|Publication number||US2652713 A|
|Publication date||Sep 22, 1953|
|Filing date||May 31, 1947|
|Priority date||May 31, 1947|
|Publication number||US 2652713 A, US 2652713A, US-A-2652713, US2652713 A, US2652713A|
|Inventors||Senglar John J|
|Original Assignee||Senglar John J|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (11), Referenced by (12), Classifications (14)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Sept. 22, 1953 J. J. SENGLAR STRUCTURAL SECTION 6 Sheets-Shea?I l Filed May 31, 1947 gravin u J M m. w d M H ma w w. m I f l w JNVENTOR. JOHN J sE/VGL AA? A 7' TORNEYS Sept 22, 1953 J. J. sl-:NGLAR 2,652,713
STRUCTURAL SECTION Filed May 51, 1947 6 SheeZS-Sheel'J 2 3 M la zo/ 69 J sab /26 (124 /lo 13a /2 3 /3/ /A j g j ,0 /961251' /o /2/ /50 /52 38 mmvron JOHN J SENGLAR A T TORNEVS Sept. 22, 1953 J. J. SENGLAR STRUCTURAL SECTION 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed May 3l, 1947 INVENTOR. JOHN J SENGLAR BY //M' ATTORNEYS Sept. 22, 1953 J. J. SENGLAR STRUCTURAL SECTION 6 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed May 3l, 1947 IIII'I'II'II'IIIIIIIIIVIIHIIIILlW-l lill! INVENTOR. JOHN J. SEWGLAR ATTORNEYS SePt- 22, 1953 J. J. SENGLAR 2,652,713
STRUCTURAL SECTION Filed May 5l, 1947 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 224g A TTORNYS 6 Sheets-Sheet 6 INVENTOR. JOHN J. SENGLAR BY v A TZORNEYS Spt. 22, 1953 J. J. SENGLAR STRUCTURAL SECTION Filed May 3l, 1947 y wim x ,.X.. w Wifi@ Patented Sept. 22, 1953 UNITED STATES OFFICE STRUCTURAL SECTION John J. Senglar, Los Angeles, Calif.
Application May 31, 1947, Serial No. 751,565
(Cl. 'i2-46) 3 Claims. 1
This invention relates to building construction and has for its principal object to provide structural building members and assemblies which are economical, strong and easy to fabricate and assemble.
It has, heretofore, been proposed to provide prefabricated structural members, such as walls, oors, roofs, struts, etc., or parts thereof which are adapted to be assembled to form buildings and similar constructions of desired sizes and shapes. Such a building method has the advantage of reduced costs through benefit of mass production of the structural members and the additional advantage of rapidity of assembly of the building. Such prefabrication techniques are presently limited, however, in their acceptance by an inherent inflexibility of design, flimsy construction, disproportionate costs or a combination of these factors.
The present invention therefore, has as an obd ject the provision of a sectionalized building unit and auxiliary equipment which is relatively inexpensive to manufacture, simple to assemble and adaptable to the construction of sturdy buildings of substantially any design.
The above contemplated object is accomplished in the present invention by 'the provision of a basic unit or wall segment joinable directly to a pre-poured foundation together with modified segments for forming corners, door jambs, window sills and the like. Each of these segments in the preferred embodiment of the invention comprises a metal framework substantially encased with concrete and filled with suitable insulating material. Means are provided which may form a part of the framework of the segment itself for linking these various sections to each other in any desired combination. By these means the building of substantially any desired size or shape may be constructed with the wall units of the invention. The units or segments are adapted to be affixed to conventional foundations by means as hereinafter set forth and to y support any desired type of roofing structure so as to be suitable in any style of construction.
The foregoing and other features of my inven tion will be better understood from the following detailed description and the accompanying drawing of which:
Fig. 1 is a partial elevation view of a wall constructed from the units of the invention;
Fig. la is a cross section View taken at line la-Ia of Fig. 1, showing details of construction of insulation bats in concrete;
Fig. 2 is a plan view o n the line 2- 2 of Fig. l;
Fig. 3 is an enlarged plan view of the section 3--3 of Fig. 2;
Fig. 4 is an enlarged plan View of the section 4-4 of Fig. 2;
Fig. 5 is an enlarged plan view of the section 5-5 of Fig. 2;
Fig. 6 is a plan view of that portion shown in Fig. 4 illustrating various modifications thereof;
Fig. 7 is an enlarged plan view, partially in section of the section 1 1 of Fig. 2;
Fig. 8 is a sectional elevation on the line 8--8 of Fig. l;
Fig. 9 is a sectional plan View on the line 9--9 of Fig. 1;
Fig. 10 is an enlarged view of the hinge mount shown in Fig. 9;
Fig. 11 is an end elevation partly in section of one of the assembled units of the invention;
Fig. 12 is a sectional elevation on the line I2-l 2 of Fig. 11;
Fig. 13 is a sectional elevation on the line I3-I`3 of Fig. l1;
Fig. 14 is an elevation view of a section of the spline used to link the units to each other;
Fig. 15 is a section plan View of the spline taken on the line I5-l5 of Fig. 14;
Fig. 16 is an isometric View of the internal framework of the wall segment of the invention.
