US 2650676 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
P w 1953 G. c. F. J. G. JAMQTTE 2,659,76
-COMBUSTION ENGINES LUBRICATION OF WOBBLE PLATE INTERNAL 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed. April 19, 1949 w Chem/es m .r w v k A M mm M a L u M m w a p 3 G. c. F. J. a. JAMOTTE 2,650,676
LUBRICATION OF WOBBLE PLATE INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINES ly: Mamc- AH-armay Patented Sept. 1, 1953 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE LUBRICATION OF WOBBLE PLATE INTER- NAL-COMBUSTION ENGINES Application April 19, 1949, Serial No. 88,408 In Sweden April 22, 1948 1 Claim.
The present invention relates to improvements in internal combustion engines generally applicable to all types of internal combustion engines and more particularly to internal combustion engines of the barrel type or opposed piston type, in which power transmission is effected through a walking beam, connecting rod and crank system in the case of two cylinders and four pistons, and through swash or Wobbler discs in the case of motors including 71. cylinders and Zn pistons with 11. greater than two. Moreover said improvements are all particularly designed for use in connection with two cycle internal combustion engines.
All previously proposed constructions for barrel-type engines involved the provision of wobbler discs inclined with respect to the engine shaft, said discs having mounted thereon rings carrying the pivotal connections for the crankheads. The reaction of the thrust against the ring was not balanced, with the result that the successively-applied driving stresses caused said Wobbler discs to pivot while the rings were subjected to pivotal reactions. Such reactions were generally transferred to the guide means for the piston in the cylinder, and to the connecting-rod pivots, and were taken up by the latter. Accordingly, considerable friction would arise and would finally cause jamming, thus putting a stop to the operation of the engine.
With a view to overcome those drawbacks, the main object of the present invention is to provide in an internal combustion engine of the character described, additional connection means between the fixed elements of the engine and the swivel rings of the connecting rod connections.
Another object of the invention is to provide, in an internal combustion engine of the character described, additional connection means comprisframes capable of rocking but not rotating, whereby the rotational reactions in the swivel rings are taken up by said frames and the swivel connections thereof to be ultimately directly transferred to the engine casing structure. Because the connections from the rings to the frame, on the one hand, and from the frame to the engine casing, on the other hand, are formed by journal pins rockably mounted on their bearings, said reactions will be taken up without giving rise to excessive jamming or frictional stresses.
Another object of the invention is to provide, in an internal combustion engine of the character described, a pressure lubricating distribution operated from the pump to the crankheads of the connecting rods and the pistons through the rockable frame, whereby the friction is reduced, on the one hand, in the cylinders, thereby minimizing wear in the piston rings and substantially eliminating ovalization of said cylinders, and, on the other hand, at said crankheads, thereby completely suppressing out of line jamming.
The above and other desirable objects, features and advantages of the present invention will appear in the course of the ensuing description, made with reference to the accompanying drawings, given by way of indication and not of limitation, which will provide a clear understanding of the manner in which said invention may be practically carried out.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic general view of an improved engine in section.
Fig. 2 is a view on an enlarged scale showing in section the pivotal or swivel connection of a crankhead.
Fig. 3 diagrammatically illustrates in radial section the pivoted frame adapted to prevent rotation of the swivel-carrier ring and of the crankheads.
Fig. 4 is a sectional view on an enlarged scale of part of a power-plant according to the invention as applied to a motor-car.
As shown in the drawings, the improved engine of the invention comprises a casing l supporting cylinders 2. The casing l is formed with bearings 2a in which is rotatably mounted a recesssed or tubular shaft 3. The recessed shaft 3 has keyed to it through keys 3a wobbler discs 4 on which swivel-carrier rings 5 are rotatable in ballbearings 6. Swivels I connected with the rings 5 serve to attach the crankheads of the connecting-rods 8.
In each cylinder 2 there are housed two pistons 9, 9a in one cylinder, 9b and 9c in the other, in opposed relationship with each other, said pistons through their related connecting rods being adapted as just stated to actuate the swivels I; said swivels being mounted in substantially symmetrical positions on the Wobbler discs 4, arranged on each side of the cylinder block.
