US 2654579 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
OC- 6, 1953 l.. w. CRI-:MENS 2,654,579
RAILING 5 Sheets-Sheet l Filed Feb. 25, 1950 INVENTOR. /l/'emes Pro Oct. 6, 1953 L W CREMENS 2,654,579
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L, W. CREMENS Oct'. 6, 1953 RAILING 5 Sheets-Sheet Z5 Filed Feb. 25, 1950 N Mm I@ w. v/ M Z Oct. 6, 1953 L. w. CRI-:MENS 2,654,579
RAILING Filed Feb. 25, 1950 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTOR. fera/ VM Game/',
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INVENTOR. leroy/:Z (Perf/ans. BY Mw? WMM@ ma( @21T/IMX Patented Oct. 6, 1953 UNITED STATESQPATENT OFFICE 6 Claims.
My invention relates to railings, balustrades.:
fences, and the like, and consists in certain new and useful improvements in such structures formed of metal.
The object of the invention is to provide a metal railing of simplified and economical construction, a construction that features novel fittings which permit the structure to be erected and assembled without the necessity of shop fabrication, and without welding. The consumer may, by means of the usual simple tools hel has available, readily install the railing structure himself.
Among the other objects of the invention it may be noted that the structure is of extroardinary sturdiness and rigidity.
The invention will be understood upon reference to the accompanying drawings in which exemplary form of my railing structure is illustrated:
Fig, l is a View of a stair railing in side elevation, the vieu/indicating in outline a flight of stairs and a horizontal platform, with my railing structure installed both on the stairs and on the platform, the railing structure on the platform being shown fragmentarily; 1
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary view in perspective, showing to larger scale the bottom rail of the structure with one baluster installed, and showthe top rail of the structure in position for assembly with the top of the baluster;
Fig. 3 is a View in perspective of an extruded metal section to still larger scale, from which certain socket members are cut for attaching the ends of the balusters to the rails of the structure;
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary View in perspective of the top of one of the balusters to the scale of Fig. 3;
Fig. 5 is a view to the scale of Fig. 3, showingl in perspective of a modified form of socket ele-` ment for securing the balusters to the top and bottom rails of the structure;
Fig. 6 is a view to the scale of Fig. 3, showing in perspective of an extruded metal section, from may be cut;
Fig. 7 is a view, comparable with Fig. 5, showing still another modified form of socket element; Fig. 8 is a fragmentary view to the scale of Fig.
which socket elements of another modified form 2, showing in side elevation one of the balusters" used with the socket elements shown in Figs. 2, 3, 5 and 6;
Fig. 9 is a view similar to Fig. 8, showing a baluster of the form used with the socket element shown in Fig. 7
Fig. 10 is a view to smaller scale than Figs. 8
and 9, showing in perspective of one of the many variants in the form of balusters which may be used in my railing structure, the ends of this baluster being shaped for use with the socket elements of Figs. 2, 3, 5 and 6;
Fig. 11 is a fragmentary view in perspective to the scale of Fig. 7, illustrating partly in elevation and partly in section, a baluster formed of a hollow tube of metal with solid terminal portions;
Fig. 12 is a view in perspective to the scale of' Fig. 3, showing a certain boss element for securing the ends of the rail members to the railing posts;
Fig. 13 is a view in perspective to smaller scale than Fig. 2 but larger scale than Fig. 1, showing a corner-piece that is used where a horizontal reach of my railing structure includes a right-angle turn;
Fig. 14. illustrates in perspective how the corner-piece of Fig. 13 unites and encloses the meeting ends of two angularly extending rail members;
Fig. 15 is a View to slightly larger scale than Figs. 13 and 14, showing in perspective of a terminal-piece for the railing structure;
Fig. 16 is a fragmentary View in vertical section, showing to slightly larger scale the terminal-piece of Fig. 15 in assembly with the railing structure;
Fig. 17 is a View to the scale of Fig, 16, showing vin perspective of a device for installing a ball or knob where desired on the top-rail of the railing structure;
Fig. 18 is a viewin side elevation, illustrating a device for uniting the top-rail of the railing 4structure at the point where an inclined railing portion merges with a horizontal rail portion;
Fig. 19-is a view in perspective of a bracket element for securing the top and bottom rails of the railing structure to a wall or other vertical support;
Fig. 20 is a view in perspective to the scale of Fig. 3, showing still another modification in the form of the socket element;
Fig. 21 is an exploded view in perspective of the modied form of baluster and securing means used with the modified socket element shown in Fig. 20;
Fig. 22 is a view comparable in general with but to smaller scale than Fig. 2, illustrating further modications in the railing structure of the invention; and
Fig. 23 is a view to substantially the scale of Fig. 22,'showing in perspective of certain lockbe noted that the socket elements (I3 tion. More particularly,
Each of said.