Fig. 17 is an enlarged plan View of one of the spline plates shown on the framework of Fig. 16;
Fig. 18 is a side elevation of the spline plate of Fig. 17;
Fig. 19 is a side elevation of one of the strut members shown in the framework of Fig. 16;
Fig. 20 is a plan View ofthe mold member which I may employ to form the segments;
Fig. 2l is a sectional elevation on the line '2i-2i of Fig. 20;
Fig. 22 is a detailed View of the key 224 of Fig. 2l;
Fig. 23 is a detailed view of the wedge 226 of Fig. 21;
Fig. 24 is a section taken on the line 24--24 of Fig. 1;
Fig. 25 is a section taken on the line 25-25 of Fig. 1; and
Fig. 26 is a sectional plan view of the means of linking a partition to an outside wall.
The structural wall members as shown in Fig. 1 include the plain section lil, the window section H and the door section i2, each of which are hereinafter described. In the wall section of Fig. l, the plain section, the window section and the door section are joined to each other as being illustrative of such a combination, however, the
sections may be aixed in any desired combination and there may be any number of repetitions of the same section in a given wall. At the left hand end of the plain or blank section lil there is shown a section I4 projecting at right angles from the section lll forming a corner in the wall I6.
These units comprise a metal framework as for example, the type shown in Fig. 16, hereinafter described, in which is encased suitable in" sulating material such as a plurality of insulating bats, two of which are identified as i8 and i5, and are shown in the cutaway portion of Fig. 1. Completing the framework, with the exceptions hereinafter noted, is a layer of concrete which, in the embodiment described, forms a covering for the framework and for the insulating bats and a filling between the bats. Thus in the cutaway portion of Fig. 1 it is seen that the concrete 20 surrounds the insulating bats I8 and i9. This type of construction is evidenced from the sectional elevation of the member i4 in Fig. 1 wherein there is seen three separating insulating bats 22, 23 and 24 encased in the concrete 26 in which is imbedded the longitudinal members 21, 28, 29, etc., of the metal framework.
The details of construction and assembly as set forth in Figs. 2 through 15 may be more clearly understood after the description of the framework and skeleton of one of the wall segments as shown in Figs. 16 through 19.
Fig. 16 is an isometric view of the structural skeleton of a blank segment such as the Segment i6. The framework consists of the four metallic U-bars 32, 33, 34 and 35 tied together in equally spaced relationship by the longitudinal stays, or rods, 31, 36, 39, 40, etc. rIhese U- bars comprise the two parallel vertical legs, as shown, joined at the top by the base of the U. The term bar member as used herein denotes the structural member having these two legs, and the term U-bar refers to the bar member with the two legs joined by the base of the U. The stays are affixed to the intermediate U-bars 33 and 34 by the struts 42, 43, 44, 45, etc., which clamp to the stays and which are grooved to ride in the longitudinal U-bars. The stays 31, 38, 39, 49, etc., are anchored at one end of the section by the spline plates 48, 49, 59 and 5i and at the other end by similar spline plates as shown, and thus vserve to space the U-bars 32, 33', 34, 35, at equal distances along the horizontal, longitudinal axis of the skeleton.
The spline plates 46, 49, etc., are of importance in furnishing the means whereby the individual wall units are interlocked with each other. Such a spline plate is shown in an enlarged plan view in Fig. 1'1 and in side elevation in Fig. 18. The plate such as the plate 48 is provided with the opposite slots 54 and 55 which nt on the two legs of one of the U-bars such as the U-bar 32, and the slots 56 and 51 which provide means for anchoring the `stays such as the stays 31 and 36. The plate 43 is also provided with the keyway 66 which is adapted to engage means as hereinafter described for interlocking two sections to each other. In the side elevation of Fig. 18 wherein the slots 55 and 51 may be seen, the rear tabs 62 and 63 are shown to be bent downward at right angles from the main body of the plate. These tabs 62 and 63 serve as cleats to anchor the spline plate in the cement in the manner hereinafter described.
