US 2652824 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sept. 22, 1953 R. E. HOPP VAPOR-HEATED sun ZSheets-Sheet 1 Filed June 26, 1951 IIPQVENTOR. ROBERT E. MQ/"fi ATTORNEY.
Sept. 22, 1953 R. E. HOPP VAPOR-HEATED SUIT 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed June 26, 1951 INVENTOR.
$5??? 69 HOPE I Amy/n.
Patented Sept. 22, 1953 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE This invention relates to heated wearing apparel.
The invention relates to wearing apparel having a built-in heating system, including a portable and removable heat generator. The wearing apparel to which reference is here made is intended for use in extremely cold climates, such as the frigid climates in the Arctic and Antarctic zones. It is also intended for use in elevated altitudes, as in mountain climbing. Similarly, it is intended for use in stratosphere flying where extremely low temperatures are encountered. These applications of the invention are merely illustrative thereof and should not be understood as limiting it in any Way.
It is the principal object of this invention to provide wearing apparel having a complete heating system installed therein, including a heat generator and a plurality of heat exchangers. In the preferred form of this invention, the heat generator comprises four heating elements which are served by a single source of fuel, namely a tank containing gasoline, kerosene, alcohol, fuel oil or the like. There is a single combustion chamber, but there are four separate vapor generating tanks, one for each heating element. There are four separate heat exchangers, two of them being coiled around the legs and extending across the front of the body, and the other two being coiled around the arms and extending across the back of the body. The vapor generating tanks contain water or other suitable liquid, preferably combined with an antifreeze compound such as-ethylene glycol which is manufactured and sold under the trade-mark Prestone by Union Carbide 8: Carbon Corp. Zerex of E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc., which also has an ethylene glycol base and Zerone of the same company which has a methanol base, may also be employed for the same purpose, as well as other suitable antifreeze compounds which may or may not be used in solution with water. The Water is heated in the vapor generating tanks until it is converted to vapor and the vapor then flows under its own pressure through the four heat exchangers which, in the preferred form of this invention, are flexible tubes made of such material as heat resistant rubber, both natural and synthetic, plastics and even flexible metal tubing. At the end of each heat exchanging tube is an expansion chamber which accommodates the vapor which reaches it and also the heated air which normally occupies the tubes but which is driven into the expansion chamber by the vapor. The expansion chamber also serves as a vapor condensing chamber where the vapor condenses back to water. When condensation takes place and the generation of vapor is either temporarily suspended or permanently terminated, a vacuum is formed in the vapor generating tanks which sucks the condensate back into said tanks in preparation for further operation of the apparatus.
It is an important object of this invention to provide heated wearing apparel of the character described wherein a liquid such as water is heated until it is converted to vapor, and is then allowed to flow under its own pressure into suitable heat exchangers and into expansion chambers at the terminal ends of said heat exchangers, where condensation takes place, and a vacuum is thereby formed which returns the condensate to its starting position, namely the place where the water is converted to vapor. The expansion chambers communicate with the vapor generating plant only through the tubular heat exchangers, and it is through said tubular heat exchangers that the Vapor flows in one dire ction from the generating plant tothe expansion chambers and. the condensate flows in the opposite direction from the expansion chambers to the generating plant.
Another important object of this invention is the provision of heated wearing apparel of the character described in which a plurality of independent heating systems are employed to heat diiferent portions of the body. Thus, in the preferred form of this invention, four separate and independent heating systems are provided, each heating one of the extremities and a portion of the body or trunk. Should one of the heating systems go out of order, the remaining heating systems continue to function in normal fashion.
Still another object of this invention is the provision of heated wearing apparel of the character described in which automatic, adjustable heat control means are provided for controlling the temperature. A valve which is sensitive and responsive to heat or to pressure or the like is connected to the fuel source which supplies the vapor generating plant. When the temperature rises to predetermined, selected levels, or the vapor pressure rises topredetermined, selected levels, the heat control-means or valve automatically shuts off the fuel supply except to the extent needed for maintaining a pilot flame.
A preferred embodiment of this invention is illustrated in the accompanying drawing, in which:
Fig. l is a front view of a heated suit made in accordance with this invention.
Fig. 2 is a back view of the same suit.
Fig. 3 is an enlarged view, partly broken away and in section, of the heat generating plant which is incorporated into said suit.
Fig. 4 is a side view of said heat generating plant.
Fig. 5 is a sectional view on the line 5--5 of Fig. 1, showing the insulating material in said suit and also showing one of the heat exchangers employed therein.
