US 2651441 A
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' S P 8, 1953 R. s. RAU ETAL CARRIER FOR PLATE-FORM B UILDING MATERIAL '2 sneet-sheei 1 Filed April 11, 1950 Sept. 8, RAU r v V I'CARRIER FOR PLATE-FORM BUILDING MATERIAL 1 Filed April 11, 1950 2 Sheets-sheaf 2 Patented Sept. 8, 1953 CARRIER FOR PLATE-FORM BUILDING A MATERIAL Robert S. Rau, Fanwood; and Winfield Rau; Chatham, N. J assignors to Atlantic Builders Supply Corp., Chatham, N. J a corporation of New Jersey Application April 11, 1950, Serial No. 155,186
The invention relates in general to article carriers and has particular reference to those carriers that are body-supported by persons serving asbearers.
The primary object of the invention is to provide a carrier that is especially adapted for use by each one of a pair of bearers in carrying the opposite ends of a load composed of long and wide plates of building material such as wallb'oard, plate-glass, and the like.
Gypsum wall-board material is becoming increasingly popular in the construction of intenorw'ans of buildings but its use has met with serious transportation difficulties due to the large surface area and Weight of each board. For instance, a standard stock size of gypsum wallboard is four feet wide by twelve feet long, weighing about one hundred pounds. The facilities for transportation from factory through distributor to building site has been satisfactory, but, prior to the present invention, the relatively short carry at a building site from the delivery truck tothe' interior of a partially constructed building has been attended with great hardship for the bearers and danger to the material being carried. At'a typical building site, the following-conditions usually are'encountered: (1) the ground surrounding the building is un-sodded, piled with dirt from the cellar excavation, and is too soft to permit the truck to approach nearer than the road, particularly in rainy weather; ('2) porches andoutside steps have not been constrficted soentrance must be by way of a board ramp usually laid at the opposite side of the building from the road and thus increasing the distance of the carry, and (3) at least part of the material has to be delivered to upstairs rooms. As compared to the distance from factory to building site, the length of carry at the site is short but not sufficiently so to permit handcarrying with ease and safety.
- The reason for this is that large area wallboards can be grasped only at the edges, so cannot be hand-borne in this manner over the dis tance required without great discomfort and danger of 'being dropped through excessive finger fatigue, particularly on a windy day when the boards become veritable sails that try to tear loose from the bearers grasp. These difiiculties have been aggravated by the practical necessity for uniting more than one board in flat-sided contact to form a load unit. The necessity resides in'the fact that two bearers are required to carry even a single board, due to its unwieldiness, although its weight could easily be carried by one'man, so manpower must be conserved by 1 Claim. (Cl. 2245) 2 building up a unit load of maximum practicable weight. Incidentally, in order to facilitate handling'all along the line after leaving the factory, the two or more component boards of a unit load are packaged by binding the end edges with ad- I hesive tape extending lengthwise thereof.
Specifically, the primary object of the invention has been accomplished by providing a special carrier which includes a saddle upon which the bottom edge of the load may be rested, together with body-supported suspension harness, so constructed and arranged that the saddle will hang alongside the thigh of one of the bearers legswith the load leaning against the corresponding shoulder, in which position the load may be hand-grasped above the center of gravity quite conveniently to prevent outward toppling.
A further object of the invention is to provide saddle suspension harness that applies the Weight of the load to both shoulders of the bearer in as nearly evenly distributed a manner as is practicable considering the flank location of the saddle; To be more explicit, the saddle suspension harness consists primarily of a pair of shouldersupport'ed slings whose lower extremities converge upon a hip-level concentration member which bears the load of the saddle through the medium of secondary suspension means. Another object is to provide simple and readily adjustable means for retaining the slings of the primary suspension means in secure shoulder engagement' even under conditions requiring the lowering of one shoulder beneath the level of the other, such as might otherwise cause the corresponding sling to slip off the shoulder.
A still further object is the provision of a carrier of this kind wherein the saddle is capable of quick detachment from the secondary suspension means of the harness while a load is being car'ried under conditions that make such action desirable. For example, the bearers may be stopped by a temporary obstruction to their pro'gress. If the delay becomes unendurable due to the weight of the load, it is possible to lower their carrier saddles to the ground by kneeling and then detach the saddles from the suspension means. They thereby will be permitted to reassume erect positions and stand comfortably with their hands steadying the load until the obstruction has been removed. During this interval, the load will be resting evenly upon the grounded saddles and thus protected from being marred by gravel or being soiled by contact with mud. When ready to resume the carry, the saddles are harness-enga ed again inobvious manner. v
Other objects and advantages will become apparent as the following specific description is read in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which:
Fig. 1 is a fragmentary perspective view showing the special carrier in use by a bearer at the front end of a load of wall-board; Fig. 2 is a perspective view of the carrier alone, showing the retainer strap in tightly adjusted position in solid lines and in loosened condition in broken lines; and Fig. 3 is a large-scale fragmentary front elevation of a load-engaged saddle when grounded and detached from the secondary suspension means.
