US 2648588 A
Abstract available in
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
1, 1953 J. G. RUSPINO 2,648,588
DISHWASHING MACHINE Filed May 51, 1952 5 Sheets-Sheet l Mad 4 Z7 fZZZy Aug. 11, 1953 J. G. RUSPINO 2,648,588
DISHWASHING MACHINE Filed May 31, 1952 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 Patented Aug. l1 1 95 3 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE DISHWASHING MACHINE James G. Ruspino, Chicago, Ill., assignor to General Electric Company, a corporation of New York Application May 31, 1952, Serial No. 290,984
improve the accessibility and utility of said racks by independently mounting on roller supports a bottom plate rack and an upper cup and glass rack and arranging certain of said roller-supported means for adjustment of the clearance between said bottom and upper racks.
It is another object of the invention to provide a novel roller mounting arrangement for the upper rack, pursuant to which increased clearance space may be obtained with respect to the top of the washing vat to accommodate unusually tall glasses, or alternatively, increased space may be obtained between the upper and lower racks to accommodate unusually large diameter plates or the like in said lower rack.
It is a further object of the invention to provide a simplified glassware rack supporting structure which affords the advantages of a secure framework for supporting the rack and. smooth roll-out operation, combined with means whereby the rack may be positioned on said supporting framework to obtain the above-noted clearance adjustment.
This invention has particular utility in domestic dishwashing machines which have rather rigid dimensional limitations. To be commercially competitive, a domestic dishwasher must be sized for installation below a kitchen sink drain board, or as part of a kitchen counter structure. As is well known, drain board and counter tops have been standardized at approximately 36" above the floor. The space available within the dishwasher casing or frame structure for the washing vat is limited to the space required for mounting below the vat the motor, control valve system, and plumbing drain connections. Another spaceconsuming factor is that most plumbing codes require that the water inlet system of the dishwasher have at least a one-inch vertical air gap between the discharge spout and the maximum overflow spill level of the machine. It is also well known in the dishwasher art that the lowermost rack must be spaced sufficiently above the impeller to insure the proper water distribution pattern over and about the articles being washed, and adequate drainage therefrom. Thus, it is not possible within the limited space available to provide fixed or permanent supports which would separate the upper and lower racks sufficiently to permit the simultaneous washing of exceptionally large size plates in the lower rack and tall glasses in the upper rack.
I am aware that it is not unusual in the art to equip dishwashers of the front-opening type with loading racks which are mounted on individual pull-out carriages or the like; and means have previously been proposed to locate the upper rack on one of two vertically spaced pull-out carriages so as to obtain increased clearance if necessary between the upper rack and the top of the vat or v between the respective upper and lower racks.
In practicing my invention, however, I provide a single upper rack supporting structure having side rails arranged for roller mounting in trackways fixed to the sides, of the washing vat, and I further provide on said structure an arrangement of supporting Walls which, in cooperation with specially contoured portions of the frame structure of the rack, will securely support said rack in either of two positions providing greater or less clearance relative to the top wall of the washing vat. It is a feature of my invention that it is only necessary to turn the rack through degrees in a horizontal plane and return it to the common support structure to achieve the desired spaced relationship.
Other features and advantages of my invention will be apparent from the following detailed description of a presently preferred embodiment, read in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which Fig. 1 is a front sectional elevation of a portion of a dishwasher embodying the present invention; Fig. 2 is a fragmentary detail, in sectional elevation on lines 22 of Fig. 1, showing a form of roller support for the rack-receiving support frame with respect to the trackways fixed to the sides of the vat; Fig. 3 is a plan view in section along lines 33 of Fig. 1 showing the assembled rack and support frame in operative position; Fig. 4 is a section on lines 4-4 of Fig. 3 showing a method of securing the supporting trackways to the sides of the vat; Fig. 5 is a fragmentary perspective of the assembled trackways, roller supports, and side rails of the support frame; Fig. 6 is a perspective of the support frame looking from above; Fig. 7 is a fragmentary section taken on lines 1i of Fig. 3 showing the rack corner structures resting on the support frame to give maximum clearance relative to the top of the vat; Fig. 8 is a fragmentary section taken on lines 88 of Fig. 3 showing the same clearance position of other supporting elements of the rack; and Figs. 9 and 10 are views similar to Figs. '7 and 8 showing the relationship of the tribution pattern to be created thereby.
heating element '1. with-groups of wheels or rollers for cooperation 3 rack elements to the rack-supporting frame to provide for maximum clearance between the upper and lower racks.
