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Publication numberUS2652830 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 22, 1953
Filing dateMar 14, 1950
Priority dateMar 14, 1950
Publication numberUS 2652830 A, US 2652830A, US-A-2652830, US2652830 A, US2652830A
InventorsKoza Ralph H, Stockam Willis M
Original AssigneeUnited Air Lines Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Device for administering gases
US 2652830 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Sept. 22, 1953 R. H. KOZA ET AL DEVICE FOR ADMINISTERING GASES Filed March 14, 1950 a 7% gvw wilazi Patented Sept. 22, 1953 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE DEVICE FOR ADMINISTERING GASES Application March 14, 1950, Serial No. 149,532

18 Claims.

This invention relates to devices for administering gases and methods of making the same and has particular relation to improvements in the construction and method of manufacture of devices for administering pure gases, mixtures of ases, or mixtures of gases and air to persons who need such treatment for medical or safety purposes or for their comfort and well being.

Although not limited to any specific field of use, devices of the character referred to herein are especially well suited for the administering of oxygen or air with an enriched oxygen content to passengers and members of the crew of aircraft to overcome oxygen deficiencies encountered as a result of flight at high altitudes or other causes.

Devices heretofore made and used for these purposes have commonly employed a type of construction involving considerable weight, bulk, complexity and resultant expense of manufacture. They are designed for extended periods of use, and at least when offered for the use of passengers on commercial air lines they must be sterilized after each individual use, which involves very substantial cost of maintenance. This high cost factor and also the weight and bulk of such equipment are particularly disadvantageous when it becomes necessary to provide devices of this character for a large number of persons traveling on aircraft in commercial or other service.

A primary object of the present invention is to provide an improved form of device for adminis-.- tering gases which shall be particularly light and compact.

A further object of the invention is to provide a device of the above-indicated character which shall be convenient and comfortable to use and attractive in appearance but which shall nevertheless be highly efficient in its operation.

A more specific object of the invention is to provide a device of the above-indicated character including improved means for effecting close fitting of the face piece over the nose and mouth of the wearer, regardless of the facial shape or size to be fitted.

A still further object of the invention is to provide an improved method of manufacturing devices of the above-identified character from inexpensive materials, whereby the said devices may be readily produced in any desired quantities at very low costso low, in fact, that it will be economically practicable to dispose of each device after a single use thereof, thereby eliminating all maintenance cost for sterilization and handlin incidental to reuse.

The invention will be better understood and other objects, advantages, and features thereof wlll appear from the following detailed description having reference to the accompanying drawings, in Which Figure 1 is a front view of an oxygen mask or the like embodying the invention, as applied to the face of a wearer;

Fig. 2 is a plan view of a partially formed blank from which the device shown in Fig. 1 may be made;

Fig. 3 is a front elevational View showing the completed device in greater detail and in its normally fiat condition before being put into use; and

Fig. 4 is a side view showing the same device in use by a wearer, the structure of the device being shown in cross section taken alon the line 4-4 of Fig. 3.

Referring to the drawings, it will be seen from Figs. 1 and 4 that the mask when in use covers the mouth and lower parts of the nose and face of the wearer, the upper edge of the device extending across the bridge of the nose and the lower forward parts of the cheeks, and the lower edge of the device extending around and under the chin.

The mask construction as illustrated may be made from a blank initially formed as shown in Fig. 2. This blank comprises a main body portion H, which, when distended, is of seamless or other tubular form. The material of the blank is thin, flexible, soft, and of very light weight and is preferably substantially impervious to the passage of gases at low pressures. materials which may be made in this form are well suited for the use and also have desirable characteristics from the manufacturing standpoint. Materials such as cellophane, Pliofilm, polyethylene, and polyvinylchloride are examples of suitable materials. The thickness of the material may be on the order of one to three thousandths of an inch but is not critical as long as a reasonable degree of strength is provided.

The blanks may be cut from continuous lengths of tubing supplied in collapsed or flat-folded condition, the end cuts being made along suitable lines to provide the desired contour of the elements of the finished mask. As shown in Fig. 2, the end of the blank which is to become the bottom of the finished mask is cut off on a more or less arcuate line to provide a substantially segmerit-shaped bottom portion l2, and the upper end of the blank is out off al n int s ting angular lines to provide a triangular upper por- Thermoplastic I tion I3. After being thus cut to size, the blank is perforated through the rear wall only thereof to provide openings I4 as shown in Fig. 2, for a purpose to be described.