Fig. 4 is a large-scale perspective view of a modified form of saddle.
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary large-scale perspective view of a saddle and the secondary suspension means therefor, showing an alternative arrangement of the hook and eye connection therebetween.
Fig. 6 is a transverse section of one of the shoulder pads.
Referring in detail to the drawings, in which like reference characters designate corresponding parts in the several views, it will be observed that my special carrier permits a load L of wall-board, or other plate-form building material of large surface area to be carried by bearer B and a team-mate in the comfortable, well-balanced and secure side-borne manner illustrated in Fig. 1. V
For clearness in description of the relation of various parts of the carrier to the associated parts of the bearers anatomy, the side of the bearer that is adjacent to the load being transported hereinafter will be termed the near side and the side away from the load will be known as the off side, regardless of whether the load is carried against the right side of the body or the left side. For example, in the carrying arrangement illustrated in Fig. 1, the bearers right shoulder ishis near shoulder and his left shoulder is the off shoulder. It seems desirable to make this distinction in the terminology because,
under changing conditions of practical use and not due to right-handedness or left-handedness, it frequently becomes necessary to re-arrange the carriers of both bearers so that the load will be borne on one side to meet one controlling coni dition and on the opposite side under different circumstances. The changing conditions alluded to will be explained more fully hereinafter when describing the operational use of the invention.
The load-engaging means of the carrier preferably takes the form of a saddle II! that is shoulder-supported in thigh flank position by a body harness II composed of cooperative primary and secondary suspension means I2 and I2, respectively. Saddle It may be made of heavy sheet metal in order to afford large area bearing surfaces for even load contact and also for comfortable contact with the bearers near leg. In either of the three illustrative embodiments, saddle II! has the same general form and comprises a vertical side :plate I3, a load-seating ledge I4 projecting laterally outward from the base of side plate I3, and an attaching member at the upper edge of the side plate I3 for quick-release engagement with the secondary suspension means l2 of harness II. Load-seating ledge I4 preferably has an upwardly inclined retaining rim I5 to guide the load into its seated position and to prevent it from slipping off the ledge in transit. The width of ledge I4 may be varied to suit the contemplated thickness of unit loads to be accommodated.
The attaching member may take the form of a hook l6, as in Figs. 1 to 4, for detachable engagement with the ring-type attaching member ll of secondary suspension means I2, or the alternative form of an eye I8, as in Fig. 5, for engagement with a hook I9 provided on the secondary suspension means in lieu of ring I1. Furthermore, the hook or eye for saddle II] (whichever is used) may either be formed as an integral part of side plate I3, as shown in Figs. 1 to 3, or may be made separately from heavy wire and then aflixed to side plate E3 in any suitable manner as by welding. (Fig. 4.)
Primary suspension means I2 of harness II comprises a pair of mutually cooperative slings 20 and 2! for hanging engagement with the near and off shoulders, respectively, of the bearer. Both slings preferably are inthe form of looped straps that converge downwardly into substantial meeting relation in a position alongside the bearers near hip, where they are threaded through a preferably ring-form concentration member 22. For a purpose which will be described later, sling 28 should be free-running in its threaded engagement with concentration ring 22, whereas it is preferred to fixedly stitch the bottom loop of sling 2i, as at 23, to prevent linear displacement. 1
In order to permit adjustment of the effective lengths of slings 20 and 2| of primary suspension means I2 to accommodate the same to bearers of different body measurements, the said slings should not be endless loops, but, instead, should have overlapping end portions connected by buckles 24 and 25, or other suitable fastening means. For convenience of adjustment while the harness is being worn, the fastening means should be located in front of the body. It is preferred to make concentration member 22 rectangular in shape to prevent binding and thus facilitate free slipping of near sling 20 through the same when desired.
For comfort, shoulder pads 26 may be provided on slings 2B and 2! for direct shoulder contact. Each of these shoulder pads should be exteriorly smooth to reduce the friction of sling adjustment, particularlyin the case of free-running sling 20, but should be interiorly lined with sponge rubber or the like, as at 21 (Fig. 6), primarily for padding purposes but also to prevent shoulder slippage of the pads themselves. Keepers 28 should be provided exteriorly on shoulder pads 26 for retaining engagement with slings 20 and ZI, but should be loosely fitting with respect to said slings so as not to ofier material resistance to sliding adjustment of the latter.