In Fig. 1 it may be considered that a dishwasher has a five-sided vat l suitably supported within a frame or casing 2; that said vat is open at the front (not shown); and that said open front is-arranged tobe closed bya bottom hinged door (not'shown) which may be swung from a substantially vertical closed position to a substantially horizontal open position. The motordriven impeller 3 is mounted for rotation. about a vertical axis as shown, and is largely disposed within a sump 4 toward which the bottom wall! of the vat slopes. drive motor, water fill and drainage controls, plumbing connections and the like,-. which are disposed within the casing below the vat. Placed about said impeller is a strainer or screen fi and at a level calculated to be above the normal quiet water line is an electrical heating element '1. By means-not shown, water is introduced into the vat in controlled amounts through a spray head or'nozzle Band-after the appropriate amount of water-has been introduced, the rapidly rotating impeller throws the water Violently about; and
*dishes, glassware, and the like, respectively in the lower rack R and the upper rack Rf, are virtually bombarded with water particles whereby they are cleansed. As is well understood, it is necessary to place the lowermost rack sufficiently above theimpeller to permit a proper water dis- In a well known domestic dishwasher, the clearance between the rack and the impeller is about one inch. The water distribution pattern is largely influenced by the arrangement of the articles the .lower rack. The respective racks are mounted for individual have been washed and dried, the latter operation being accomplished by the circulation within the vat of air which is heated by the then energized Lower rack R is provided with various guide rails and. the like within the vat and on the door (not shown) when the latter is in open position. For example, a suitable plu rality of side rollers 8, 8.! rollably support the rack onrails 9, 9.! projecting from the sides of the vat; and other-sets of rollers such as ill, HM areadapted to engage with rails or other supporting and guiding structures. No part of the dishwasher per se, or the roller mounting for the lower rack is claimed as being my invention; and for a'more complete explanation of a typical front-loading dishwasher and rollable bottom rack structure, reference is here made to the presently pending application of Forrest A. Walker, S. N. 57,448, filed October 30, 1948, for Washing Apparatus and assigned to my present assignee.
The lower rack B may be of wire frame construction as is conventional in the art, having a suitably arranged outer framework H, base framework H2, and a central framework N3, the latter comprising a plurality of substantially gable-shaped wire elements disposed in a circular path and inclinin from the horizontal (note element ll'.3l). Usually platters, pans, etc., are placed about the outer portion I l and plates such as indicated at P and Pi are racked individually between the gable-shaped wire members of the central framework H3. A center portion I 1.4 is sometimesprovided to accommodate-a basket or Not shown are-the impeller the like (not shown) for containing table silver.
Pursuant to the present invention, the upper rack RI is arranged to be drawn out from and returned to the vat independently of and without conflict with the lower rack. In a presently preferred embodiment, I provide simple channelshaped trackways l2 and support said trackways ina common horizontaltplanet by suitable means, such as a collar-14 (Fig.4) and sc1=ew l5 which enters a blind tapping l6 fixed to the tub wall. I prefer that the collars be of one of the synthetic rubbers or plastics which are resistant to hot water and the detergents commonly used in dishwashers. The collars are brought tightly against the-wall of the vat. The collars them selves may be-compressible, or a resilient washer l'tmayloe interposed between the channel I2 and the collar if desired.
'-'In-ea'ch side rail is a roller assembly l8 comprising a light metal ballrace 20 having suitable openings toreceivein spaced rrelationship the ballbearings 2d. The roller assemblies serve to support the rack support frame 22, asbest shown in Figs. 2 and 4. The rack frame'ma'y advantageously be constructed from anextrusionaluminum alloy rail, having a vertical wall portion 23 andsan outwardly extending flange '24. The front part of the rack support frame is advantageously constructed by bending said rail into U-shape. with parallel side legs. Flange 24 of the respective side portions fits between the upper and lowe sets of balls, each of which as shown, inFig.-4 may be in engagement with the flangeandvertical wall of the rack frame, and ajfiange-and web of the channel-like rails [2. The rack frame is completed by a rear cross-member 25 of angle shape to provide a rear wall having its top edge co-planar with the top edge of the rail'portion 23, and-a web-25 suitablybelow. theilevel of-said upper edge as presently described. It will be apparent that there is no reason other than structural strength and manufacturing convenience to have the flange-24 extend across the'front of the frame. A suitable stop 21 is formed at each extremity of .the frame side members and similar stops I2..I l2.2 are struck up from the ends of'the rail 12. Rubber bumpers 28 maybe riveted or otherwise fixed to the rear of member '25 to provide cushioned stops engageable with the rear .of thevat.