The struts 42, 43, 44, etc., like. the spline plates,
may be punched by mass production techniques from sheet metal. A strut, such as the strut 42, is shown in side elevation in Fig. 19. The struts, like the spline plates are provided with end grooves 64 and 65 to engage the two legs of the U-bars such as the U-bar 33. The strut is further provided with the two longitudinally disposed slots 66 and 61 formed by punching the tabs 68 and 69 from the strut along the longitudinal axis thereof. Tabs 68 and 69 are then employed to clamp around the longitudinal stays 31 and 38.
The slots in the struts and spline plates which accommodate the stays and the U-bars are conviently punched so as to retain projecting ears which are bent out of the way in the punching operation as shown for example on the spline plate 49 of Fig. 16. After assembly of the skeleton these ears are peoned around the stay or U- bar as shown in Figs. 2, 3 and 4 to provide additional strength. Although these ears are a desirable feature they are not a necessary element of the invention.
To fabricate a wall section the skeleton such as shown in Fig. 16 is placed in a mold such as the mold shown in Figs. 20 and 21 and as hereinafter described, so that side faces of the skeleton will be on a horizontal plane. A layer of concrete is then introduced into the mold so as to partially immerse one side of the skeleton and a plurality of insulating bats are placed in each of the rectangular sections formed by the stays and the U-bars of the skeleton. Additional cement is then added to complete the encasement of the skeleton and to fill the spaces between the insulation with the cement. Means are provided in the fabricating process to prevent the cement, when added, from filling the key-ways in the spline plates so that these keyways may be used to join the individual sections to each other in the manner hereinafter described.
In Fig. 2, which is a plan view on the line 2-2 of Fig. l, means of joining two segments to each other in axial relationship as well as in right angle relationship are shown. The unit I9 is provided as shown in Fig. 16, with a plurality of spline plates such as the spline plate 48 and the spline plate 10 projecting in the horizontal plane from the vertical end of the segments. The segment Il is joined to the segment l0 as shown in Fig. 2 and in the enlarged plan view of Fig. 4 by means of the spline 12 projecting through the key ways provided in the spline plate 1U of the segment I0 and the spline plate 14 of the segment Il and through similar keyways in each of the spline plates projecting from the end faces of the segments I0 and Il. (In the manner shown in Fig. 16.) An important feature of the invention resides in the manner of joining the individual units together without requiring the use of bolts, welding, wiring or other expensive and time consuming means.
To form a corner as shown in Fig. 2 a corner section is provided which comprises the three vertical rods 16, 11 and 18 upon which are mounted a plurality of spline plates such as the plate Se which are of somewhat different conguration than the spline plates forming a part of the fiat sections. The skeleton framework of the corner member 82 is encased in concrete in a suitable mold. The spline plate such as the plate 8U is provided with a pair of key-ways 84 and 35 as more clearly shown in Fig. 3. Thus,
- the wall segment I may be joined at right angles to a segment 26 by means of the corner segment "82 Aby the use of the splines `S8 and 89 joining the spline plates of the corner segment 82 to the spline plates of the segments Ill and 86.
InYFig. there is shown in detail a plan view of a portion of the wall segment |il as is shown in Fig. 2. In Fig. 5 there can be seen the longitudinal stays 3l and 38 and the legs 33a and 33h of the U-bar 33 as shown in Fig. 14. The strut 42 affixed to the legs 33a and 33h clamps the longitudinal stays 3l and 38 to the U-bar 33 by means ofthe tabs 68 and 6s which are adapted to be crimped over the stays 3l and 38 in the manner shown in Fig. 16. To illustrate the placement of the insulating bats in relation to the framework and the concrete facing, two of such bats are shown in dotted lines and are indicated as the bats 9D and 9 I Fig. 6 is a plan view of the juncture of two Wall segments similar to that shown in Fig. 4, but including additional features which may be employed. Thus, as shown in Fig. 4 when two of these segments are interlocked to each other by means of a spline such as the spline i2 passing through the key-ways in the spline plates 'lil and 'I4 and the companion plates disposed along the vertical ends of the segments l0 and a small space separates the concrete surfaces thereof from each other. In Fig. 4 this space was shown to be filled with mortar or the like inserted after assembly of the segments |9 and so as to exhibit a smooth walled surface. An additional means of closing this space is by the use of a molding shown in sectional plan View in Fig. 6 as the molding 94 which is a continuous strip provided with a plurality of clips such as the clip 96 which is adapted to be inserted in the space to hold the molding 94 against the surfaces of the segments it and The clip 94 comprises the body member Sita which is adapted to clip into the semi-circular indentations formed in the concrete in the processes of molding as hereinafter described. Such semicircular indentations are shown in Fig. 6 at the opposite side of the segments from the molding 94 and are identified as S8 and 99. These indentations serve not only as a means of holding a molding such as the molding 94 but also as a key-way for the mortar between the sections. Alternatively if it is desired to erect a structure which may be readily taken down the mortar between the sections is omitted and the semicircular indentations may be used for holding a caulking cord.