Fig. 1 shows both pistons 9, 9a substantially in the relative position thereof in which they are closest to each other. The crankheads are formed by two shells l0 and Ida (Fig. 2) coupled together in clamped assembly as through a bolt and nut lb. The pistons 9b, which correspond with the lower cylinders of the sectional view of Fig. 1, are on the other hand shown substantially in the position in which they are farthest apart from each other. The crankheads actuating the upper and the lower pistons are connected with swivels disposed substantially at the ends of a common diameter, so that the move ments of the upper piston are substantially reverse from those of the lower pistons. The crankhead connected with the swivel 1 forms the extremity of a connecting rod 8.
The inclined disc 4 is formed with suitable roller-races 5 and 6a serving to guide the swivelcarrier ring 5 against which the crankhead B is applied through the two constituent halves or shells I and ifla thereof. It will be noted that the shells l and Illa-are slotted so as toenable the foot 511 of the swivel l to pass there through.
The roller-bearing surfaces or races 6 are not necessarily symmetrically inclined with respect to the medial plane of the inclined disc. .Indeed, the reactions 7' and s arising at the points of contact of said rollers 6 and 5c differ both in value and direction and the apex angles p and 0' of the cones described by the axes of the rollers may be different from each other. The flanges 6b and 60 providing the outer races for the rollers 5 and 60. may be provided in the form of discs bolted to the inclined disc 4 by means of uniformly spaced bolts 4a.
The lubricating system used is also clearly illustrated in the figure. The lubricating oil is delivered through the annular groove I I and the bore 12 opening into the upper part of the swivel l. Said bore opens opposite to a milled recess it formed in the shells l9 and its, and adapted to distribute the oil over the frictional surfaces of the swivel and convey it to the perforation l i formed in the body of the connecting rod. The axial bore [4 leads the oil to the connecting rod crankhead where said oil will be effective to cool the end of the piston while lubricating the crankhead pivot itself and from where a fraction of the oil may through appropriate conduct means he delivered for lubrication of the piston-rings and the internal cylinder surface, thereby to prevent the oil from mixing with the fuel.
To prevent the swivel-carrier rings from rotating, the ring 5 is provided as a gimbal ring with two integral journal-pins ll projecting into complementary bearings of a frame member i5 pivoted to the engine casing I through journals i5 thereon. Said journals l5 are rotatably supported by complementary bearings formed in the engine casing l and project outside of engine casing. The frame 15 with its journals is formed with supply ducts Mia and 15a extending through the journals and the frame itself and adapted to convey the oil from the oilpump 68 to the annular groove H through ducts l'la formed within journal-pins l! as clearly shown in Fig. 3. The oil-pump E56 is connected with the projections of journals [5 by means of feeding tubes IOI.
The assembly including the swivel-carrier and the frame i5 provides a system of walking beams. As a result, if the motor comprises an even number of pistons, the diametricallyopposed pistons constitute a perfectly-balanced assembly. If the number of pistons is odd the balancing effect still remains in the regularly spaced groups of pistons.
The oppositely-related pistons 9, 9a are housed in a common cylinder 2 in the respective ends of which, and adjacent to the ends of outward strokes are formed the intake and exhaust ports 4 I8 and I9 respectively. The piston 9a overruns the exhaust port I 9 While the piston 9 is still overlapping the intake port l8. As the pistons proceed on their stroke, .the .piston 9 uncovers the intake port l8 while the exhaust port I9 is still open. The piston 9a then again moves forward and seals the exhaust port l9 while the intake port [8 is still open, then both ports are sealed together upon advance of the piston 9.
For obtaining a suitable timing of exhaustadvance and intake-closure delay the Wobbler discs 4 are angularly disposed relative to each other around the recessed shaft 3.
A motor as described above may find application in the field of automobile construction, and Fig. 4 accordingly shows in diagrammatical partial section, one embodiment of a power unit applying the principles of the invention, and capable of being mounted on a motor-car axle. The section illustrated is through the axis of an engine cylinder 2 and in part through an air-compressor cylinder.
As shown in Fig. 4, the engine-casing I is in two parts interconnected through a tube 45 and supports the engine cylinders 2 formed with air-cooling fins 39. The left-hand part of said casing I supports compressor cylinders 44 for scavenging purpose, each of said compressor cylinders being inserted between two successive engine cylinders 2. A tubular shaft 3 extends through the tube 45 in bearings 45a provided therefor and supports the Wobbler discs 4 carrying roller-bearings 6 interposed between discs and the swivel-carrier rings 5. The swivels 'i are mounted .on the swivel-carrier rings and are actuated by the engine connecting-rods 8. Swivels I6 mounted on the periphery of the rings 5 similarly provide for the actuation of the crankheads a of the pistons 44a of the air-compressors 44. Wobbler discs 4 are angularly disposed relative to each other around tubular shaft 3 for providing suitable timing of scavenging and exhaust. The engine pistons 9 and 9a When at their innermost position define combustion spaces 2a within which are located spark-plugs 31.