The front and rear walls of the blank are then sealed together along the upper edges thereof by localized application of heat and pressure, suitable adhesive, or the like, to form a top seam I3 The blank thus becomes an envelope-like member as shown in Fig. 2. The upper end portion I3 of the blank, together with a short length of the body portion II if desired, is then turned inside out and folded back within the main body portion II to provide an inner member of envelope-like form constituting a face piece. The latter relatively smaller member forms a closure for the upper end of the relatively larger main body portion II but is itself left open along its upper edge so that it may be fitted over the face of a user.

Within the fold of material along the front wall of the construction there is provided a pliable member IS in the form of a light strip of soft aluminum or the like. A securing band H in the form of an elastic cord or the like has a portion of its length similarly enclosed within the mold of material along the rear side of the mask construction, this band also having an outwardly extending loop portion adapted to encircle the head of the wearer of the mask. This band preferably extends through holes IIi provided in the pliable member I6 adjacent the respective ends thereof or at other desirable points of attachment, and also passes through corresponding perforations provided in the front wall of the mask material. The passing of the band through the holes in the pliable member protects the material of the mask against tearing as a result of tension applied to the band, while insuring that the band will draw the entire opening of the face piece snugly over the wearers face.

The pliable member I6 and part of the length of the securing band H are inserted within the folds of the mask material while the blank is still open at its lower end. Thereafter, the two wall thicknesses of the material enveloping the inserted members are preferably fused'together by application of heat and pressure to strips or spots adjacent the lower edges of said members, as indicated at I8 in Figs. 3 and 4, and I9 in Fig. 4. The enclosed portion of the securing band is, however, left free to slide within the fold of material enveloping the same so that the material may be gathered along this portion of the bands length to accommodate closed fitting of the mask under the wearers chin.

After the end portion I3 of the blank has been folded inside of the main body portion I I thereof to form the face piece as previously described, openings 20 are made through both thicknesses of material at the front of the structure to vent the interior of the face piece to the outer atmosphere. The two thicknesses of material around the openings 20 are secured together, preferably by application of heat and pressure to this localized area, as best shown at 2| in Fig. 3. This may be done in the same operation in which the openings 20 are formed, or the two steps may be carried out in immediate succession, and in any case the securing of the double thicknesses of the front wall together at I8 and 2I may be very readily accomplished in a single operation.

The front and rear walls of the blank are also sealed together along the lower edges thereof after the pliable member IS and the securing band I! have been put in place. This produces a bottom seam I2 which is formed to embrace an inlet tube I5, also preferably made of thermoplastic material. The tube I5 is sealed between the two thicknesses of material forming the outer Walls of the mask and provides for delivery of oxygen or other gas or mixture to the space enclosed thereby. The formation of the seam I2 and sealing of the tube I5 therein may, if desired, be carried out simultaneously with the securing of the different thicknesses of material together at any or all of the spots I8, I9 and 2I.

It willbe seen that when the formation of the construction is completed the device comprises essentially two nested envelope-like parts made of an integral piece of material. The outer one of these parts, consisting of the main body portion I I or a major portion thereof and the lower end portion I2, constitutes a rebreather bag. The upper portion I3, and if desired, a minor portion of the main body portion II folded back inside of the major part of said main body portion, constitute a face piece. The two envelope portions may be made in any desired shapes, but the forms shown and described herein are advantageous from the standpoint of avoiding condensation of moisture within the mask while it is in use.

When the device is to be put into use, the upper edges of the face piece are spread apart and the opening thus formed is placed over the nose and mouth of the wearer while the securing band I! is placed over the wearers head, either over or under the ears, to secure the device in operative position. The pliable member I6 is then bent manually to conform to the bridge of the nose and over the cheek bones of the wearer so that the upper part of the face piece is brought into close-fitting relation with the wearers face. At the same time the lower part of said face piece is drawn into similar closely fitting relation by the securing band I! passing under and around the wearers chin through the fold of material at the bottom edge of the opening in the face piece. A substantially gas-tight seal is thus effected between the edges of the face piece at the open side thereof and the wearers face, the mouth and nostrils being completely covered.