In Fig. 7 there is shown a partially cut away plan View of the section 1 of Fig. 2 illustrating the detail of the wiring conduit I provided in each of the wall segments. In Fig. 7 there is again shown the longitudinal stays 3l and 38,
the cement casing 2i) and, in the cutaway portion, the insulating bat 90. In forming the wall segment I0 in the manner hereinafter described the insulating bat Si) and the corresponding insulating bats lying in Vertical relationship to the bat 9G are provided with a wiring chase |02 which is, at the time of molding, covered by a sheet |133 to prevent the migration of concrete into the chase |02. Connected between the wiring chases in each of the bats such as the bat 9i! there is provided a small conduit section such as the section ma shown in Fig. '7 which acts as a communication through the concrete, which lls the spaces between the bats, between the successive wiring chases in each of the insulating bats. There is thus provided from the top to the bottom of the wall segments a wiring conduit |00 formed from the Wiring chases in each of the insulating bats and vertically disposed in `relation to each other and pipe segments communicating between the wiring chases in each of the bats. As shown in Fig. 6 the pipe segment |96 which would be the next successive pipe segment to the segment |05 as shown in Fig. 7 is attened on one face so as to pass the stay 38. In the same manner the pipe segment |05 will be attened on one face to pass by the stay which lies directly beneath the stay 38 as shown in Fig. 14. The pipe segment |95 is shown in the partially cut-away elevation view of Fig. 11. In the prevferred form as shown in Fig. 11 the pipe segment extends into the chases in the adjoining insulating bats to aid in attaining proper alignment and `is notched at |01 to it around the stay 36 rather 'than flattened as was shown in respect to the ;tion taken on the line 8 8 of Fig. 1; Fig. 9 is a sectional plan view taken on the line 9 9 of Fig. 1 and Fig. 10 is a section taken o n the line lil-I0 of Fig. 9. In Fig. 8, the wall segment l2 is 'shown supported on the foundation |538. The
means of anchoring this and the other Wall segments to the foundation is described with relation to Figs. 11 and 13. As shown in Fig. 1 the wall segment I2 is shaped so as to accommodate a door which may be hinged thereto in any con.-
ventional manner by construction of a door frame in association with the wall section.
In a preferred form of the invention the opening provided in the wall section I2 is shaped in the form of a door frame and conventional door stops are mounted by aiixing the same to metal plates which are imbedded in the concrete of the wall section itself and which are tapped to permit the reception of screws therein. rlhus in Fig. 8, the door stop is mounted directly v to the inside edges of the Wall section I2 as shown at l.r The door H3 is hinged to the Wall edge in a similar manner, i. e. the hinge is aixed directly to a tapped plate imbedded in the concrete of the Wall segment i2. This construction is apparent from Fig. 9 which is a sectional plan view on the line 5 9 of Fig. 1.
In Fig. 9 the construction of the wall segment l2 is shown including the longitudinal stays |2 arid |21 anchored to the spline plates |22 and |23 and the longitudinal stays 125i and |25 eX- tending from the spline plate |26 to the next spline plate or to a strut as shown in Fig. 14.
The door stops |||l are screwed to the inner edges of the Wall I2 by means of the screws |30 and |3| for example, projecting into the plates |52 vand |33 which are formed by bending a flat piece of metal in a U shape and bending the tips of the legs of the U toward each other so as to provide means for anchoring the plate in concrete.
In a similar manner the plate |35 is anchored in the concrete and provides means for afixing the hinge |38 to the inside edge of the wall segment |2 and thus to mount the door IIB to the Wall. The construction of one form of plate i which may be employed as the anchoring means is shown in Fig. 10 Which is a section on the line |-|0 of Fig. 9. As seen in Fig. 10 the inner leaf |38a of the hinge |38 formed from the inner leaf |38a and the outerleaf |381) is aixed to the plate |36 by the bolts |39, |40 and |4|. The outer leaf |381) is aflixed to the door. The plate |36 is conveniently a channel member with the inner extremities of the legs |36a and |361) bent inwardly as shown so as to anchor' the member |36 in the concrete of the wall segment |2. Also shown in Fig. 10 in dotted lines is the construction of the plate |33 to which the nut |3| ainxes a portion of the door stop H0- This anchoring means is similar to the member |36 as seen.
Also shown in Fig. 9 is a sectional View of the conduit |50, similar to the conduit shown in Figs. 6 and '1 illustrating the means whereby a switch box may be easily incorporated at any desired place in the Wall segment. Thus when the conduit |50 is installed during the fabrication of the wall segment l2 a plug |52 of insulation may be injected at any desired location so as to prevent the filling of that particular volume with concrete. In this manner at any time thereafter the thin wall of concrete between the outer edges of the plug |62 and the surface of the wall section may be tapped and the insulating plug removed. A switch box may be inserted therefor making connection with the wires traveling through the conduit |50.