railing structures or portions is formed of ay hand-rail or top rail member 9 and a bottom rail member l5, secured at their ends to the'posts 4, 5 and wall as shown. At uniformly spaced in -A tervals longitudinally of top and bottom rail members are interconnected and rigidly integrated by means of vertical balusters .I.I. Between Vthe post 4 and the .adjacent baluster I! an ornamental insert I2 of any suitable design may be installed for increasing the artistic appeal of the railing structure, and such an insert I2 may also be applied between all of the successive balusters of the structure.
Referring to Fig. 2., the top or hand-raily v9 comprises a section of extruded metal, preferably aluminum, although brass or other metal susceptible of extrusion may be the metal. The particular cross sectional form of the rail 9 is subject to wide variation in Structural and artistic form, but it is desirable from the standpoint of economy that the wall thickness of the section, Whatever its particular contour, shall be relatively thin, say from le" to Essentially, the rail 9 includes two downwardly directed flanges 9a, 9a that extend longitudinally of the rail body. These flanges, as will presently appear, provide a channel in which certain socket elements I3 are secured for the attachment of the upper ends of the balusters II, which are preferably formed'of the same metal as the rest of the railing structure. The bottom rail II) is also formed of a section of extruded metal, having two upwardly directed, longitudinally extending iianges Ina, 10a, between which lies a channel wherein certain socket elements I4 are secured for the attachment of the lower ends of the balusters I I. In this case the flanges 9a, sa
in the hand-rail and the anges Ia, ia in the bottom rail are inclined, converging in the direction of the free edges of the flanges. Such inclination of the flanges is preferable, if not essential, as greater strength and rigidity of the rail body are thereby obtained. Also, it is to and I4) which are secured between the flanges, serve effectively to reinforce the rail bodies of the rails 9 and I3. However, the reinforcement obtained Yby the structure described is substantially increased in accordance with a feature of this invention. That is to say, between the inclined flanges of each rail member a heavy rib is integrally incorporated in the extruded metal secin the top or hand-rail 9 a rib 9b is formed, and in the bottom rail I0 a rib Ib is provided. The socket elements I3 and I4 are provided with grooves I3a and 14a, respectively, that snugly engage the ribs 9b and Ib of the rails 9 and Ill, and thereby' provide rigidity and structural strength that have hitherto been lacking in light metal railing structures.
The socket elements I3 and I4 are formed from a continuous section of extruded metal shown the 'railing structure the Vset-screws between the socket elements I3 to the .rail body. The socket f 'Extending downward vrail structural organization shown in cured to the post 5 and the wall l, by
fragmentarily in Fig. 3. The lengths of the elements cut from the section equal the breadth of the ends of the balusters I I, the upper end of one of the balusters II being shown in Fig. 4, while both ends of a baluster are shown in Figs. 2 and 8.
Referring to Fig. 2, it will be understood that each of the socket elements I3 includes a head portion that snugly fits the channel formed by the inclined 'flanges 9a, 9a vand the interconnecting `web portion of the rail body 3. The groove l3a. in the head portion engages the rib eb of the element I3 includes an integral transverse web I3b that augmente the strength of the socket element per se, as well as the rigidity of the railing structure in which a plurality of such socket elements is incorporated. from the head portion of the-socket element is a pair of side walls, 3c, 13e that are spaced apart, as shown, to provide a recess or socket to receive the upper end of a baluster I I. The side walls i5cz, Ic have on their internal faces opposedA tongues i3d, i3d, and the upper ends of the balusters include grooves tia, I Ia that engage the tongues on the internal faces of the side walls I3c, |30.
The socket elements I4 for the bottom ends of the balusters are shown to be identical in form to the top socket elements i3, and are cut from the same extruded stock as that shown in Fig. 3. It need merely be noted that the bottom socket elements I4 are inverted counterparts of the socket elements I3, and are engaged to the rib Ib and secured between the flanges lea, Ital of the bottom rail I0 in substantially the same mannerA as the tcpV socket elements i3 are assembled in the top rail 9.
