US 2653107 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Patented Sept. 22,1953
FUSED REDUCED TITANIA-ZIRQONIA PRODUCT AND METHOD Warren B. Blumenthal, Niagara Falls, N. Y., as-
signor to National Lead Company, New York, N. Y., a corporation of New Jersey No Drawing. Application March 30, 1950, Serial No. 153,007
Claims, (Cl. 106-57) The present invention relates to a novel abrasive and attrition resistant product consisting of a fused mixture of partly reduced zirconia and titania and to a method for manufacturing the same.
In many instances, substances rated as very hard on any of the accepted hardness scales yield readily to attrition, as for instance, the action of a sand blast. Under such vigorous attack, even silicon carbide, fused aluminum oxide or corunduni and certain hardened steels, to mention but a few examples, fail quickly. Although of extreme hardness, they are unsuited for use in those environments where erosive action is severe.
Zirconia has been suggested for use in specific products where hardness is desired; it has been used as an addition agent for certain types of aluminous refractories, and ceramics of fused titania and zirconia have been prepared. Furthermore, other hard products of these metals have been prepared, having relatively high contents of carbon and nitrogen. The latter products, the so-called cyanonitrides, although generally hard crystalline products, ignite in air at elevated temperature, and zirconium cyanonitride burns at red heat to roduce finely granular dioxide. Neither the individual oxides of titanium and zirconium, no-r ceramic products dee rived from them, have been found acceptable as abrasive or attrition resistant products of the type contemplated by this invention, nor have the cyanom'trides been found suitable for this purpose.
However, in accordance with the present invention, very hard abrasive particles and attri-. tion resistant products can be prepared from a partially reduced fused composition of titania and zirconia having an oxygen content very considerably higher than that present in the usual cyanonitride and below that found in the dioxides. In the reduced titania-zirconia composition of the resent invention, the oxygencontent should be greater than 15 weight per cent and less than 98 per cent of that which would be present if no reduction took place.
The attrition resistance of the fused reduced titania-zirconia appears to depend more upon the oxygen content than upon the ratio of the titania to the zirconia since excellent hardness is obtained in fused reduced products with a mol ratio of 1:9 to 9:1 between the titania and zirconia in the initial mix. Somewhat increased attrition resistance is obtained in fused reduced products where the mol ratio of titania to zirconia used in the preparation is between 1:3 to 3:1.
The product. of the present invention may b comminuted and sold as abrasive rains or cast into desired shap s for indus rial uses where unusual resistance to abrasion is desired.
In accordance with the broad principles of the invention, a mixture of titania and zirconia within the mo-l ratios specified is submitted to the reducing action of a controlled amount of carbon. The reduction will be effected in an arc furnace although this is not a requisite of the process as the operation may be carried out in any type of furnace capable of melting the mixture. The mass which solidifies on cooling, is a dark-colored substance of cubic crystalline structure having a semi-metallic luster. The oxygen content is much greater than that found in the cyanonl trides and at least 2 per cent less in oxygen than corresponds to a mixture of unreduced dioxides. It is believed that, in the end product, a portion of the dioxide has been replaced by appreciable amounts of lower oxides. It is believed that the end product is probably a solid solution of such compounds with the dioxides.
The final reduced product is rated as very hard, on the Brinell or Rockwell scales, and 9 to somewhat below, on lvlohs scale, depending upon the. ratio of titania to zirconia and upon the oxy en content. It has a specific gravity of about 5.1.
An ultimate chemical analysis of a typical product made from equi-molar quantities of titania and zirconia was as follows:
The essential ingredients of the product appear to be zirconium, titanium and oxygen. The mol ratio of titanium to zirconium may vary within the range 1:9 to 9:1; satisfactory abrasives are obtained when the oxygen content is above 15% by weight and below 98% of that. required to form dioxides of all the metallic content.
It will be found, from the analysis, that the ratio of chemical equivalents of metals to nonmetals is about 2:1.80. It follows that the improved abrasive of the above analysis contains approximately 10% of free metal, or the equivalent thereof in partly reduced oxide. l'tis probably be t, cons de d. as a ol s utio of titania. zirconia, lower oxides of titanium and zirconium, and small amounts of carbon and nitrogen.
