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Publication numberUS2651121 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 8, 1953
Filing dateJun 25, 1948
Priority dateJun 25, 1948
Publication numberUS 2651121 A, US 2651121A, US-A-2651121, US2651121 A, US2651121A
InventorsRussell Shannon Jean
Original AssigneeFour Wheel Drive Auto Company
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Apparatus for high-speed snow removal without windrowing
US 2651121 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

J. R. SHANNON Sept. 8, 1953 2,651,121 APPARATUS FOR HIgH-SPEED snow REMOVAL wITHoU wINnRowING 3 SKeets-Sneet 1 Filed June 25. 1948' 612.656 mx@ QN em. N

Sept. 8, 1953 J. R. SHANNON 2,651,121


Patented Sept. 8, 1953 APPARATUS FOR HIGH-SPEED SNOW REMOVAL WITHOUT WINDROWING Jean Russell Shannon, Clintonville, Wis., as-

signor to The Four Wheel Drive Auto Company,

Clintonville, Wis.,

a corporation of Wisconsin Application June 25, 1948, Serial N o. 35,233

9 Claims. l

This invention relates to methods and apparatus for high speed snow removal without windrowing.

All conventional snowplows of the mouldboard type displace the snow laterally for a distance just adequate to clear the path of the plow, the displaced snow remaining in a windrow adjacent such path. It is a primary object of the present invention to provide a snowplow of the mouldboard type which will lift and broadcast the snow down Wind to considerable distances from the path of the plow and in a manner which does not concentrate the displaced snow in a windrow but, on the contrary, spreads it over a wide area. The improved method and apparatus are particularly designed for clearing airports where a windrow would be a deiinite hazard and would constitute an obstruction in the path of the wings of planes, even though the snow were removed from the path of the wheel.

Reference has been made to the delivery of the snow down wind. In order to accomplish this result, it is necessary that the plow be readily reversible as to angle so that the down wind delivery can be maintained regardless of the direction of the propelling vehicle across the path of the wind. 4

Reference has also been made to the high speed broadcasting of the snow. Not only must .the improved plow be of such a character that it will function eiilciently at the maximum practical speed of the available vehicle, but there is more to the matter than merely moving the vehicle at high speed. The shape of the mouldboard must be designed in such a manner that at high speeds the snow will not come over the top and on to the vehicle windshield and, moreover, it is very important that the snow will move over the face of the mouldboard in a path to be delivered from the end thereof and will be constantly accelerated in velocity due to the form of the mouldboard, thereby achieving a very high velocity of delivery.

Other important objects relate to the provision of a novel supporting and adjusting arrangement for the mouldboard, the weight being normally carried during use on shoes which are "castered or self-adjusting as to angle andY which permit instant reversal of the mouldboard; the provision of an arrangement whereby the plow may be lifted from the ground or restored to operative position without varying the angle to which it is adjusted; the provision of means whereby the mouldboard may accommodate itself to irregularities in the .Surface traversed without in. .any

manner affecting its angle of adjustment; the provision of means whereby the lifting of the mouldboard will occur vertically in any angle to which the mouldboard is adjusted; and the provision of novel and eiective means for making the various adjustments in a manner which does not involve operator fatigue or does not subject the adjusting mechanism to side thrust during operation.

Other objects of the invention will be apparent from the following disclosure thereof.

In the drawings:

Fig. l is a view in longitudinal section through apparatus embodying this invention as it appears applied to the forward end of a vehicle.

Fig. 2 is a plan view of the apparatus shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 3 is a view in rear elevation of a mouldboard and its supporting shoes.

Fig. 4 is an enlarged fragmentary detail view in section through the mouldboard showing one of the shoes in longitudinal section.

Fig. 5 is an enlarged. detail view in front corner perspective of the adjustable thrust member which propels the mouldboard.

Fig. 6 is an enlarged detail View fragmentarily illustrating in vertical section the connection between the mouldboard and the thrust member.

The usual longitudinal frame members 8 of the vehicle are cross connected at their front ends by a channel 9. Behind this a pair of uprights I0 are connected to the frame members 8 at opposite sides of the vehicle, these being desirably also made of channels as shown in Fig. 2. The lower ends of uprights I0 are connected'by braces II with the vehicle frame as indicated in Fig. 1. Although the drawings show only one side of the vehicle, it will be understood that the structure is duplicated at the other side thereof.