I have found it expedient slightlyto toeein the free ends of the side. rails l2; so that .when the frame is drawn forwardly to its full out position, the spring bias exerted by therails I2 .will rather tightly crowd the rollers against the side of frame 22. In .practicethis has been found to act as a simple but effective detent which-holds the rack frame in withdrawn position. The toe-in of rails l2 may be accomplished by bending said rails slightly or .by making the respective front mounting studs. Hi slightly longer than the rear studs: [4.].
'As somewhat schematically shown in Fig. 1, there may be a substantial difference in the-size ofadinner plates. The most frequently used dinner plate size indicatedat P is of the orderof 9 in diameter; a full size dinner plate or place plate Pl may be 1'0 in diameter. .There is'also a difference in a length of drinking glasses. A conventional highball glass GI is about, 6" "long and a large size tumbler G2-and sometimesa "Pilsner glassmay be nearly 7" long. .Experienceindicates that in the average household it is not usual for the extremely long glasses and the full size dinner plates to be used undercircumstances that they would bewashed together in the dishwasher; a dinner calling for the large size plates is ordinarily of rather formal nature and the use of exceptionally long glasses would be unlikely. Conversely, the long highball or Pilsner glasses are more appropriate for casual or informal occurrences where the smaller size dinner plates serve adequately.
Accordingly, I have constructed the cup and glassware rack RI for placement to give maximum spacing from the top of the washing vat to accommodate the long glasses; or optionally, to provide maximum spacing between the bottom of rack RI and rack R (and correspondingly less spacing between rack RI and the top of the vat) to accommodate the large plates PI without conflict between the upper and lower racks. The arrangement in Fig. 1 provides for washing long glasses; and as clearly appears, the large size plates PI would then extend above the level of the bottom of rack RI and it would be impossible to slide either rack relative to the other. On the other hand, there is adequate clearance for the smaller size plate P. To accommodate the larger plates, the rack RI is adthe corners of the rack. Other variously disposed wires are as needed to complete the structure and give proper support and slope to the cups, glasses, and the like carried therein, but are not important to the present invention.
Referring now to Fig. '7, it will be seen that corner wire 32 has an offset 32.| and a base 32.2
and that corner wire 33 has an offset 33.I and a base 33.2. The longitudinal wires 3| have a simple rectangular bend 3|.I at one end and an offset 312 at the other. The base 3|.3 is co-planar with the respective bases 32.2 and 33.2. It will, of course, be understood that the corner wires 32 are at one end of the rack and wires 33 are at the other; and that the shoulders 3|.2 of the several wires 3| are in mutual alignment at the end of the rack at which are the corner wires 33. It will also be understood that the maximum length of the rack RI represented by the spacing between the verticals of the wires 3| is such that the rack will fit easily within the support frame '22, and that the vertical plane of the corner wires 32, 33 and the spacing thereof will be within the arcuate corner areas of said frame.
It is apparent from Fig. '7 that the support frame has two rack-supporting walls which are in vertically spaced relation, viz., the upper edge of rail 23 and the surface of web '26. The relationship of the respective shoulder portions of the wires 3|, 32 and 33 to said two-level support walls establishes the clearance of the rack RI relative to the rack R. For example, Figs. 7 and 8 show the various rack support wires effective to place the rack RI in the Fig. 3 position. Shoulders 32.I of support wires 32 engage the upper edge of frame 22; shoulders 33.I of support wires 33 rest upon the flange 26 of the frame rear cross member 25. The bottom portions 3|.3, 32.2, and 33.2 of the respective support wires are in a common plane parallel to the plane of the frame 22. The shoulder 3|.2 seats on web 26..
Figs. 9 and 10 show a second relationship of the rack frame wires to the rack frame support 22. With corner wires 33 now positioned at the front of the rack frame, the shoulder 33.I rests on the upper edge of frame member 23.. Fig. 9 is intended to convey that the base 32.2 of corner wire 32 does not engage the web 26 of the frame member 25. As is apparent, the spacing between the bottom of shoulder 33.I and the bottom of base 33.2 is equal to the vertical distance between the upper edge of frame member 23' and the upper surface of web 26. In Fig. 10 the rack wire 3| is shown in its relationship within the frame 22 so that its rectangular offset 3I.I is seated on the web 26. It may also rest against the vertical wall '25. The forward shoulder portion 3|.2 is not in engagement with the frame walls, but the rack is nevertheless firmly supported by the corner wires 33 and the rear portion of wires 3|. A comparison of Figs. 7, 8, 9 and 10 show that the dimensional relationships of the respective offset portions and base portions of the several frame wires are such as to place all base portions in a common plane.