The entire construction of a wall section together with the means for joining such a section to a second section, the means of anchoring the segment to the concrete and the means of finishing oli the top of the wall so as to be adapted to construct a roof thereon, are shown in Figs. 11, 12 and 13. The wall section shown in Figs. 11, 12 and 13 is assumed to be, for convenience in description and cross-reference, the segment I as shown in Fig. 1 and in Fig. 16 in skeleton.
Fig. 11 is a sectional elevation partially in section of the vertical end face of the wall segment |0 broken at two points to show the various features of construction thereof. Thus the upper portion is shown in the absence of the concrete casing, the middle section is shown as it would appear with the concrete casing complete and is cutaway in part to show the internal construction thereof, and the lower section is shown without the concrete casing so as to more clearly illustrate the means of anchoring the same to the foundation |08. The end U-bar 32 (see Fig. 16) is shown in solid lines in the upper and lower portions of Fig. 11 and in dotted lines in the central portion. Also in Fig. 11 there is seen the spline plate 48 and the spline plate 5| (Fig. 16), and the ends of the longitudinal stays 31 and 38 as well as the corresponding stays tying into the spline plate As above described with reference to Figs. 2, 3 and 4, the spline 12 engages in the key-ways provided in the spline plates 48, etc., and furnishes the means for locking the wall segment |0 to a second wall segment such as the segment (Fig. 1).
The means of anchoring the wall segments to the foundation |08 is shown in end elevation in Fig, 11 and in side elevation in Fig. 13. When the concrete is poured, a plurality of anchor plates, such as the anchor plate |60, are mounted therein at evenly spaced intervals to engage the splines such as the spline 12 which joines two wall sections to each other. The anchor plate |60 is conveniently a fiat plate as shown in Fig. 13 bent at right angles at its lower end so as to be firmly locked to the foundation |08 and projecting above the foundation a distance suiiicient to permit engagement with the spline 12. In the portion of the anchor plate |60 projecting above the foundation |08 there is provided the transverse hole |62. Similarly, in the bottom extremity of the spline 12 is a corresponding trans verse hole |64. A key |65 is provided which comprises a U-shaped member, the legs of which are adapted to project through the holes |62 and |64 in the anchor plate |60 and the spline 12, respectively. In this manner the individual sections are anchored to the foundation without the necessity of bolting or welding them thereto. I have found that this boltless assembly and anchoring of the individual sections greatly expedites the construction work.
In fabricating the segment |0 the lower edge thereof is formed in the nature of a fiat surface with the exception of a semi-circular groove running along the central axis of the lower edge. This semi-circular groove |61 provides a moisture seal by permitting the infiltration of the water proof cement |68 laid down just prior to the placement of the segment |0 on the foundation |08.
No means are required for locking the key |65 into the holes provided therefor in the anchor plate |60 and the spline 12 inasmuch as the weight of the wall segment will hold the same in place and both longitudinal and vertical' motion will be prevented by the key |65. Further, after joinder to the wall section |0 of a second section such as the section the space separating the two may be filled with mortar or the like which will have the effect of locking the key |65 in position.
The top finishing of the wall section I0 is shown in the upper portion of Fig. 11 and in the side view of Fig. 12. As shown in Fig. 12, the spline 12 is provided with a transverse hole |10 which provides means of locking the spline in position. To so lock the spline in position the Spanner |12 and a similar spanner |13 are engaged with the spline and are held in position by the wedges |14 and |15 inserted through the hole |10 in the spline 12.
A conventional expanded eye beam is disposed along the top of the U-bars such as the U-bar 32 and a stud |82 is laid along the top of the eye beam and anchored down by the bolts |84, |85, etc., which are bent at their lower extremities to engage the top member of the U-bars 3.2, |81, etc. The roofing structure, of any desired type, may be anchored directly to the stud |82. A molding |14 is shown in Fig. 11 to indicate the relationship of the finishing assembly to an imaginary ceiling |16. a The spline member 12, hereinbefore described, 1s shown in detail in the elevation view of Fig. 14 and the sectional plan view of Fig. 15. The spline, as shown in these figures comprises two metal strips 12a and 12b joined to each other at a number of bosses such as the bosses |88 and |89 spaced along the longitudinal axis of each strip by spot welding or the like. The strips are flared outwardly at their outer edges so as to be locked in the key-ways provided in the spline plates when inserted therein in the manner described.