To the top and bottom of the vertical members Ill, the upper and lower parallel links I2 and I3 are pivoted at I4, I5, respectively. The lower links I3 are cross connected by a channel I 6 which requires them to move rigidly as a unit. At their forward ends, the upper links I2 are pivoted at I-'I and the lower links i3 are pivoted at I8 to the side members IS of a sub-frame comprising upper and lower yokes 20, 2l, each of which projects forwardly from the plane of the upright side members I9, as appears both in Fig. l and Fig. 2. The subframe is movable upwardly and downwardly guided by the parallel links I2, I3 at opposite sides of the vehicle, which keep the subments.

frame in the same upright position in all adjustments vertically.

The yokes 28, 2l are centrally provided with fulcrum bolts 23, 2d for the thrust member 25 which is wedge-shaped as best shown in r'g. 5, its apex being rearwardly directed and its r'iat face being forwardly directed. The iulcruin bolts 23, 25 are axially aligned and preferably on a common vertical axis about which the thrust member 25 is oscillatable. hereinafter to be described in more detail, is provided symmetrically of its .back kwith ,a reenforcing and mounting bracket 255. Pivoted to the thrust member for oscillation about a horizontal longitudinal axis neart'he bottom .of the thrust member is the pin'tle bolt 2T! (Fig. 1).. Near all of the corners of the thrust member 2li, and also in the vicinity of a pintle'bolt '27, the thrust member is provided with wear pads ZE, 29, 3i, 32, S3 (Figs. 5 vand 6). Wear pads 32 and 33 project from the upper corners and the complementary wear pads 3,4, 35 on the mouldboard bracket 25 Vcarry spacers 3l .and retaining clips 38 (Fig. 5) which, engaged over the pads 32, 33 of the thrust member 25, hold the upper part of the mouldboard to the thrust vmember while permitting freedom of oscillation of the mouldboard in -a transverse plane about the pintle bolt 2 without aiecting the position -of the thrust member 25.

The mouldboard is of unusual design in 'that its curve in vertical section is a spiral or volute curvewhich, in .actual practice, hasbeen made as indicated diagrammatically in Fig. l. From the construction circle .drawn in broken lines at lll) (Fig. 1),.a tangent Iis vdrawn `vertically for approximately 28% inches to the top of the mouldboard. At successive arcs oiset angularly by 20 from each other, the .radius of the mouldboard is progressively increasing vto 291/4 inches to 36% inches to 311/4 inches to 32 inches to 32% inches to S33/8 inches and iinally to 34 inches, the latter lradius extending through the bottom of the mouldboard immediately adjacent its scraping edge 4l. It will, vol" course, be understood that the dimensions and angles indicated ,merely represent the 'best construction currently known and do not `:represent -a prerequisite to the use of the invention, other dimensions and volute forms being suitable for varying require- The particular form illustrated does give a mouldboard `sunicient height, and -or such shape, as to impart the desired helical spiral path to the snow acted vupon for the delivery of such snow from the end of the mouldboard Without any .appreciable quantity Athereof passing over the top.

The two ends of the -mouldboard Vare desirably supported in flexible and vertically adjustable manner upon self-adjusting shoes 45 (Fig. 4). Each of these shoes is made of metal and has the general form of a ski. It is weighted at 46 near its rear end, the weight assisting the upturned Vfront end 41 in preventing the shoe from any tendency to dig downwardly under the weight of accumulated snow. The shoe therefore acts somewhat like a caster wheel in that the weighted rear end of the shoe causes it to align with the forward motion of the vehicle, I shall therefore hereinafter refer to this aligning action as eastern The mouldboard 3i) carries va bracket 'at 48 to which and to the mouldboard are attached rearwardly projecting ears 49, 50, I, 52 for the vertically aligned pintle bolts 53, '54. To the bush- The mouldboard 3S,`

ing rotatably mounted on the lower pintle 53, there is pivoted a triangular lever 55, the lower corner of which is fulcrumed at 57 to a pair oi ears upstanding from the shoe 155. The lever 56 may comprise a pair of laterally spaced plates as best shown in Fig. 3. Pivoted to upper 'corner of lever "56 is a fitting 59 which Vcarries .the nut 6U' into which is threaded a screw 6! adjustable by means of a handle 52 having radially projecting lever arms as shown in Fig. 4. The screw Vis `held by a collar 63 to a yoke @il v.p'ivoteo'l'to 'Ja .sleeve 65 which is pivotal on the upper pintle "54. A keeper 6G pivoted to yoke VSil-drops overifonemf the levers of the handle .G2 to hold Ithe screwin any desired position oi adjustment. T.itlw'illlbe obvious from 4 that by lifting .the .keeper to free the handle, the screw Gl may be rotated with a nut 6B to expand or :contract the distance between lever and sleeve 55 thereby raising or ilowering the .mouldboard withzrespect to the shoe. The'similarity of the screw BI .and the nut-..60 to.jackscrew construction will be readily apparent and the con-strucvtion will be referred .to as a jack or jack screw.