Oxygen or other gas or gaseous mixture to be administered to the wearer is supplied to the interior of the rebreather bag I I, I2 through the inlet tube I5, which will, of course, be connected through suitable tubing to an appropriate source of supply (not shown). During exhalation by the user of the mask, an initial portion of the air exhaled also passes into the rebreather bag through the opening I4 connecting the same with the interior of the face piece I3, and the rebreather bag is thus filled with a combination of initially exhaled air and fresh oxygen. These components are mixed together in the rebreather bag, which is gently distended as it is filled during the exhalation. The oxygen is, of course, supplied at low pressure and at a suitably regulated rate of flow so that the proper proportions are obtained in the mixture created therein. That part of the mixture which is derived from the exhalation of the user is relatively rich in oxygen because it has not been inhaled very deeply, and accordingly is suitable for mixing with the fresh gas supply to make a proper breathing mixture.

During inhalation by the user the mixture is drawn from the rebreather bag into the face piece through the connecting openings I4 and is then inhaled, along with an admixed portion of outer air taken into the face piece at the same time through the venting openings 20. The rebreather bag is more or less collapsed by the time the inhalation is completed, and is ready to be refilled with the next charge of breathing mixture. I

At the beginning of the next exhalation the escape thereof through the venting openings 20 is retarded because these openings are relatively small, and consequently the rebreather bag is distended by an initial portion of the exhalation and the concurrent inflow of oxygen through the tube l5. Thereafter the remainder of the expelled breath passes through the openings 20 to the outer atmosphere. This portion of the exhalation comprises what remains from the air or mixture that was breathed most deeply and therefore has the lowest proportion of oxygen remaining therein, so that it is of little or no value for rebreathing. It also includes considerable absorbed moisture which it is desirable to eliminate from the rebreathing mixture.

It will be understood, of course, that the mask will continue to function in the above manner as long as its use may be desired and the supply of gas to be administered is maintained, the described action being repeated during each breathing cycle.

' The elements of the mask are of such size and are sorelatively proportioned that any desired mixture of supplied gas, initially exhaled air, and outer airare provided for each inhalation, and the openings It and 20 are also of such relative size and are so positioned that the proper flow in both directions therethrough is obtained. It will be observed in this connection that the openings [4 are approximately below and in line with the nostrils when the mask is in operative position and that the openings 20 are located relatively close to the nostrils. While the sizes and locations of the openings and the'volumetric capacities of the rebreather bag and the face piece are not precisely critical, it may be stated that for average use the rebreather bag in distended condition may have a volumetric capacity of approximately 550 cubic centimeters. The face piece of most eflicient design will have the smallest possible internal volume which can be tolerated by the face, and in the construction illustrated herein may enclose a space over the ,users mouth and nose of approximately 180 cubic centimeters. When the elements of the mask are made in approximately these volumetric proportions, the openings l4 may suitably have an aggregate area on the order of two or three square centimeters, and the aggregate area of the openings 20 may be on the order of one-half to one and one-half square centimeters. All of these dimensions and proportions are, however, subject to variation over reasonably wide ranges, and in particular the aggregate areas of the openings may vary somewhat according to the number of openings provided in each case.

It will be seen from the foregoing that the present invention provides an effective device for administering gases which is extremely light,

compact, and economical to the point of per mitting use as a disposable device, thus obviating the serious disadvantages of the heavy, cumbersome, and expensive devices now commonly used for similar purposes. An important advantage lies in the fact that a single size of mask of the type provided by the present invention is readily adapted to fit any size and shape of face, so that it is suitable for use by anyone, men, women 'and children alike, whereas it has been necessary heretofore, with masks hav ing rigid face pieces, to provide different sizes of masks to fit different persons.

While only one specific embodiment of the invention has been illustrated and described herein, it will be readily understood by those skilled in the art that various changes and modifications may be made in the details of design and mode of construction thereof without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.

What is claimed as new and is desired to be seecured by Letters Patent, therefore, is:

l. A device for administering gases compris ing a face piece and a rebreather bag both made of thin, flexible material substantially impervious to the passage of gases at low pressures, said face piece being in the form of an envelope having one side thereof open and adapted to conform to the nose, face and chin of the wearer and to cover the mouth and nostrils, said rebreather bag being in the form of a larger envelope enclosing said face piece and joining therewith at the edges of the open side thereof, said rebreather bag being provided with means for admitting a gas thereto from a source of supply, a wall of said face piece having an opening of predetermined size therethrough communicating with the interior of said rebreather bag to permit passage of gases between the latter and the interior of said face piece, and wall portions of said face piece and said rebreather bag lying adiacent each other having registering openings of predetermined size therethrough to permit passage of gases between the interior of said face piece and the outer atmosphere.