In using the dishwasher, either rack may be loaded first and then. pushed back into the vat. Asuuming that the lower rack is the first to be loaded, it is drawn forwardly on its rollers, loaded, and returned to home position. Perhaps one or more large size plates within the lower rack interfere with the return of the rack by striking the upper rack RI. rack is again drawn out and the upper rack drawn out on its frame 22 sufficiently to remove the rack from the frame. Because of the confiict, it is probable that the upper rack was in the position indicated in Figs. 7 and8. To increase the clearance between the upper and lower racks, therefore, it is necessary only vto remove the upper rack from the support frame 22, turn it degrees in a horizontal plane, and then replace it in the frame. This will change the rack wire positions relative to the frame to that shown in Figs. 9 and 10, and ad'- ditional clearance with respect to rackR will be gained.
It will be understood that where the guide rails are recited as being in a horizontal plane it is common practice to slope said rails downwardly toward the rear of the vat so that the loaded racks will normally move into the vat. As previously described, the toe-in of the rails I2 serves as a detent holding the rack frame in extended posi tion during loading. It will also be understood that while there has been described what are at present considered to be the preferred embodiments of the invention, various modifications may be made therein, and it is intended to cover in the appended claims all such modifications as fall within the true spirit and scope of the invention.
1. In a dishwasher of the type having a washing vat provided with a front opening and alower rack supported in said vat to receive articles to be washed, said lower rack being movable through said front opening for loading or unloading, the improvement comprising guide rails secured in horizontally aligned relation on opposite sides of said vat above said lower rack, said guide rails commencing adjacent said front opening and extending toward the rear of said vat, roller means at the respective guide rails and movable therealong toward or away from said front opens ing, a frame member carried by said roller means, said frame member having a first support wall structure at one end thereof, a second support In such case, the lower i wazlkstructure atxthe opposite end thereoLvsaid swallrstructuresfloeingat different horizontal-levels, aridan;artiole-receivingv rack arranged sto be sup- :'-ported .by'isaidframe in. eitherzottwo. horizontal aangle relationships 'therewitnrsaidurack having structuralelements engageable with ssaid zwall :structuresa-to establish one vertica1 space relation between said upper-land said lower ratsk anden- :ga'geable with said wall structures uponrotation ofsaidrack to itssecond angular relation to peel- -tion said upper rack at a idifferent vertical-rela- 'tio'nship with respect to said lowerrack.
ZJ 'I he improvement in dishwashers according tonclaimf 1, in which the end portions of the guide trails vat the open end of the vat are unsupported iand converge slightly toward'each other-to exert :inwardly directed pressure on said roller means aas;said' means approach-said guiderail end por- -tions.
'1'3. Theiiimprovement in dishwashers according to 1, inizwhichrsaidguide rails are secured .toitherespect-iveside walls of the vat by means including a plurality of resilient: blocks disposed .at intervalsalong .the length of the rails, the foretmost..blocks, considered .with respect to the opening inthe vat, .beingrwell to the rear of the front :endofsaidrails andbeing of greater length than thei -nextsucceeding-blocks so as'tc'reduce the .spacingibetween'said' rails: for the purpose of ex- :erttnga laterally rdirected'force on the roller means as;the: latter are drawn forwardly to the tendportions of the rails.
4. Ina dishwasher of the type having a washing-vat provided with a front opening and a lower rack supported :insaid' vat to. receive articles to .=be washedysaid lower rack being movable through said front opening for loading or unloading, the improvement! comprisinguguide rails secured in mutually :parallel, horizontally aligned relation :onsopposite sidesof said vat above said lower rack,
.saidsgu'ide'rails commencing adjacent said front openingand extending :toward thev rear of said vat, roller-means .at the respective guide rails and movableitherealong toward or away from said frontopening, a frame member carried by said roller means, said frame member having- 2, first wall structure providing a supp-orting surface at 20116 horizontal level, and asecond .wall structure spaced laterally from the first and providing-a supporting'surface ata different horizontal level, and-anarticle-receiving rackarranged to be sup ported by'said frame. in either of two horizontal anglerelationships therewith, said rack having structural elements supportable on said firstand second structures to establish one vertical *space relation between said upper. and said. lower rack and supportable on'the same supporting structures upon rotationof said rack to its secondangular relation to position said' upper-rack .in .a different. vertical relationship with respect tosaid lower rack.