The secondary suspension means I2 of harness I l is intended to permit height adjustment of saddle I0, so preferably is in the form of a strap 29 that is threaded through concentration member 22 and ring I! of the saddle attaching means. An adjusting fastener 30 is provided on strap 29 to permit the desired regulation of its effective length. By giving strap 29 two or more turns, or convolutions, in its engagement with concentration member 22 and ring I'I, so much friction will be produced between overlapping surfaces that a tongueless friction or clamping type fastener may be used. Such a fastener will permit large degree or minute adjustments to be made with ease, even while a load is seated in the saddle.
In some body postures during transportation of'a load, such as when the off arm is raised in grasping and steadying the upper portion of the load, the near shoulder may become depressed below the level of the off shoulder. In order to prevent the near shoulder sling 20 from slipping off the shoulder under such circumstances, retaining means has been provided. This means is in the form of a two-piece retainer strap 3|, whose outer ends are joined to the front and rear reaches of sling 20 and which is adapted to encircle sling 2 I. The overlapping inner end portions of retainer strap 3| are adjustably united by fastening means, such as buckle 32, in order that its effective length may be accommodated to the chest measurement of each individual bearer. The outer ends of retainer strap 3| are joined to the respective reaches of sling 20 preferably by sliding loops 33 which fit said strap with such a degree of snugness that the strap ends may be adjusted lengthwise on the sling without difficulty but will retain their set positions under normal loadcarrying conditions, due to friction. The reason for this feature will appear as the following description of the operational use of the carrier progresses.
The manner in which the carrier is worn by a load bearer will be discussed first, It must fit the individual properly in order to be comfortable and must support that bearers end of each load at the same height above the ground as the other end. When the two bearers of a team differ greatly in stature, adjustments of their respective harnesses for saddle height must be carefully coordinated. For that reason, it is customary to team together men of substantially equal stature and to avoid changes in team as signment.
As shown in Fig. 1, off sling 2! encompasses the bearers body, whereas near sling 20 is looped around the near shoulder alone and hangs straight down. Therefore, in donning the harness, after retainer strap 3| has been parted by unfastening buckle 25, the harness is held in front of the body by grasping the shoulder pads of slings 20 and 2| respectively with the near and off hands and then is lifted until sling 2| can be lowered over the head. When the shoulder pad of sling 2| has come to rest upon the off shoulder, the off hand is changed into engagement with the shoulder pad of sling 20 and a the near hand is freed for insertion through sling 2| first and then sling 20. The shoulder pad of sling 20 islowered onto the near shoulderand both shoulder pads are adjusted into comfortable, well-balaneed positions on the shoulders. Thereafter, slings 20 and 2 I are adjusted in length by means of buckles 24 and 25 to effect uniform distribution of weight on both shoulders and to bring concentration member 22 into proper hipbearing position, and stra 29 of secondary suspension means I2 is adjusted in effective length to locate ring I! at the same level as the corresponding part of the other bearers harness and thereby insure properly coordinated saddle suspension for both bearers of the team. Finally, retainer strap 31 is buckled up and adjusted in length so as to embrace the bearers chest with comfortable looseness while at the same time tending to maintain the shoulder pads of both suspension slings in proper positions on the shoulders. The retainer strap may be in the substantially horizontal position represented in broken lines in Fig. 2 at first. If, later on while a load is being carried, it is found that the near shoulder pad is slipping off the shoulder, all the bearer has todo in order to tighten the embrace of retainer strap 3| and thereby draw the shoulder pad back into proper position is to grasp the front reach of sling 2B, preferably'including loop 33 of retainer strap 3| in the grasp, and
pull downward. This motion will cause the rear- Actual use of the carrier at a building site must be preceded by an accurate though rapid survey of certain conditions that have an important bearing on the manner in which the harnesses will beworn, i. e. whether on the right side or on the left side of the body. First, it must be determined just where the entire truck load of wallboard is to be deposited upon arrival inside the building, Usually, the material is not delivered until the carpenters are ready to apply the boards to the wall studding. At that time, they will know how many unit loads are required for each room and just what wall in that room is preferred as a leaning-rest for its respective pro portion of the total truck load. Of course, the carpenters decision as to the leaning-rest wall may be influenced by a recommendation of the load bearers that will permit carrying of 'all room-assigned parts of the truck load on the same side of the body so as to avoid harness rearrangement. For example, supposing that the carpenters have designated a wall at the left side of the hall doorway of a particular room as the leaning-rest for the wall-board to be used therein, it usually will be necessary to carry each 1 load on the left side of the body so that it may: be carried straight in and along the designatedwall with little or no warping. This is import ant because it usually is impracticable to walkv around a room of ordinary size with a' twelve foot long load of wall-board, particularly when there are sawhorses or other obstructions, in
order to maneuver the load into a position parallel to the designated wall and with the bearerson the side away therefrom.