3 The following examples are given merely as illustrative of the principles of manufacture of the product rather than limitative of the quantities of materials to be employed.
Example 1 799 gm. of ground pigment grade titanium oxide was mixed with an equal molar quantity,
1232 gms., of a commercial grade of zirconium oxide of a fineness of about 100 mesh or finer. 24 gm. of petroleum coke was added to the mixture which was then added slowly to the crucible of an arc furnace. A power input of about 20 kilowatts was maintained in the furnace during the addition of the reacting mixture, and for five minutes after complete addition. The re-,
Like Example 1, except use 532 gm. of titanium oxide and 1643 gm. of zirconium oxide. The fusion product in this instance was withdrawn from the furnace and permitted to cool and crystallize. The end product was indistinguishable from that of Example 1.
Like Example 1, except use 1064 gm. of titanium oxide and 822 gm. of zirconium oxide. The final product was a very dark colored crystal of extreme hardness and similar to the products of Examples 1 and 2.
Various grades of titanium dioxide, zirconium dioxide and carbon may be used in this process, and an induction furnace or other high temperature furnace may be used, provided the temperatures attained exceed 1850 C.
To show the comparative attrition resistance of the new fused reduced titania-zirconia product, pieces of it were subjected to a sand blast and the results compared with the action of the blast upon products possessing either high abrasive qualities or great hardness. The test pieces were placed two inches from the nozzle of a sand blast machine so that a flat surface was exposed to the action of the blast discharging from a onequarter inch nozzle for periods of time asspecified below. Most of the pieces were cut away to a considerable degree by the blast. The reduced titania-zirconia complex of the present invention was, however, only polished to a smooth, clean surface.
As can be seen from the above results, the product of the present invention is extremely tough, as it is merely polished by the sand blast. A determination of the micro-hardness showed The crucible was finally al- I that it compared very favorably with fused corundum. The figures obtained in a set of tests on the new product gave average results of 1950 to 2100 for the diamond pyramid hardness number of different areas on the polished surface of the specimen. (Cf. N. G. Schrewelius, J. A. Cer. Soc. 31, 170, June 1, 1948, No. 6.)
The grinding properties of the new reduced titania-zirconia composition were compared to that of fused alumina by employing samples of 325 mesh powder of each for abrading spectacle crown glass on a steel lap operating at 168 R. P. M., using 8 pounds per square inch pressure, the abrasive powder being applied at the rate of 2 ml. per minute, of a slurry containing 10 gms. of powder per ml. of water. The loss in weights in gram per square inch, per hour, were as follows:
Reduced TiOz-ZrOz Fused Alumina Abrasive Under all the vigorous testing conditions, the novel fused reduced titania-zirconia composition proved to be extremely tough, hard, and abrasiveresistant, their particular qualities making the products suitable for use as abrasives or as attrition resistant materials.
What is claimed is:
1. The method of manufacturing a fused reduced titania-zirconia product which comprises heating to fusion a mixture of titanium dioxide and zirconium dioxide of composition within the mol ratio range 1:9 and 9:1 with sufficient carbon to reduce the oxygen content below 98 per cent of the original amount but not below 15 weight per cent, withdrawing the molten fusion product and permitting the same to cool and crystallize.
2. The method of manufacturing a fused reduced titania-zirconia product which comprises heating to fusion in an electric are a mixture of titanium dioxide and zirconium dioxide of composition within the mol ratio range 1:9 and 9:1 with sufficient carbon to reduce the oxygen content below 98 per cent of its original amount but not below 15 Weight per cent, withdrawing the molten fusion product from the arc and permitting the same to cool and crystallize.
3."The method of manufacturing a fused reduced titania-zirconia product which comprises heating to fusion a mixture of titanium dioxide and zirconium dioxide of compositions within the mol ratio range 1:3 and 3:1 with sufficient carbon to reduce the oxygen content to below 98 per cent of its original amount but not below 15 weight per cent, withdrawing the molten fusion product and permitting the same to cool and crystallize.
4. As a new composition of matter the product of claim 1.
5. As a new composition of matter the product of claim 3.
' WARREN B. BLUMENTI-IAL.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,960,329 Brown May 29, 1934 2,364,123 Benner et al. Dec. 5, 1944