bearings, an air lock chamber at either side of said support member, one of said chambers being disposed between said support member and said turbine and the other between said compressor and said support mem ber, a conduit interconnecting both air chambers for equalizing the pressure therein, a'cavity in said support member containing lubricating oil and communicating with each of said two bearings, a third bearing axially aligned with and interposed between said two bearings, and means connected with said support member and said third bearing and Comprising a first support part rigidly connected with said support member, a second support part resting on said third bearing and being slidably connected with and guided by said first support part for radial movement to and from said shaft, two coil springs interposed between said support parts and disposed symmetrically with respect to a radial center line of said third bearing, a pin connected'with one of said support parts, extendin through one of said springs and slidably into the other support part, and a pin connected with one of said support parts, extending through the other spring and slidably into the other support part. 17. A turbo-compressor comprising, in combination, a radial turbine having a casing, a radial compressor having a casing, a support member disposed between said turbine and said compressor and having a side to which said turbine casing is bolted and a side to which said compressor casing is bolted, at least two axially aligned bearings borne in said support member, a shaft'int'erconnecting said turbine and said compressor and extending through ,said bearings, an. .air lock chamber disposedbetween said support member and said turbine, an air lock chamber disposed between said support member and said compressor, a conduit interconnecting both said chambers for equalizing the air pressure therein, said support member having a cavity containing lubricating oil and communicating with both said bearings, an annular recess at each side of said support member, a cover plate disposed at either side of said support member and having a disc portion axially spaced from the support member and having a rim portion press-fitted into said recess, an opening in said cover plates through which said shaft extends, said ari lock chambers having an axial side wall individually formed by said cover plates, each of said air chambers having a second side wall individually axially spaced from said cover plates and constituted by a cover plate having a rim portion, the rim portion of one second side wall being interposed between said support member and said compressor casing and the rim portion of the other second side wall being interposed between said support member and said turbine casing.

HANS KOHLMANI Y. GUSTAV ZELLBECK.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Great Britain Dec. 3, 1947

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Classifications
U.S. Classification417/369, 384/317, 417/372, 417/407, 384/277
International ClassificationF01D25/12, F02C6/00, F01D9/04, F01D25/08, F02C6/12
Cooperative ClassificationF01D25/125, F01D9/045, F02C6/12
European ClassificationF01D9/04D, F01D25/12B, F02C6/12