The socket elements, as well asthe rest of the Fig. 2, are
manifestly designed for a railing that extends horizontally, such as the railing portion 8 of Fig. 1'. Inmaking the assembly of such a railing portion, the number of balusters required in the given length of railing isv determined, and top and bottom rails 9 and IG are cut from the extruded stock to proper length. Then the required number of socket elements i3 are assembled in the top rail 9 and secured in properly longitudinally spaced positions, as by means of I5 (Fig. 2) passed through the anges 9a, 9a and engaged in threaded holes It in the head portion of each socket element. Likewise, socket elements I4 are assembled and secured in complementarily spaced relation in the bottom rail I0, and in the intervals between the socket elements I4, the upwardly open channels between y the flanges Illa, Ilia are closed by means of cover plates I1 nariges of the bottomjra'il.
secured to 4the'topv edges of the said Vn exemplary way snap-flanges Ila are provided cn the cover plates to engage the inner edges of the flanges lila, its.
If desired, similar cover plates may be secured lower edges of the flanges 9a, 9a of the top rail.
The ends of thetop and bottom rails are semeans of special attachment elements designed for this purpose. Thespecial elements for attaching the rail ends to the post 5 mayfcomprise blocks it. As shown in Fig. 12, such blocks I8 comprise a head portionV Ia formed to t snugly in the end of the channel formed IceetwerzenV the flanges dc, sa of the top rail. Holes ISb are formed in the block, through which screws are passed to engage the block to the upper portion of post 5.
/The end 0f thetop rail is positioned over the to by means of screws passed through the flanges 9a, 9a into engagement with threaded holes |80 in the block (Fig. 12).
The bottom rail I is secured to the post 5 by means of a block I3 the same as block I8 that secures the top rail, only the bottom block is inverted in position.
The top rail is secured to the wall 'I by means of a terminal element, such as shown in Fig. 19, comprising -a iange portion I 9a provided with holes I9b for lag screws to secure the element to the face of the wall 1, and a sleeve portion I 90 that is formed telescopically to engage and secure the right-hand end of the top rail as indicated in Fig. 1. A similar terminal element (Fig. 1) is provided telescopically to engage the end of the bottom rail and secure it to the wall.
When the top and bottom rails, with the socket elements |3 and I4 installed, have been mounted between the post 5 and wall the balusters are assembled between the paired, vertically aligned socket elements of the top and bottom rails. The showing of Fig. 2 will clearly reveal to those skilled in the art the manner in which the ends of the balusters are engaged in the socket elements. Screws 2| passed through side walls and I4c may be tightened in threaded engagement with the body of the baluster, to assure absolute rigidity and permanence of the assembly.
In those cases where the railing is of six or more feet in length, one or more base elements 22 are provided at appropriate points medially to add support for the structure. As shown in Fig. 2 such base elements may consist of a section cut from extruded stock, including two vertical legs 22a, 22a having out-turned feet 22h that may be anchored, as by means of floorbolts or lag screws, to the platform or licor 3. The top of the basal element comprises a transverse web 220 extending integrally between the tops of legs 22a and dished or inversely arched to receive the curved under face of the bottom rail it. A transverse web 22d is provided for reinforcement of the base element.
The bottom rail I!! includes a central, longitudinal V-groove |30 that engages a rib 22e formed on the top of the base element, thereby insuring a centering and alignment of these parts. It will be understood ythat screws (not shown) may be employed tc rigidly engage the top web 220 of the base element to the curved wall of the bottom rail Il), thus providing absolute security of assembly.
Thus, the horizontal railing structure is formed and installed. There are many permissive modications in details of construction, within the spirit of the invention. The extruded stock 23, from which such modified socket elements may be cut, is shown in Fig. 6, and a consideration of this gure will. reveal how each of the socket elements (otherwise identical with socket elements I3, I4) will have a cylindrical head portion derived from the hollow tube portion 23a of the stock. rlhis tube portion includes a groove 23h which in each of the socket elements cut from the stock provides a groove to engage the ribs Sb or Elib in the top and bottom rails.
In further modification each socket element may comprise a metal cas-ting 24 (Fig. 5), having a substantially spherical head portion 24a, formed with an arcuate groove 24h that is adapted to engage the ribs 9b or IiIb of the top or bot- 6 tom rails. The spherical head is provided with threaded holes 24c to receive the screws I5 (Fig.