day, the precise wind direction may be a con-v trolling factor. Naturally, if the carrying course from truck to building entrance is cross-wind, the bearers should carry their loads on the windward side of their bodies if possible. For that reason, the designation of leaning-rest walls should conform, whenever possible, to the manner in which the loads should be carried to afford protection against the upsetting force of the Wind during the outdoors leg of the carry. In instances wherein the inside arrangements are inconsistent with the wind direction factor and cannot be modified, particularly when the wind velocity is very high, it may become necessary to reverse the carriers twice for each load, 1. e. before commencing the outdoors leg to get the load into the wind and then inside the building entrance so as to arrange for appropriate room entrance in relation to the location of the designated leaning-rest wall. In this latter contingency, a couple of blocks of wood, such as 2" x 4" scraps, should be laid on the floor just insidethe entrance doorway, about ten feet apart and parallel to each other as a temporary support for each load during harness change-over. In this instance, the bottom edge of the load is placed in direct contact with the Supporting blocks, so that the carrier saddles will be free for lateral disengagement from the load, in which movement the seating ledges thereof may be withdrawn through the space between the load and the floor created by the interposed blocks.
It should be stated that supporting blocks are laid in similar manner on the floor of each room in abutting relation to the designated leaningrest wall, so as to facilitate unloading.
Loading of the carriers for transportation of a wall-board unit load in the manner depicted in Fig. 1 also is a two-man job, so the team of two bearers is sufiicient for the truck haul from distribution warehouse to building site and all handling upon arrival atthe latter.
The wall-board unit loads are loaded on the truck in lengthwise extending arrangement, so the bearers slide each successive unit load off the truck and lower it into seated position on their carrier saddles while standing in tandem relation. Then, the leading bearer grasps the front edge of the load with his off hand as high as practicable without causing his arm to obstruct forward vision. Under some circumstances, as when the wind velocity is high, he may also extend his near hand forwardly between the load and his body in order to grasp the front edge of the load just above the saddle. When the oil hand alone is actively used for load grasping,
it is customary to allow the near arm to dangle idly behind the near hip. The trailing bearer either grasps the rear edge of the load with his near hand, or hooks his corresponding elbow around said edge. By using the elbow-hook methocLthe trailing bearer, as well as the leader, is enabled to engage the load above the center of gravity with his hand, whereby any tendency of the load to topple side-ways may be counteracted effectively. By having a choice of loadsteadying methods, the trailing bearer may change methods in transit and thereby obtain relief from the strain of prolonged holding in one position of hand or arm, and, he is entitled to this relief because he is subjected to greater muscular strain than the leader when climbing stairs in the building.
Since it is becoming the practice to increase the size of the largest wall-boards and to add to the number that are bound together in each unit load, the need for a practical carrier is more urgent than ever,
Having thus described the invention, we claim:
A shoulder-suspended carrier for plate-form building material adapted to be used by one of a pair of bearers to support one end of a heavy load in an upright plane leaning against the near side of the bearers bodies with the bottom edge of the load substantially knee-high, whereby each bearer will have hands free for grasping the end and top edges of the load to steady the same, said carrier comprising: a body harness including a pair of mutually cooperative primary suspension slings of loop form, one of said slings being adapted to embrace and hang directly downward from the bearers near shoulder and the other sling being adapted to embrace the bearers off shoulder and body and to extend diagonally across the body to a point of convergence with the first-mentioned sling alongside the near hip flank; a concentration member of ring form fixedly connected to and supported by said diagonal ofi shoulder suspension sling at the point of convergence of both slings and having said near shoulder suspension sling threaded therethrough for free sliding adjustment; a retainer strap to prevent said near shoulder suspension sling from slipping oif the shoulder, said retainer strap having its opposite ends engaged respectively with the front and rear reaches of said near shoulder suspension sling and being adapted to extend around the off side of the bearers body, whereby the retainer strap may be tightened and loosened in its body embracing grip by lengthwise manual adjustment of said near shoulder suspension sling through the con centration ring; and load-engaging means supported by the concentration member.
ROBERT S. RAU. WINFIEL'D RAU.
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