'5. Ina dishwasher of the type havingawashing'vat provided with a. front opening and alower rack supportedin said vat to receive articles to be washed, said lower rack being movable through said front opening for loading or unloading, the improvement comprising guide rails secured in mutually parallel,- horizontally aligned relation on opposite sides of said vat above-said lower rack, said guide rails commencing adjacent said front opening and extending toward the rear of said vat, roller means at the respective guide rails and movable therealong toward or away from. said front opening, a substantially rectangular open frame member carried by said roller means, said iframe .memberihavingeazfirstsupport wallistructure .SltiOIIE end thereof and assecond support wall :str-uctureiatthe opposite end thereof, saidiwa'll structures'being at different horizontal levels-and anrarticle-receiving rack arranged to be. removably supported byssaid frame'in-eitheruof two horizontal angle relationships there with, ;said
vrack having afirst set of structural elements at oneend thereofanda second set of structural-elements at the opposite end thereof, the" said-,sets ofv elements concurrently engaging said wallstruc- .tures '-for any frame-supported position of said able through said front opening-forsloadingor .saideguide rails commencingiadjacent saidfront opening and extending-towardthe rear of .said vat,,roller means at the respective guide rails and movable therealong -toward or ..-,away from said front opening, a substantially rectangular, hollow, frame memberhaving an outwardly extending flange cooperating withisaid roller .means to support the frame .for.- movement. along said guide rails, said frame having. oo-planarsupporting walls .-at one endithereof and supporting wall means at the opposite end thereof, said last-named .wall means being spaced vertically from said first-named -walls, and an article-receiving rack arranged to besllpported within said frame in either of two horizontal angle relationships therewith,- said rack; having .a 'first, pair of support means at one: endrof said rackand a'second pair of support means at the opposite end of said rack, each, said pair of.-.-support means having a base portion and: an out- .wardly offset portion abovesaidjbase portion all of said'base portions being in a common plane; the. offsetportions .ofthesfirst pair being in a common .plane andthe ofisetportionseither-sec- 0nd pair being ma common plane' at .a-lower height'relative-t-to said "base portion than those of .the first pair; the: respective baseand-offset portions .bei-ng'so related to said first and secondnamed supporting wallsthat with the rack in one position on the-frame the :OfiSEtyPOItlOIIS-Of the firstenamedpair of rack. structures rest onthe first-named rack; supporting walls and the offset portions of .the second-.namedpair-rest on-the second-:named rack supporting wall means, and with the rack in its;- secondiposition on the frame the base portionsof the first-named pair, of rack structures are. in theplane of the second-named rack supporting wallmeansand .the offset portions of the second-named pair rest on the firstnamed rack supporting walls, whereby the base p'ortions'of' said rack will be in different height relation to the support-'frame'for eachof the rack positions.
'7 The improvement in dishwashers according to claim-6, in which said second-named-rack supporting wall means comprises ashelfextending from i side .toside of :said' frame-ate level below said first-named supporting walls.
8. The improvement in dishwashers according to claim 6, in which said frame member has arcuate corner portions, and said rack supporting wall structures are within said corner portions.
9. In a dishwasher of the type having a Washing vat provided with a front opening and a lower rack mounted in said vat on means permitting the rack to be drawn from or returned into said rack through said front opening, the improvement comprising guide rails secured to the respective side walls of said vat in horizontally aligned substantially parallel relation above said lower rack, roller means mounted on said side rails for movement therealong toward or away from said front opening, a hollow rectangular frame member having flange means extending from its side portions into permanent engagement with said roller means to support the same therein, rack support elements on said frame member, an article-receiving rack, and means on said rack engageable with said support elements to support the rack within said frame at either of two different levels with respect to said lower rack.
10. In a dishwasher of the type having a wash- 25 the rack to be drawn from or returned into said 10 rack through said front opening, the improvement comprising guide rails secured to the respective side Walls of said vat in horizontally aligned substantially parallel relation above said lower rack, roller means mounted on said side rails for movement therealong toward or away from said front opening, a hollow rectangular frame member having flange means extending from its side portions into permanent engagement with said roller means to support the same therein, rack support elements on said frame member, an article-receiving rack, and shoulder means on said rack at different levels relative to the base thereof and engageable with said support elements to support the rack within said frame at a selected one of said different levels with respect to said lower rack.
JAMES G. RUSPINO.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 2,064,518 Brogden Dec. 15, 1936 2,252,964 Faulkner Aug. 19, 1941 2,459,657 Klein Jan. 18, 1949 2,486,932 Elliott Nov, 1, 1949