The suit shown in the drawing is illustrative of the many articles of wearing apparel to which the present invention may be applied. The in vention is equally applicable to other articles of clothing, including gloves, hats, boots and the like.
Taking suit It as illustrative, it will be seen that it possesses left and right sleeves l2 and [4. respectively, and left and right legs l6 and it, respectively, and an elastic cuif is attached to the ends of the two sleeves and a similar cuff 22, also elastic, is attached to the ends of the legs. These several cuffs are intended to prevent the escapeof heated air from the inside of the suit and the entrance of cold air into said suit. It will be noted in Fig. 5 that the suit may be made of several layers or plies of material. The outer layer 24 is a densely woven cloth which is waterrepellent and wind-resistant. The next layer 2% is made of asbestos material for insulating purposes. Between the lining 28 and the asbestos material 26 is a thick padding 32 of glass fiber or other suitable insulating material which performs several functions as will hereinafter more fully appear. One of these functions is, of course, that of insulating the body against loss of heat. This arrangement of plies is illustrative of the construction of the article of wearing apparel herein claimed, and it should not be deemed to limit the invention in any way whatever.
It will be noted in Fig. 1 that suit in is provided with an ordinary collar 34 which is useful primarily for style or appearance purposes. There is, however, another collar or neckpiece 38 which is made of elastic material and which performs the same function as cuffs 2G and 22, namely, to prevent heated air from escaping from the suit and cold air from entering the suit.
Suit I0 is provided with a rather large pocket 33 in its left front or breast portion. A flap 40 is provided on said pocket and a snap fastener 42 for closing said pocket, when desired. The vapor generating plant 44 shown in Figs. 3 and 4 may be inserted into pocket 38, and it may be retained in place therein by means of flap 11}. It may readily be removed from the pocket for fuel filling purposes and the like.
The vapor generating plant 44 comprises the following major elements: a fuel tank 45 containing a liquid 48 which serves as a fuel, such as gasoline, kerosene, alcohol, fuel oil and the like, a burner 58 having four nozzles 52, said burner with its four nozzles being mounted within a combustion chamber 54, and four vapor generating tanks 56. Burner 50 is provided with a duct 58 which is connected to fuel tank 46 and a manifold or distributor 60 which is connected at its inlet end to the outlet end of said duct 58, and which is provided with outlet ports which are connected to nozzles 52. The gases of combustion are allowed to pass out of the combustion chamber 54 through an exhaust pipe 82. Air may be drawn into the combustion chamber through 4 an inlet opening 64 in pocket flap 40. The four burner nozzles 52 are situated immediately below the four vapor generating tanks 56 so that each burner nozzle heats only one tank.
It will be understood that the vapor generating tanks may contain a suitable liquid such as water in solution with an antifreeze compound. If desired, the antifreeze compound may be used in liquid form without water. A liquid having a low boiling point may be found suitable for the purposes of this invention and the liquid should also have an extremely low freezing point, so that it will not freeze up in the temperatures which are to be encountered.
It will be noted that a valve E6 is installed in duct 58 through which the fuel passes to the burners 52. This valve is controlled by means of a crank arm 68 which is connected to a plunger or piston rod "It. A piston 12 is secured to rod 18 and a compression spring M is mounted on said rod behind said piston. The piston is slidably mounted in a cylinder H3 which communicates through pipe or tube 18 with one of the vapor generating tanks 55. A cap is provided at the end of the cylinder and rod E3 extends through said cap. Spring H bears at one end against cap 8| and at its opposite end against piston 12. The action of the spring is to urge or thrust rod H2 leftwardly as viewed in Fig. 3. Since rod in is connected to crank arm 68 which controls valve 66, the crank arm is thereby caused to swing in clockwise direction as viewed in said Fig. 3, and thereby to open the valve to its fully operative position. An adjusting screw 32 is provided in cylinder iii on the opposite side of piston '52 from piston rod 10. The adjusting screw serves as an adjustable stop member to prevent the piston and piston rod from moving leftwardly, as viewed in Fig. 3, in response to the action of the compression spring. The adjusting screw is thereby enabled to control the extent to which the spring will open the valve, and it is thereby enabled to control the flow of fuel from the fuel tank to the burners.
It will be understood from the foregoing that when the burners are on full, the water in the vapor generating tanks 56 will be heated to the boiling point and vapor will thereby be generated. Some of the vapor which is thus generated will flow through tube 18 and into cylinder 16 where it will exert pressure upon the piston in opposition to the action of the spring. When the vapor pressure exceeds the spring pressure, the piston and piston rod will be forced to move toward the right, as viewed in Fig. 3, and the crank arm 68 will be caused to swing in counterclockwise direction. The effect of such movement is to close the valve and turn off the supply of fuel to the burners. It is desirable, however, that pilot flames remain burning in the burners so that operation of the vapor generating plant may be resumed automatically when the vapor pressure falls below the pressure of the spring. Hence the valve is so adjusted that it does not close completely, allowing just enough fuel to flow to the burners to keep the pilot flames going.