2. A device as in claim 1 in which the said adjacent wall portions of said face piece and rebreather bag are sealed together around said registering openings.

3. A device as in claim 1 having a pliable member extending along an edge portion of the open side of said face piece, substantially at the marginal edge thereof and adapted to be bent to conform to the nose and adjacent facial parts of the wearer.

4. A device as in claim 1 having a securing band extending along an edge portion of the open side of said face piece and outwardly therefrom, the outwardly extending portions of said band being adapted to encircle the head of the wearer to secure the device in operative position and to draw the said edge portion of the face piece into closely fitting engagement under the chin.

5. A device as in claim 1 having a pliable member extending along an upper edge portion of the open side of said face piece and adapted to be bent to conform to the nose and adjacent facial parts of the wearer, and a securing band extending along a lower edge portion of the said open side of said face piece and outwardly therefrom, the outwardly extending portions of said band being adapted to encircle the head of the wearer to secure the device in operative position and to draw the said upper edge portion of the face piece into closely fitting engagement over the nose and adjacent facial parts and the said lower edge portion into closely fitting engagement under the chin.

6. A device as in claim 1 in which the said face piece and rebreather bag are formed from an integral piece of material, the portions thereof forming the face piece being folded inside of the portions forming the rebreather bag.

7. A device as in claim '1 in which the said face piece and rebreather bag are integrally formed from a tubular blank having its side walls sealed together at each end thereof, one end portion thereof being folded back within a larger body portion thereof, which latter portion constitutes said rebreather bag and said inwardly folded portion constitutes said face piece.

8. A device as in claim 1 in which the said face piece and rebreather bag are integrally formed from a tubular blank having its side walls sealed together at each end thereof, one end portion thereof being folded back within a larger body portion thereof, which latter portion constitutes said rebreather bag and said inwardly folded portion constitutes said face piece, said device further comprising a pliable member lying within the fold of material between said portions and extending along part of the edge of the open side of said face piece and adapted to be bent to conform to the nose and adjacent facial parts of the wearer.

9. A device as in claim 1 in which the said face piece and rebreather bag are integrally formed from a tubular blank having its side walls sealed together at each end thereof, one end portion thereof being folded back within a larger body portion thereof, which latter portion constitutes said rebreather bag and said inwardly folded portion constitutes said face piece, said device further comprising a securing band having part of its length lying within the fold of material between said portions and extending along part of the edge of the open side of said face piece and outwardly therefrom, the outwardly extending portions of said band being adapted to encircle the head of the wearer to secure the device in operative position and to draw the said part of the edge of the face piece into closely fitting engagement under the chin.

10. A device as in claim 1 in which the said face piece and rebreather bag are integrally formed from a tubular blank having its side walls sealed together at each end thereof, one end portion thereof being folded back within a larger body portion thereof, which latter portion constitutes said rebreather bag and said inwardly folded portion constitutes said face piece, said device further comprising a pliable member lying within the fold of material between said portions and extending along an upper part of the edge of the open side of said face piece and adapted to be bent to conform to the nose and adjacent facial parts of the wearer, and a securing band having part of its length lying within the said fold of material and extending along a lower part of the edge of the said open side of said face piece and outwardly therefrom, the outwardly extending portions of said band being adapted to encircle the head of the wearer to secure the device in operative position and to draw the said upper part of the edge of the face piece into closely fitting engagement over the nose and adjacent facial parts and the said lower part of the edge into closely fitting engagement under the chin.

11. A device for administering gases comprising two nested envelope-like parts made of an integral piece of flexible material, the inner one of said parts being folded back within the outer one, leaving a substantial amount of unfilled space between said parts to constitute a rebreather bag, said inner part constituting a face piece and having one side thereof open and adapted to conform to the nose, face and. chin of the wearer and to cover the mouth and nostrils, and said inner part having an orifice therethrough providing for restricted flow of gases between said rebreather bag and the interior of said face piece.