Likewisethe similarity of construction of cylinders "iii and 96 to hydraulic jack-construction will be noted and these devices will be referred to as jacks.

At the -same time, -the arrangement permits the shoe `to trail or caster behind the vertical axis common to the pintle bolts 53, et, so that in all ipositions of the `mouldboard the shoe will .be self-adjusting to ride with/a minimum of resistance .over 4the .underlying surface and to provide support for the mouldboard at the adjusted level. As'the shoes traverse the underlying surface, any irregularities therein will naturally cause oscillation of the mouldboard about its traverse fulcrum on the bolt 2i which connects it to thrust member 25, such movement being readily 'accommodated by the thrust bear-- ing connections shown in Figs. 3, 5 and 6 and described above. AThe shoe construction is, of course, duplicated fat vboth ends of the mouldboard, as shown in Fig. .3.

The angularity or" the-mouldboard is controlled by a horizontally disposed and pivotal-ly mounted hydraulic ram which comprises a cylinder lil pivoted lon vertical Ytrunnions 1l, 12 pivoted in the angles T3, -14 which cross con ect the up- .rights `|55) of the sub-frame, as vbest shown .in Fig.

1. The `ram is 4doubleacting, having hydraulic connections 15, 16 at its :forward and rearward .ends -for the operation 'in well known manner `of the plunger FH 'which fis connected by bolt 723 with the-ears .-19, attached to the thrust member 2li, as shown Tin Figs. 1,'2 and 5. Through suitable hydraulic connections and valves (not shown) the operator is `able from the cab of the propelling Vehicle to throw the mouldboard .instantly :from one side Ito rtheother Ato reverse its angle -at the end of 'each traverse of the runway to be cleared of snow.

Means is also `provided for 'lifting 'the entire mouldboard 'and its shoes from 'the earth for transportation from point to point. For this purpose chain anchorage plates Alil, il?. are attached to the mouldboard or plow and chains 83, 84 extend thence to a common swivel :fitting B5 suspended by ,links '86 'from a hoist lever 8i. This lever is mounted centrally of the vehicle on the angle 8B which .cross connects a pair of upright .angles I8 86 mounted .directly to the .frame 8 .of the vehicle. The -angle has .a pair of upstanding anges 89, 90'. spanned by. a pintle 9| on which the lever 81 is fulcrumed (Figs. 1 and 2) Another angle at 92 on the vehicle frame is centrally provided with similar flanges 93, 94 spanned by a pintle 95 upon which is fulcrumed the cylinder 96 of anotherY hydraulic hoist mechanism, the plunger 91 of which is pivoted at 98 to the lever 81. A hydraulic connection is provided at 99 whereby, subject to the control of the operator, the lever 81 may be os-cillated upwardly in a vertical central plane to lift the mouldboard together with its shoes 45 and the thrust member 25 and the sub-frame, all of these parts being guided for vertical upward movement by the parallel links I2 and I3. It is desirable that the swivel tting 85 is pivoted to its supporting linkage 85 coaxially with the printle bolts 23, 24, which pivot the thrust member 25 upon the sub-frame.

The mouldboard is ordinarily kept in either of its extreme positions of angular adjustment during use. In practice, it has been found desirable for the particular mouldboard shown to be set at an angle of approximately 50 from the longitudinal center line of the vehicle. `At this angle, the height of the mouldboard from its cutting blade 4| to the upper edge thereof, and the curvature of the mouldboard as shown, are sufficient so that a particle of snow picked up at any point along the cutting blade 4| wil1 travel in a heli-cal path up and across the curved face of the mouldboard to the discharge end before reaching the top. In traversing this path, the particle of snow so picked up will follow a curve of uniformly decreasing radius and will therefore be uniformly accelerated all the way to the discharge point and will be discharged at maximum velocity. The high velocity dis-charge widely distributes all particles of snow and, as above noted, the plow is ordinarily used cross wind and arranged to discharge down wind so that the wind assists in distributing the particles of snow as widely as possible, none of them falling in the immediate vicinity of the path of the plow.

The freedom of movement of the mouldboard with respect to the mounting hasl already been described and is an important feature, effectually removing all excessive strains from the adjust'- ing and controlling apparatus.V The push bars or parallel links which communicate the thrust of the vehicle to the sub-frame and thence to the thrust member 25 to the mouldboard are relieved of all side thrust by the construction shown.