The wall segments of the invention may be conveniently formed in a mold such as that shown in Figs. 20 and 21. Fig. 20 is a plan view of the mold and Fig. 21 is a sectional elevation on the line 2|-2| of Fig. 20. The mold comprises a supporting framework which consists of the interlaced expanded eye beams |90, |9I, |92,
9E |93, |94 and |95. These expanded. eye beams are of the type shownV in- Fig. 21, asl the eye beam |9I. It may be here noted that the'v expanded eye beams are similar to the expanded eye beam |80 shown in Fig; 11. In orderr to interlace the longitudinal eye beams |93, |94 and |95 with the transverse beams |90, |9| and |92, I have found that one or the other is conveniently broken and welded in the manner shown in Fig. 21. Forming the mold itself are the angle irons |98, |99, 200 and 20| which rest on the framework formed by the interlaced eye beams as shown in Fig. 20. Mounted on the extremities of each of the eye beams are the stops 204, 2&5, 200, etc., and disposed between the outer edge ofl the horizontal portion of the angle iron and the stops 204, 205, etc., are the wedge pairs 208, 209, 2|0, etc. This relationship is most clearly seen in Fig, 21 wherein the wedges 209a and 209|) are disposedv between the outer edge of the horizontal portion of the angle iron 200; and the stop 295 Welded directly to the eye beam |9|.
Each of the angle irons have welded to their bottom horizontal surface a plurality of cleats 2|2, 2|3, 2M, etc. The relationship of the cleat to the angle irons is shown most clearly in the elevation View of Fig. 21, wherein the cleat 2|3 is shown welded to the bottom horizontal surfaceV of the angle iron 200. The purpose of these cleats is to support the bottom 21S of the mold l2. This bottom 2 6 may be. of plywood, metal or any other structural material and serves to form one face of the unit being molded.
The unit skeleton such as shown in Fig. 16 is laid horizontally in a receptacle formed by the four angle irons and the bottom member 2|t and is held therein by engagement of the key-.ways of the spline plates such as the spline plates 2|3 shown in Fig. 21. To prevent the filling of the key-ways of the spline plates with concrete and to form a continuous channel between successive key-ways, the continuous strips 220 and 22|, together conforming to the outline of the key-ways are disposed therein and locked in position by the U-shaped wedge 226. The strip members 220 and 22|, which positioned as shown in Fig. 21 form a continuous channel through the key-way and between each of the spline plates on a given end of a, wall segment are under a spring tension, and the key 224 when in engagement therewith will cause the same to assume the position shown inr Fig. 21. However, by reference to Fig. 22 which is a detailed view of the key or locking means 224, it is apparent that when the key 22d is turned to the position shown in Fig. 22, i. e. so that the engaging tip 225 has its narrowest surface in the plane ofthe longitudinal axes of the members 220 and 22|, the spring tension will not be exerted thereon and they may be collapsed and withdrawn from the channel formed thereby.
To maintain the key 224 in the engaged position shown in Fig. 21 during the pouring operation, the lJ-shaped wedge 226, shown in Fig. 23 is inserted between the vertical outside face of the angle iron 200 and the collar 224a of the key so as to exert a sufcient tension to prevent the shifting of the key 224.
As described with relation to Fig. 6, the end edges ofY the wall section are provided with parallel grooves @il and 98a which are formed therein by the rods 99 and 99a mounted to the angle iron Zili and similar rods mounted -to the member 20|.
In forming the wall section, the framework as shown in Fig. 16 is laid Within the rectangular bed` formed by the mold asshown in Figs. 20 and 21 and engaged therein as above described by means of the key-ways in the spline plates of the framework. A layer of concrete is thenA poured into the mold su-flicient to cover the lower portions of the framework as it lies horizontally within the mold. A layer of insulation is then added conveniently in the form of individual bats which may be placed in the sections formed by the framework. The mold is then lled with concrete to within approximately one-half inch of the top. In this lling process the concrete will infiltrate between the plurality of insulating bats which have been added and will form a concrete skeleton separating the bats from each other. In a preferred embodiment of the invention the outside face of the section is nished with a one-half inch coating of waterproof cement so as to give a finished appearance thereto.
If electrical wiring conduits are to be provided in a particular section they will be formed in the manner as shown in Fig. '7 and described in relation thereto. Thus, the bats employed will have wiring chases formed therein which will be covered so as to prevent infiltration of concrete and which will be joined by means of conduits or pipes embedded in the concrete separating one bat from the other. When the unit is ready to take out of the mold the wedges such as the wedge 22S is removed from the key such as the key 221i` which by turning through a angle releases the strips 22! and 22| forming a channel. through the key-ways of the spline plates and these strips may be conveniently removed after the angle iron forming the vertical side of the mold are retracted from the wall segment. These angle irons are thus retracted by removing the wedges lying between the angle irons and the stop members affixed to the extremities of the eye beams forming the base of the mold. Thus in Fig. 2l, the angle iron 220 may be retracted from the wall segment formed in the mold by removing the wedges 2090i and 209D which hold the angle iron in position between the stop 205 and the angle iron.