12. A device as in claim 11 having a pliable member extending along an edge portion of the open side of said face piece and adapted to be bent to conform to the nose and adjacent facial parts of the wearer.

13. A device as in claim 11 having a securing band extending along an edge portion of the open side of said face piece and outwardly therefrom, the outwardly extending portions of said band being adapted to encircle the head of the wearer to secure the device in operative position and to draw the said edge portion of the face piece into closely fitting engagement under the chin.

14. A device as in claim 11 having a pliable member extending along an upper edge portion of the open side of said face piece and adapted to be bent to conform to the nose and adjacent facial parts of the wearer, and a securing band extending along a lower edge portion of the said open side of said face piece and outwardly therefrom, the outwardly extending portions of said band being adapted to encircle the head of the wearer to secure the device in operative position and to draw the said upper edge portion of the face piece into closely fitting engagement over the nose and adjacent facial parts and the said lower edge portion into closely fitting engagement under the chin.

1-5. A device for administering gases comprising a face piece and a rebreather bag both made of thin, flexible material substantially impervious to the passage of gases at low pressures, said face piece being in the form of an envelope having one side thereof open and adapted to conform to the nose, face and chin of the wearer and to cover the mouth and nostrils, said rebreather ba being in the form of a closed envelope connected to said face piece and defining an internal space essentially separate from that of said face piece, said rebreather bag being provided with means for admitting a gas thereto from a source of supply and having communication with the interior of said face piece through an interconnecting opening of predetermined size to permit passage of gases between said rebreather bag and the interior of said face piece,- and a, wall portion of said face piece having an opening of predetermined size therethrough communicating with the outer atmosphere to permit passage of gases between the interior of said face piece and the outer atmosphere.

16. A device as in claim 15 having a pliable member extending along an edge portion of the open side of said face piece, substantially at the marginal edge thereof, and adapted to be bent to conform to the nose and adjacent facial parts of the wearer.

17. A device as in claim 15 having a securing band extending along an edge portion of the open side of said face piece and outwardly therefrom, the outwardly extending portions of said band being adapted to encircle the head of the wearer to secure the device in operative position and to draw the said edge portion of the face piece into closely fitting engagement under the chin.

18. A device as in claim 15 having a pliable member extending along an upper edge portion of the open side of said face piece and adapted to be bent to conform to the nose and adjacent facial parts of the wearer, and a securing band extendin along a lower edge portion of the said wearer to secure the device in operative position and to draw the said upper edge portion of the face piece into closely fitting engagement over the nose and adjacent facial parts and the said lower edge portion into closely fitting engagement under the chin.

RALPH H. KOZA. WILLIS M. STOCKAM.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 2,248,477 Lombard July 8, 1941 2,321,256 Shelton Jan. 8, 1943 2,371,965 Lehmberg Mar, 20, 1945

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2248477 *Feb 27, 1940Jul 8, 1941Lombard Charles FMethod and apparatus for administering oxygen
US2321256 *May 25, 1942Jun 8, 1943Shclton Florence LRebreathing bag
US2371965 *Nov 3, 1941Mar 20, 1945American Optical CorpRespirator
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2788001 *Aug 14, 1953Apr 9, 1957Cycle Flo CompanyBreathing apparatus of the rebreather type
US2855924 *Nov 15, 1955Oct 14, 1958Hafferty William AFlexible face masks
US4098271 *Dec 3, 1976Jul 4, 1978Mcdonnell Douglas CorporationOxygen supply system and flow indicator
US5022393 *Oct 14, 1988Jun 11, 1991The Boeing CompanyApparatus for warning a pilot of life-support system failures
US5343859 *Jun 17, 1993Sep 6, 1994Puritan-Bennett CorporationPassenger oxygen mask having internal flow confirmation balloon
US8365734 *Apr 21, 2010Feb 5, 2013Edward LehmanMulti-port, intubation-permitting, oxygen mask
US20110247612 *Apr 13, 2011Oct 13, 2011Desalvo Micheal JosephOxygen and aromatherapy delivery apparatus for a massage table
Classifications
U.S. Classification128/205.17, 128/205.25
International ClassificationA62B18/00, A61M16/06, A62B18/02, A61M16/00
Cooperative ClassificationA61M16/0045, A62B18/025, A61M16/06, A61M16/0683
European ClassificationA62B18/02A, A61M16/06