'2) that secure the socket elements to the rails -9 and I0. While this socket element is perfectly adapted for use in the horizontal railing structure presently under consideration, it may be noted that the curved form of the head portion and the grooves of this type of socket element permit of the inclination of the rails with respect to the balusters, as is essential in the inclined railing portion for the stairway 2 (Fig. 1), as will presently appear. Each of the forms of socket elements thus far described are designed to receive and secure the grooved ends of the type of balusters shown in Figs. 2, 4 and 8. The particular form of the balusters between the grooved -upper and lower ends may take a wide variety 'of detailed construction. In Fig. 1-0 is shown one of the many variants. The body 25 of the balusters may consist of two straps of metal twisted vto serpentine contour between the grooved end pieces 25a, 25a.
In lieu of the tongue-and-groove engagement of the balusters to the socket elements, other types of union may be used, and in Fig. 7 the form of socket element shown in Fig. 5 is modified, in exemplary way, to provide for the threaded attachment of balusters to the socket elements. Specically, the socket element 2t of Fig. 7 includes a threaded socket 26a, and the top of each baluster is formed with a threaded stem 2'! (Fig. 9) for threaded assembly in such socket. The lower end of the baluster is pro vided with a stem 21a, which is provided with a left-hand thread, while the stem 2l at the top of the baluster has a right-hand thread. The socket elements 26 for the top rail 9 will correspondingly have right-hand threads, while the socket elements of the bottom rail will have lef*- hand threads. Thus, by placing the threaded stems at the upper and lower ends of a baluster in the opposed pair of socket elements in the top and bottom rails, the rotation of the baluster will run the threaded stems of the baluster home in the threaded sockets of said elements. This modification is in many instances a very desirable structure. Its use, however, means that the assembly of the socket elements, top and bottom rails, and balusters is to be made before the railing structure is secured to the post 5 and wall "I, but this is not a prohibitive condition in most cases.
Fie. 1l illustrates that the balusters need not be formed of solid extruded bars, but may be formed of either extruded or fabricated tubes `28 of aluminum, stainless steel, or the like, having at each end an attaching portion 28a for engaging the baluster to a socket element cf the vrailing structure. Each attaching element may vconsist of an independently fashioned device tted and secured in the end of the tube, as by means of dimpling the wall of the tube into `engagement with a groove 281) in the body of the attaching element.
Before turning'to a consideration of the assembly of the inclined railing portion 5 (Fig. 1) there is still to be described another modification ,of the structure of the socket elements for the vhorizontal railing structure. Fig. 20 illustrates 'another variant of extruded stock 29 of which to form the socket elements I3 and I4. This stock may be identical with that shown in Fig. 3, ex-
cept that the tongues 29d on the side walls 29e4 `may be of the same form as shown in Fig. 9 .or Fig. 11, but with this form of baluster having, as it does, :threaded attachment stems, a washer element 3.0 and a nut 3l are provided as shown in Fig. 21. rIhe washer-30 freely fits over the threaded stem 2'i, and is provided with wedgeshaped edges 30a, 39a that severally engage the bottom edges of the dove-tailed tongues 29d (Fig. 20), while the nut 3l is provided with wedge-shaped edges 31a, SIa, that engage the top edges of said tongues. The bore 3Ib of the nut element y3l is threaded for screw engagement with the stem 2'I of the baluster. It will be perceived that with the nut and washer elements positioned above and below the dovetailed tengus 29d, 29d of the socket element cut from stock 29, the stem 21 of the baluster may be inserted through the orice 30h of the washer element and into screw-threaded engagement with the nut element 3 I, and that, by turning the baluster, the screw stem may be caused to draw the elements 30 and 3l together into a tightly locked engagement with the dove-tailed tongues 29d, 28d of the socket element. The shoulder 2lb of the baluster is drawn and forced against the bottom of the washer element 30, and so the washer element, nut element, and the upper end of the baluster are locked in rigid union with the socket element and with the top rail with which the socket element is assembled. -The same assembly may be employed to secure the lower end of the baluster to the bottom rail of the railing structure, it being noted that the thread on the stem at the lower end of the baluster, and the thread in the lower nut element will be left-handed, so that the rotation of the baluster will lock the washer and nut elements at both the upper and lower ends of the baluster simultaneously to the socket elements in the top and bottom rails 9 and I0. Each baluster may be thus secured in the railing structure.