As distinguished from normal plowing operations which simplydisplace the plow sufficiently to clear a traveled roadway, and Vwhich ordinarily proceed at a speed such that the vsnow is merely displaced sufficiently for clearance, the improved plowing method contemplated by the present invention is conducted at as high a speed as is possible with the apparatus used, and with due consideration for the weight of the snow to be displaced. Every efort is made to develop suflicient speed so that the snow, instead of merely being pushed laterally, is actually lifted from the road and projected upwardly and outwardly from the end of the mouldboard at very high velocity sufficient not only to throw it clear of the runway of an airfield, so that it will not have to be moved again, but sufficient also to effect wide distribution of the snow so that the passage of the plow leaves no windrow whatever.

Since' the ordinary runway to be cleared is many t1mes wider than the plow, it is usually 6 necessary to make a number of traverses of thel runway before the runway is clear.r Each such traverse is made at comparatively very high rate of speed, which,'in actual practice, has approximated at least 2'1 miles per hour. This compares with a speed of approximately ten miles per hour at which snow plowing operations have heretofore been conducted. The difference in Speed results in a totally different kind of operation, since the purpose of ordinary plowing is merely to push the snow aside, whereas the result of plowing according to the present method is to lift the snow and project it to a distan-ce.

In each such traverse, the successive particles of snow encountered by the blade are impacted with sufficient velocity to lift them and cause them to travel a helical path upwardly and outwardly along the blade to be projected upwardly and outwardly from the end of the blade. Thev velocity of projection is such that substantially all of the snow encountered in each traverse will be hurled not only free of the runway, but distributed over a wide area therebeyond, thusavoiding formation of a windrow. v

In ordinary plowing operations with conventiona1 plows, the plowing operation lis ordinarily started at the center of the road orl runway, and the snow is pushed first to one side and then to the other until the entire area has been cleared, leaving the snow in windrows at opposite sides of the cleared path. According to the present method of operation, the plowing is preferably commenced at the up-wind side of the runway or road to be cleared, andthe plow is operated at aminimum speed of approximately 27 miles'per hour, taking a cut of snow which is not too heavy to permit operation at the -appropriate speed to raise and project such snow downwind beyond the runway and effectV its distribution over a wide area. Arriving at the end of the path to be cleared, the vehicle is turned around, and the angle of the plow is reversed, thereby continuing to throw the snow downwind. As many traverses vare made as may be required to complete the clearing of the runway to the desired. width, throwing all Vof the snow to the downwind side of the runway and so distributing it as to leave no substantial windrow.

I claim: y

1 For connection to a vehicle, a snowplow comp-rising a mouldboard having a rearwardly positioned bracket provided with a bearing surface, a thrust member having a complementary bearing surface and provided with a pintle connecting it upon a substantially horizontal axis ywith the mouldboard near the bottom thereof for relative movement of said bearing surfaces in a vertical plane, a sub-frame having pintle means connecting it upon a substantially upright axis with the thrust member whereby the thrust member and mouldboard can be oscillated unitarily from side to side respecting the sub-frame,

and thrust links pivotally connected with the pintle means and comprising means on Which said tension means may swivelly move respecting the lever.

3. A plow adapted to be mounted at the front of a vehicle having a frame including transverse and upright members at the forward end thereof, said plow comprising the combination of upper and lower links at opposite sides of the frame pivoted to the upright members thereof and projecting forwardly, a sub-frame to which the respective links are pivoted to be guided by said links for upward and downward movement, said sub-frame comprising upper and lower forwardly projecting yokes, a thrust member provided with pintle means on an upright axis connecting it with said yokes near the center line of the vehicle, a mouldboard having a bracket and longitudinal pintle means disposed near the bottom of the thrust member and mouldboard and connecting the mouldboard with the thrust member for oscillation on an axis transverse to said upright axis, the thrust member and mouldboard having means providing bearing surfaces in engagement for a-ccommodating such oscillation, .flanges connected with one of said surfaces `and over-hanging the other for maintaining the mouldboard in a predetermined plane of oscillation, jack means connecting between said frame and the thrust member for regulating the angular position of the thrust member and mouldboard, and a hoist-comprismg va second jack means oper- -atively connected for the lifting of said mouldboard thrust member and sub-frame upon said links.V

4. The combination set forth in claim 3 in which the hoist means comprises a lever provided with a fulcrum disposed centrally behind the mouldboard, said lever projecting toward the mouldboard, `a, coupling connected with the lever in substantial alignment with the axis upon which the thrust member is oscillatable and a `flexible connection 'from the coupling to the mouldboard for the lifting thereof, the second jack means being provided with a fixed support and extending thence to said lever, the location of said lever and coupling being such as to be adapted to lift the mouldboard irrespective of its angular position.