The drive strokes from the engine cause rotation of the tubular shaft 3 which actuates the multiple gear-unit 46 of the speed-box. A gearshifting collar 48 actuated through a fork 43 connected with the gear-shifting lever makes it possible to lock any one of the rings 50, 5| or 52 corresponding with the three forward gears. or the reverse-gear ring 53, through the medium of a lay-roller or the like, not shown. To lock the pinion 48, slidingly keyed on a shaft 54a, there is provided a clutch disc 54 at the end of said shaft. It will be noted that the locking effect is produced gradually through the medium of said clutch 54; the latter is moreover adapted to operate as a torque-limiting means so as to prohibit the drive torque exceeding a reasonable value even in the use of the gears of greater reduction ratios. The fact that it is located externally makes for efficient cooling. This device constitutes a fixed clutch in which there are no moving elements aside from its disc.
The threefold planetary gearing 55 in mesh with the internal teeth of the annuli 50, 5|, 52 and 53 and with the multiple gear-unit 4G, drives the outer differential housing 56, which through its bevel planetary-gears 5'! pivoting within the said housing is adapted to transmit the drive torque to sun-gears 58 and 59. The sun-gears .58 and 59 are connected with two output shaft sections 60 and 6| coaxial with the motor, the shaft 61 being led out through the interior of the tubular shaft 3 of the engine.
The tubular shaft 3, on the side opposite from that at which the speed-box is located, carries the auxiliaries to the engine unit, including the magnetic fly-wheel 62 and a helical pinion 63 actuating the drive means 64 for the fuel-pump and the fan and the drive-means 65 for the distributor and the oil-pump [00a supplying ducts 56a of the oscillating frames by means of feeding tubes mm.
In order to reduce losses on the suction and exhaust strokes, the burnt gas exhaust manifold 69 communicating with cylinders 2 through ports 56a and the compressed air intake manifold 6'! respectively communicating with cylinders 44 and 2 through ports 61a and 61b for the scavenging air are provided with an ample cross sectional area and have an annular shape for reducing their length. For the same purpose, moreover, each compressor cylinder 44 is connected with an air-intake strainer 63 while said cylinders at their intake ends communicate with a fresh-air collector 69 through ports 69a. All the compressors operate in parallel with said collector.
The power-unit thus described may be adapted for use in driving motor-vehicles.
What I claim is:
In an internal combustion engine of the type comprising, in a common casing, a rotatable hollow shaft, at least one set of opposed cylinders disposed about said shaft and having their axes parallel thereto, Wobbler discs, one for each set of cylinders, rotatable with the shaft and mounted thereon, and reciprocating pistons in said cylinders; the improvement which comprises. for each set of cylinders, a swivel-carrier ring r0- tatably mounted on the corresponding Wobbler disc and formed with two outwardly directed coaxial journal pins, each of said journal pins being provided with an axial bore opening in an annular chamber formed on the inner periphery of said ring, said ring being further formed with angularly equispaced peripheral swivels the number of which is equal to that of the cylinders of the corresponding set, each of said swivels being formed with a bore radially directed with respect to the ring, opening at the outer surface of said swivel and connected by a duct formed in the ring with said annular chamber; a frame member pivotally mounted on said journal pins and formed with two outwardly directed coaxial journals which are perpendicular to the common axis of said journal pins and which pass through the common casing while supported thereby, said journals being respectively formed with bores opening outwardly and interconncted by at least one duct formed in said frame and which communicates with the bores of said journal pins; hollow connecting rods pivotally connected respectively with the pistons and formed with hollow spherical crankheads engaging said swivels. each of said spherical crankheads having an inner recess adapted to connect the corresponding hollow connecting rod with the bore opening at the periphery of the corresponding swivel; and an oil-pump connected with the bores of said journals, whereby, notwithstanding the hollow shaft, a lubrication under pressure is ensured for the journals, the journal pins, and the crankheads of the hollow connecting rods by the oil delivered by said oil-pump.
GEORGES CHARLES FLORENT JOSEPH GI-IISLAIN JAMOTTE.
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