In some cases the horizontal rail structure will extend in two reaches that intersect angularly. For such installations a corner-piece 32 of the form shown in Fig. 18 may be provided, to give a smooth iinish at the corner of the meeting reaches or" the hand-rail 9. The corner-piece 32 Vconfiprises two sleeve portions 32a and 32h that are telescopicaly fitted upon the intersecting or meeting ends of two top rails 9, as shown in Fig. 14.
Turning now to a consideration of the inclined railing portion 5 (Fig. 1), the ends of the top and bottom rails 9 and I0 are cut on an angle to abut flush against the facing sides of the posts il and 5, and blocks 33 are secured to such posts to receive and secure the ends of the inclined rails S and I0, after thermanner that the blocks I8 receive and secure the horizontal rails, already described. The blocks 33 are substantially the same in form as the blocks I8, save that the sides of the head portion of the blocks 33 are cham'- fered to adapt them to the inclination of the top and bott-om rails of the inclined railing 6.
The socket-elements for securing the balusters II to the inclined top and bottom rails are of the form 24 shown in Fig. 5, in which the spherical head 24a and the arcuate groove 24h, engaged to the ribs (9b and Ib, Fig. 2) of the rails, permit the socket elements to be angularly adjusted in vthe vertical plane, deflned'by the center lines of the top and bottom rails, into such positions that the upper and lower ends of the balusters I I may be secured to the socket elements,l as shown in Fig. 1. In view' of what has Vbeen described of the-*horizontal ran structure.
it is needless further to elaborate on the assembly ofthe .inclined railing portion 6. It maybe noted, however, that the socket element 26 may be employed in the inclined railing, with the form of baluster shown inFig. 9.
The lower end of the hand-rail 9 of the Vinclined rail is equipped with a terminal-piece 34 that lends a finished appearance to the structure. As shown in Figs. 15 and 16, the terminal-piece includes a sleeve portion 34a that is secured telescopically upon the lower end of the rail 9, and a curled tip portion 34h. The terminal-piece 3d provides a finish of neat and pleasing appearance, screening the joint where the hand-rail 9 is united to the post 4.
Additionally, at the point where the horizontal and inclined rails 9 of the railing structure are united to the post 5, a finish-element 35 is provided. This finish-element is formed of two sleeve portions 35a, 35a that are united in a seam 35e, and on the horizontal sleeve portion a railing knob 35h is xed. The finish element 35 is assembled telescopically upon the meeting ends of the horizontal and inclined sections of the hand-rail 9, as shown in Fig. 1, and as thus assembled a neat finish of the joint of the rail sections 9 with the post 5 is provided.
At any point in the rail 9 where a hand-knob is desired, a sleeve-element 36, of the sort shown in Fig. 17, may be installed on the rail, such sleeve element bearing a knob 36a.
While the attachments or devices I9 of Fig. 19, 32 of Figs. 13 and 14,V 34 of Figs. 15 and 16, and 35 of Fig. 18 are provided with sleeve portions that are telescopi-cally fitted over the rail ends to be engaged, the skilled artisan will readily perceive that the sleeve portions may be fashioned in size to telescope within the ends of the hollow rails to be engaged. And it may be noted that the hollow rails 9 and I0 of the structure are adapted to form raceways for housing electrical circuit wires and/or conduits for water or other fluid.
In a more simplified type of my railing structure, the socket elements I3 and I4 may in eiect be embodied in the top and bottom rails per se. rI'hat is, the top and bottom rails of the railing may comprise an extruded section of the form shown at 31 in Fig. 22, to which the upper and lower ends of the balusters 38 may be directly attached, as by the engagement of disk elements in the form of washers 3!) and nuts 3|, to the dove-tail tongues or ribs 31a, 37a on the inner faces of the spaced side wall portions 31e, 31e of the rail bodies. This dove-tail interlocking of the washers and nuts with the vertical side wall portions of the rails at each point where a baluster is located provides such rigidity and strength of assembly as are obtained in the railing construction first described. In those reaches where the railing structure is inclined, as at 6 in Fig. 1, the washers 30 are made in the appropriately modified form shown at '39 in Fig. 23, and the nuts 3| are made as shown at 40, thereby being perfectly adapted to engage the dovetail tongues (31a, 31a) on the inclined rails.