In Fig. 24 which is a section on the line 24-2@ of Fig. l and Fig. 25 which is a section on the line 25--25` of Fig. l, the means of framing a window in a section such as the section (Fig. 1) is shown. As shown in Fig. 24 a channel member 230 is cast into the wall unit adjacent the sides of the window opening and is tapped at spaced intervals to receive a screw such as the screw 232 afxing the window frame to the sides and top of the window opening. The channel member 230 may run the entire length of the window opening or there may be provided a number of separate channel members appropriately spaced from each other.
The window sill 234 as shown in Fig. 25 consists of a precast concrete member square cut on its under surface to cleat over the bottom edge Ha of the window opening inthe wall section and tapered on its upper face to provide for water run off in the manner of a, conventional sill. In the embodiment here shown the sill 232 is provided with the longitudinal channel which coincides with a similar channel 231' in the edge ia of the window opening. In mounting the sill the metal strip 233 is inserted in the channel 231 and a vlayer of mortar is spread on the surface of the edge lia filling the channel 237. UponA placing the sill 23d in the position shown the mortar is forced into the channel 236 and upon hardening retains the sill in position. 1 A longitudinal groove 240 is provided in the lower edge 23411 of the projecting portion of the sill 234. This groove 240 serves as a dripper for the water running off the upper face of the sill, preventing its adherence to the face 234e and ultimate migration to the wall Il.
It is to be understood that the invention is not limited to the use of window framing means as above described with relation to Figs. 24 and 25.
Although the description has been so far limtied to the assembly of the wall units of the invention as exterior walls it is equally advantageous to employ these units for interior walls and partitions. Such assembly is readily accomplished by use of a modified spline in the manner shown in Fig. 26. I
In Fig. 26 a partition 242 is joined to the wall formed by the units 243 and 244 by means of the spline 246. The spline 246 is T shaped in cross section; the head of the T being identical to the spline 12 (Fig. 14) and having welded thereto a leg 241. The leg 241 is formed from two metal strips affixed to each other at a plurality of bosses such as the bosses 250 and 25l and flared at their outer end to lock in the keyway formed in the unit 242 as hereinbefore described. The spaces between the units are conveniently filled with plaster after assembly. It is apparent that another unit could be affixed to the units 243 and 244 opposite the unit 242 by using a spline which was in the shape of a cross; i. e. a spline similar to spline 245 (Fig. 26) with an additional leg projecting therefrom opposite the leg 241.
It is apparent from the foregoing description that I have provided simple, inexpensive and sturdy building units which may be easily fabricated and assembled without the use of bolts; welding or the like and which are adaptable to substantially any design or foundation configuration. The wall segments may be substantially of any dimensions depending upon the size of the building in which they are to be employed. I have found that units four feet wide and eight feet high are convenient for use in most types of building and particularly in dwelling houses where an eight foot ceiling is conventional. I-Iowever it is apparent that larger or smaller units may be formed for particular purposes. Units as small as 6 inches in height may be desirable for some users whereas units of 20 or more feet in height may find particular application in large buildings. Similarly the width of the units may vary between wide limits say a few inches to 10 or more.
Further, I have provided units of different types whereby plain walls, walls with doors, walls with windows, and combinations of these may be constructed at will. These various types of units are joined to each other by simply inserting a spline, as described, in the key-ways provided in the spline plates at the ends of the individual sections The means of joinder of one section to another is the same irrespective of what combination of the three types of sections may be employed. This uniformity of means of assembly constitutes one of the features of the invention. Further, means are provided in the nature of a, corner member for joining a pair of any of the above types of units together at the corner of the building, and juncture members are provided for fastening partitions and the like intermediate the ends of any wall.
In construction of a building with the structural units of the present invention any desired design may be followed. The foundation is layed with the idea of employing these units and anchoring plates as described are appropriately spaced along the foundation so as to fall between successive units and to be engageable with the splines joining the units. After the foundation is laid the appropriate ones of these three types of units are mounted thereon in the manner described and are joined to each other as shown. In this respect the loop in the U-bars forming a part of the skeleton of each section are conveniently used to grapple the section thus facilitating elevating and positioning thereof. Flooring is laid and the facing of the walls formed by the units of the invention is finished in the manner described. Any desired type of roof may be affixed to the top edges of the wall sections after the edge has been finished as for example in the manner shown in Figs. 11 and l2.