The fuel tank 46 may be of any convenient design, bearing in mind that it is normally disposed in a pocket of a suit or other garment which is worn on the person, and that it must contain sufficient fuel to keep the vapor generating plant going as long as needed. An inlet opening 84 is provided at the upper end of the tank so that fuel may be introduced therein. A screw plug 86 is provided in said inlet opening to 5. close and seal the same against leaks. .At the lower end of the fuel tank is a safety valve 88E and below said fuel tank is an auxiliary tank 90. Fas" tem'ng elements 92 may be provided to secure the auxiliary tank to the main tank. It will be noted that the safety valve 88 projects into the. auxiliary tank so that any flow from the main tank through the safety valve will enter the auxiliary tank. It will be appreciated that when the vapor generating plant is in operation, considerable heat Will be generated in the vicinity of the main fuel tank 46. Said fuel tank will itself become heated as will its fuel contents. Expansion of the fuel contents may thereby take place and dangerousl high pressures may thereby develop. Consequently, the safety valve is provided to allow the escape of some of the fuel into the auxiliary tank before the pressure in the main tank rises to dangerous heights.
It has been stated that gasoline, kerosene, alcohol, fuel oil and the like may be used as fuel in the present device. Some fuels are highly volatile and provide their own pressure. Illustrative would be extremely high-test gasoline having a very high octane rating. Liquefied petroleum gases, including propane, butane and pentane also provide their own pressure and there is no need, therefore, when such fuels are used, to provide pressure generating means. The contrary is true, where fuels of relatively low volatility are employed, such as kerosene and fuel oil. In such cases, it is necessary toprovide a pump for introducing compressed air into the fuel tank and maintain the fuel under pressure. The drawing does not show a pump for use in connection with fuels of low volatility and pressure but it will be understood that such pump may be provided within the broad scope of this invention in the event that such fuels are used. The principle of the conventional gasoline blow torch or pressure stove may be applied to the fuel tank shown in the drawing if this be desired.
It will be noted that a screw-threaded pipe 94 is connected to each vapor generating tank 56. A coupling 9% is secured to each said pipe 94 and a tube is secured to each coupling. More specifically, there are four such tubes 98, IEO, I02 and I04, respectively, which are alike in all respects except as to their length. These tubes may be made of extruded plastics or rubber, synthetic rubber, flexible metal tubing or the like. The material of which the tubes are made should be able to withstand high temperatures and pressures. It should at the same time be sufficiently flexible so that it will not unduly hinder or hamper the movements of the person wearing the apparel under discussion. Moreover, the material of which these tubes are made should be adequately heat conductive so that the tubes may serve as heat exchangers in the present invention.
Reference to Fig. 1 will show that tube 93 curves downwardly until it reaches the crotch and then upwardly to the general vicinity of the upper right breast portion of the suit and then downwardly again to the right trouser leg around which it is coiled several times unti1 it reaches the bottom. It will be seen that at the lower terminal end of tube 98 is a bulb I06 which is made of somewhat elastic material so that it may expand in size under the influence of inchamber in the following respect: When the vapor generating plant is in operation, vapor is generated in the four tanks 56. The vapor then flows through the four tubes 98, I99, I02 and I04; Referring specifically to tube 98, it will be understood that the vapor will force the air that is normally present in said tube 98 out of said tube and into the expansion chamber 1%. Similarly, the vapor itself will enter said expansion chamber. When the vapor pressure reaches a predetermined level, valve 56 will close until only pilot flames remain burning in the vapor generating plant and further generation of vapor will thereby be stopped. When the vapor condenses in tube 98 and in expansion chamber tilt, as well as in the very vapor generating tank 55 to which said tube 98 is connected, a vacuum results which is instrumental in sucking up the condensed vapor from tube 88 and expansion chamber Hi6 and returning it to said vapor generating tank. Besides, the contraction ofthe expanded elastic chamber use helps to return the condensate to the vapor generating tank. The process may now be repeated of generating vapor, suspending or interrupting the generation of vapor, condensing the vapor and returning the condensate to the vapor generator.