As indicated in the foregoing paragraph, both the top and bottom rails may be of the section shown at3`I, it being understood that the bottom rail maybe identical 'with the top rail, but inverted in relative position so that washer and nut (30, 3|) at each end of each baluster may be locked to the dove-tail tongues. However, the bottom rail of the structure may comprise a less specialized extruded section, such as the inverted channel 4| illustrated in the lower portion of Fig. 22. Here the lower ends of the balusters (38) are simply and rigidly secured to such bottom rail by means of screws 42, while the upper ends of the balusters are secured to the top rail 3l in the manner already described.
Notice is given of my divisional application, Serial No. 345,023, led March 27, 1953,
Within the terms of the appended claims many modifications and variations, in addition to those herein illustrated and described, may be utilized without departing from the essence of the invention dened in the appended claims.
1. A railing structure including a rail and a plurality of balusters secured thereto in longitudinally spaced relation, said rail comprising an extruded metal section having two longitudinally extending flanges spaced apart transversely of the rail body, formed with an outstanding rib portion of dove-tail cross section extending longitudinally on the internal face of each flange the end of each baluster secured t said rail having a shoulder and a threaded stem portion extending therefrom and equipped with a washer and a nut formed with edge portions to engage said dove-tail rib portions above and below, said washer element abutting said shoulder and said nut being in threaded engagement with said threaded stem, whereby, by rotating said baluster, the nut and washer are drawn into tight engagement with the dove-tail rib portions of said anges.
2. A railing structure including a rail and a plurality of balusters secured thereto in longitudinally spaced relation, said rail comprising an extruded metal section having two longitudinally extending flanges spaced apart transversely of the rail body, formed with an outstanding rib portion of dove-tail cross section extending longitudinally on the internal face of each ange, and means for securing the end of each baluster to said rail comprising two disk elements having edge portions to engage the dove-tail ribs on the two anges above and below, and a threaded stem connected to said end of the baluster and being in threaded engagement with at least one of said disk elements for locking the same in tight engagement with the said rib portions and flanges of the rail.
3. A railing structure comprising an extruded metal rail section having a body with two downwardly directed longitudinally extending flanges spaced apart transversely of the body and provided on their opposing faces each with a longitudinally extending rib, a baluster, means for securing the baluster to said rail section compris' ing two disk elements extending between said flanges and engaging the ribs thereon above and below, and a threaded stem portion on said baluster in threaded engagement with at least one of said disks for tightening said disks in secure engagement with said ribs and securing said baluster to said rail section.
4. A railing structure comprising an extruded metal rail section having a body with two downwardly directed longitudinally extending ilanges spaced apart transversely of the body and provided on their opposing faces each with a longitudinally extending rib, a baluster having av shoulder and a threaded stem extending therefrom, two disk elements extending between said flanges and engaging the ribs thereon above and below, one of said disk elements being in threaded engagement with said stem and one of such disk elements abutting upon said shoulder, with the effect that the rotation of said threaded stem is effective to tighen said disks in secure engagement with said ribs for securing said baluster to the rail section.
5. A railing structure comprising an extruded metal rail section having a body with two downwardly directed longitudinally extending flanges spaced apart transversely of the body and provided on their opposing faces each with a longitudinally extending rib of dove-tail shape in cross section to provide upper and lower edges, means for securing a baluster to said rail section oomprising two disk elements extending between said iianges and provided with grooves for engaging the upper and lower edges of said ribs on said ilanges, and means for tightly locking said disks in such engagement with said ribs.
6. In a meta1 railing' structure including a baluster and an extruded metal body portion having two spaced-apart flanges provided on their opposing faces each with a rib extending longitudinally of the flanges, means for securing the baluster to said body portion comprising two disk elements extending between said flanges and engaging the ribs thereon above and below, and a threaded stem portion on said baluster in threaded engagement with at least one of said disks for tightening said disks in secure engagement with said ribs and securing said baluster to said rail section.
LEROY W. CREMENS.
References Cited in the iile of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,772,159 Roth Aug, 5, 1930 1,796,175 Winston Mar. 10, 1931 2,427,723 Hawkins et al. Sept. 23, 1947 2,431,546 Edwards Nov. 25, 1947 2,517,959 Baldwin Aug. 8, 1950