The interior of the structure may be finished in any desired manner by painting, papering, plastering, panelling or the like or the units themselves may be separated by molding as shown in Fig. 6 so as to give the effect of panelling. Similarly the exterior may be finished in any desired manner, but for substantially all purposes a simple coat of paint over the cement exterior of the building units should be sufficient. For purposes of dwellings it may be desirable to stucco the outside or to employ stucco paint to give the effect of a stucco exterior. Further, if desired, certain portions or all of the outside may be covered with wood sheeting to vary the appearance of the house or building.
Although, as previously mentioned the sections can be made any desired size, it may be convenient to facilitate handling, to join two or more units to each other in vertical relationship. S-uch union can be readily accomplished by finishing the top edge of the bottom and intermediate units so that a nat surface will be exposed and join the units together by a single spline of sufficient length to reach from the foundation to the uppermost unit.
Many modifications will occur to those skilled in the building art without departing from the scope of the invention as set forth in the foregoing description and in the following claims.
l. A structural section comprising a skeleton encased in concrete, said skeleton having a plurality of bar members, each bai member comprising a pair of parallel spaced legs lying in a transverse plane across the section, the successive bar members being spaced from each other in a direction perpendicular to the planes of the legs, pairs of parallel spaced stay rods, the respective rods of each pair crossing adjacent respective legs of said bar members and lying in a plane which crosses the planes of the legs, spacing struts extending transversely across the legs of the bar members and the rods of the pairs of rods at the positions where the rods cross the legs, means attaching the struts to the legs and rods at said positions, and each pair of legs and each pair of rods being encased in a continuous mass of concrete, and a plurality of spline plates embedded in the concrete, each of said spline plates being located substantially in the plane of a pair of the parallel stay rods and extending substantially to an edge of the section, each spline plate having a, pair of slots extending inwardly from opposite sides thereof, with the respective legs of the bar member nearest said edge passing through said slots and an additional pair of parallel slots extending inwardly from the protruding edge of the plate in a direction substantially perpendicular to the direction of extent of the rst-mentioned pair of slots, and substantially aligned with the inner ends of the Erst-mentioned pair of slots, the respective rods of the pair of parallel stay rods in Whose plane the plate lies, passing through the last-mentioned pair of slots and thereby being anchored therein, and a key-way formed centrally in the edge of the spline plate at the edge of the section, adapted to receive a key for attaching the spline plate to another member.
2. A section according to claim 1 in which the spline plates are provided with tab means projecting at an angle from the edge of the spline plate which is embedded in the concrete for anchor purposes.
3. A skeleton for a structural section, said skeleton comprising a plurality of bar members, each bar member comprising a pair of parallel spaced legs lying in a transverse plane across the section, the successive bar members being spaced from each other in a direction perpendicular to the planes of the legs, pairs of parallel spaced stay rods, the respective rods of each pair crossing adjacent respectivelegs of said bar members and lying in a plane which crosses the planes of the legs, spacing struts extending transversely across the legs of the bar members and the rods of the pairs of rods at the positions where the rods cross the legs, means attaching the struts to the legs and rods at said positions, and a plurality of spline plates, each of said spline plates being located substantially in the plane of a pair of the parallel stay rods and extending substantially to an edge of the section, each spline plate having a pair of slots extending inwardly from opposite sides thereof, with the respective legs of the bar member nearest said edge passing through said slots and an additional pair of parallel slots extending inwardly from the protruding edge of the plate in a direction substantially perpendicular to the direction of extent of the rst-mentioned pair of slots, and substantially aligned with the inner ends of the rst-mentioned pair of slots, the respective rods of the pair of parallel stay rods in whose plane the plate lies, passing through the last-mentioned pair of slots and thereby being anchored therein, and a key-way formed centrally in the edge of the spline plate at the edge of the section, adapted to receive a key for attaching the spline plate to another member.
JOHN J. SENGLAR.
References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,394,550 Herbrick Oct. 25, 1921 1,562,706 Lake Nov. 24, 1925 1,593,771 Linthwaite July 27, 1926 1,637,215 Coppock July 26, 1927 1,708,555 Smith Apr. 9, 1929 2,042,438 Wells May 29, 1936 2,156,027 Preble Apr. 25, 1939 2,204,583 Falls June 18, 1940 2,423,695 Falco July 8, 1947 2,462,415 Nagel Feb. 22, 1949 FOREIGN PATENTS Number l Country Date 577,543 Great Britain May 22, 1946
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|U.S. Classification||52/583.1, 52/97, 52/285.3, 52/577, 52/98, 52/293.1, 52/220.2|
|International Classification||E04C2/06, E04B1/02, E04B1/04|
|Cooperative Classification||E04C2/06, E04B1/04|
|European Classification||E04B1/04, E04C2/06|