5. In a snowplow applicable to a vehicle frame having laterally spaced horizontal members and laterally spaced luprights, the combination with a mouldboard and means for adjustably connecting it with said frame comprising upper and lower -links pivotally connected with the laterally spaced uprights, a sub-frame having uprights with which the respective links are pivotally connected for guiding the subframe for movement upwardly and downwardly, yokes connected with the uprights of the sub-frame and extending forwardly and laterally therebetween, sai'd yokes extending around in front of the frame first mentioned, a thrust member pivoted between .said yokes for oscillation upon a substantially upright axis and disposed directly in front of 'the center of the frame iirst mentioned, and a longitudinal horizontal pintle projecting for-l wardly from said thrust member and upon which said mouldboard is oscillatably mounted.

6. The combination set forth in claim in which the thrust member and mouldboard are provided with complementary bearing pads, certain of said pads remote from `said last mentioned pintle having projecting margins and others of said pads having flanges interlocked about 'said margins whereby to denne a predetermined plane of oscillation of the mouldboard upon said last mentioned pintle.

7. The combination set forth in claim 5 in further combination with a transverse support between the uprights of the sub-frame, a jack cylinder pivoted upon said support for lateral oscillation in a horizontal plane, and a piston rod projecting from the cylinder and operatively connec-ted with the thrust member for the oscillation thereof.

8. A snow plow adapted to be mounted at the front 'of a. high speed vehicle having a frame, said snow plow comprising the combination with a mouldboard having a mounting bracket on its rear surface, of a thrust member in thrust relation to said bracket, said thrust member being provided with a vertical pivot connected to the vehicle frame .for articulation of the thrust member and mouldboard in a horizontal plane and a horizontal pivot connected to the mouldboard mounting bracket and upon which the mouldboard is pivotally mounted for articulation of the vmouldboard independently of the thrust member in a, vertical plane, and casters lconnected to the mouldboard at opposite sides of saidV horizontal pivot whereby to articulate the f mouldboard independently of the thrust member about ksaid `horizontal pivot in response to ground irregularities.

9. The deviceA of claim 8 in which said vehicle frame comprises parallelogram links pivotally connected to said vehicle `for movement in a vertical plane, and means for fixing the position of said links whereby to ladjust the height of the mouldboard respecting the ground.


References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,345,438 Fricker July 6, 1'92'0 1,592,304 Keyes July 13, 1926 1,656,613 Walter Jan. 17, 1928 1,671,836 Munson May 29, 1928 1,882,945 Ross Oct. 18, 1932 1,957,771 Gettelman May 8, 1934 1,964,617 Bird June 26, 1934 2,011,777 Ritchie Aug. 20, 1935 2,057,326 Coates Oct. 13, 1936 2,085,996 Phillips July 6, 193'? 2,692,990 Southwi-ck Sept. l14, 1937 2,193,532 Frink Mar. 12, 1940 2,242,826 Keeler May 20, 1941 2,302,516 Ball Nov. 17, 1942 2,317,680v Fitzpatrick Apr. 27, 1943 2,403,219 I-Iansom et al. July 2, 1946 2,420,591 Frame et al. May 13, 1947 2,426,410 Owen Aug. 26, 1947

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2753638 *Nov 5, 1951Jul 10, 1956Bucyrus Erie CoAdjustable bulldozer
US2778126 *Jun 8, 1953Jan 22, 1957Four Wheel Drive Auto CompanyPlow apparatus for high speed snow removal without windrowing
US2869254 *Apr 29, 1954Jan 20, 1959Root Spring Scraper CompanySnow plow mount for a radially swingable snow plow
US3010230 *Jul 12, 1956Nov 28, 1961Willard Zubko PeterSteerable one way snow plow
US3012345 *Apr 29, 1960Dec 12, 1961Wausau Iron WorksSnow plow
US3226860 *Apr 2, 1962Jan 4, 1966Mcgee Leland TScraper blade mount for tractors
US3233350 *Oct 24, 1963Feb 8, 1966Charles Machine WorksQuick detachable backfill blade for trencher
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US3762077 *Aug 10, 1971Oct 2, 1973Eastern Steel Products LtdSnowplow blade
US4127951 *Jun 30, 1977Dec 5, 1978Hatch Richard WAutomatic coupling mechanism for snow-plows and the like
U.S. Classification37/236, 37/271, 172/819, 172/447, 172/832, 280/481, 37/283, 37/232
International ClassificationE01H5/04, E01H5/06
Cooperative ClassificationE01H5/06
European ClassificationE01H5/06