The process that has above been described with respect to tube 98 is equally true of the other three tubes, except that they extend along different portions of the suit. Thus tube liiil curves downwardly from the upper left breast portion of the suit and winds around the left trouser leg of the suit, terminating at its lower end in an expansion chamber IE8. Fig. 5 is a cross-section through the left trouser leg, and it will there be seen that tube Hit) is somewhat fiat in cross-section and that it extends through the layer of glass fiber 32 and between asbestos layer 26 and lining 28, respectively. The thick ness of the glass. fiber layer corresponds, substantially, to the cross-sectional dimensions of tube M0. The glass fiber and the asbestos layer may be sufficient to hold the tube in place, but if need be, other means may be provided for holding it in place. For example, the tube may be tied or sewed in place by conventional means. The outer layer 26 of asbestos tends to insulate the garment against the cold outside air and it tends to retain the heat which is generated by the heating plant above described within said garment. This description of the characteristics of tube I00 and of the insulating materials in which it is disposed is equally appropriate to the other three tubes hereinabove mentioned.
Reference to Fig. 2 will show that tube I02 is coiled around the left arm of the suit and it terminates at its lower end in an expansion chamber Illl. Tube I64 curves upwardly and then downwardly around the seat of the suit and then upwardly to the right arm where it is coiled in the manner above described. It terminates at its lower end in an expansion chamber H2. It will thus be apparent that the four tubes provide heat for the four bodily extremities, and in addition they provide heat for the body itself.
The foregoing is illustrative of a preferred embodiment of the invention and of the general principles underlying said invention. It will be understood that the preferred embodiment may be modified in many ways, and other embodiments may be provided, within the broad spirit of the invention and the broad scope of the claims.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. Heated apparel of the character described, comprising a heat insulated article of wearing apparel, at least one tank installed in said article of wearing apparel and containing a liquid, heating means connected to said tank for heating said liquid above its boiling point, a tubular heat exchanger which is connected at one end to said tank, and an expansion chamber which is connected to the opposite end of said tubular heat exchanger, said expansion chamber being in communication with said tank only through said tubular heat exchanger, said heating means comprising a liquid fuel burner and a fuel tank, a valve for controlling the flow of fuel from the fuel tank to said burner, vapor pressure-operated means connected to said valve to close the valve in response to increased vapor pressure, said pressure-operated means being in communication with said tubular heat exchanger, and spring means constructed and arranged in said pressure-operated means to open said valve as the vapor pressure decreases below a predetermined value.
2. Heated apparel in accordance with claim 1, wherein there are four separate and independent tanks, each tank having a separate and independent tubular heat exchanger connected thereto, and each tubular heat exchanger being connected to a separate and independent expansion chamber, one of said tubular heat exchangers extending across the right front of the article of wearing apparel and being coiled around the right leg thereof, the expansion chamber connected to said tubular heat exchanger being situated at the lower end of said right leg of said article of wearing apparel, the second tubular heat exchanger extending across the left front of the article of wearing apparel and being coiled around the left leg thereof, the expansion chamber connected to said second tubuler heat exchanger being situated at the lower end of said left leg of said article of wearing apparel, the third tubular heat exchanger extending across the right back of said article of wearing apparel and being coiled around the right arm thereof, the expansion chamber connected to said third tubular heat exchanger being situated at the lower end of said right arm of said article of wearing apparel, and the fourth tubular heat exchanger extending across the left back of said article of wearing apparel and being coiled around the left arm thereof, the expansion chamber connected to said fourth tubular heat exchanger being situated at the lower end of said left arm of said article of wearing apparel.
3. Heated apparel of the character described, comprising a heat insulated article of wearing apparel, at least one tank installed in said article of wearing apparel and containing a liquid, heating means connected to said tank for heating said liquid to vaporize it, a tubular heat exchanger which is connected at one end to said tank, and an expansion chamber which is connected to the opposite end of said tubular heat exchanger, said expansion chamber being in communication with said tank only through said tubular heat exchanger, said heating means comprising a liquid fuel burner and a fuel tank, a valve for controlling the flow of fuel from the fuel tank to said burner, means associated with said valve to close the valve upon the happening of a predetermined event, said means being in communication with said vapor generating tank, and means constructed and arranged to open said valve upon the happening of a predetermined event different from the first event.
ROBERT E. HOPP.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 602,810 Spurr Apr. 19, 1898 679,528 Gotcher July 30, 1901 687,004 Crawford Nov. 19, 1901 703,351 ODonnel June 24, 1902 719,638 Batter Feb. 3, 1903 912,527 Batter Feb. 16, 1909 2,260,134 Ballman Oct. 21, 1941 2,287,915 Taylor June 30, 1942 2,305,605 Craig et al Dec. 22, 1942 2,329,766 Jacobsen Sept. 21, 1943