US 2655170 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. 13, 1953 w. T. FERGUSON 2,655,170 K l ATR VENT FOR WATER SYSTEMS Filed Aug. 1l, 1950 2 Sheets-Shed?T l 4b 1s 22 M F1'j9-, L'
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12mm Wadden 17mg mow fw @ffiey oct. 13, 1953 Filed Aug. 1l, 1950 w. T. FERGUSON AIR VENT FOR WATER SYSTEMS 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Patented Oct. 13, 1953 AIR'VENTLFOR WATER SYSTEMS Warren 1T. Ferguson, Newton .Highlands, Mass., assignor to Anderson Products, Inc., Cambridge, Mass., Aa corporation of Massachusetts Application Augustll, 1950,"Seri`a.lN0. '178,857
This invention relates to air venting valves. It .is gparticularly concerned with `an -air vent which :may fbe lused in .connection with .a hot water heating system to vent 1thezair in cachindividual radiator at :the beginning of the .heating fseason,vand which will -function thereafter to ventslowly such air V-as :may accumulate in each radiator :as 'the heating .season iprogresses.
vlheconventional practice `up to the .present vin hot 'Water 'heating systems 'of the type commonly used `in homes, is to ,provide a-smallfkey operated valve near the top V'Ofeach radiator. At the beginning `of each .heating season, Ythe system is filled 'with water. .The trapped `air. in .the .top of each :radiator :is permitted to escape by opening the key operated Evalve :and .after .the radiator fis filled with Water and theair expelled .the valve is closed. Thereafter, fas `the system functions, air 4that ispresent in the -waterfgradually escapes therefrom zto :accumulate in rthe to-p .of 'each radiator. Thus, the water level :in each .radiator falls Eand the 'heating :efiiciency correspondingly declines.
While the Waterlevel vin theradiatorsmayfall .asthe air :separates fout, there is ordinarily'sufii- 'cient pressure .available :to restore the water .to .its proper .level Yas'soon aszthe air in the .top of the radiator is lvented therefrom. This -heretofore Fhas required repeated manual opening -of the radiator valve which -is'usually notattended Vto with `.proper regularity. Accordingly, .it has been found that in general the heating efficiency tends to `.decline 14as'the :heating season progresses.
"Therefore, it is fan .object of 'the present inven (tion to :provide a valve of such character .and construction that :it vmay :be Asubstituted kfor -the present -key actuatedya-lvelrto :permitthefimmedi- `rate and 'continuous :escape from the .radiator .of any air that collects `in the upper portion. .This assumes, fof course, that 'there yis afsuitable supplyfof waterunder adequate pressure .to raise .the level inthe radiator and 4expel the gas therefrom.
"I'h'e valve, sin addition to :its automatic air venting feature, ris 'designed to :permitfquick -ventwhich, while permitting .the v slow `continuous escape yof vair -`will 'automatically .seal .itself .against the escapeof .water whenthe water reaches `the valvelevel.
These and other objects of the invention `will 2 become more Aapparent .as .the description proceeds with .the aidofthe accompanying drawings in which:
Fig. 1 .is a cross section of the Valve in normal, slow air ventingcondition.
Fig. 2 is a cross section of the valveshown in Fig. 1 with the valve Ymanually'opened for .quick venting.
Fig. 3 is a cross section similar to Fig. 1 showing the condition o-f the discs when they have been expanded to actas -a seal against the escape of Water.
Fig. `"l is a section on theline 4-4of Fig. 3.
Fig. 5 shows a modification in which the'outer cap Ihas been securedfto-theinner `plug-by a press Fig. 6 is .a cross section of -another modication in which .the outer cap has beensecured to the inner plug by a snap ring :and .a ball valve has rbeen-substituted for the screw threaded valve.
Fig. '7 is across section of another modification in which the outer Vcap is free to move longitudinally 'With respect to .the inner plug with the .pressure on v'the :sealing ring being transmitted through'thediscs.
Fig. Bis af'sectionfonthe line 8--8 of Fig. 2.
Fig. V9 is :an enlarged fragmentary View of a portion of the inner 'plug in Awhich is shown a modified form 'of metering screw.
Referring "to Fig. 1,"the '.valve :comprises a body 2 having a `:pipe "thread 4 fon 'its :exterior yand a central lpassage 6. The body expands vinto a 'hexagonal nutportion `8 havingfa terminal flange t!) with afthreaded int'erior bore .12.
A cap lI4 vthreadedexteriorlyfat its lower end at H3 and interiorly :at l18 adapted to make screw threaded engagement withthreadsfl 2. The terminal j'liange "I'Disshown asbeing crimped over at 20 'to 'prevent the -removal fof 'the cap after Vit is in position. 'Itwill be understood, ofcourse, that this crimping takes place only after the cap has been threaded into position. Y Y
A plug 2'2 Vexternally 'threaded at one end and of somewhat reduced diameter 24 at the other is in threaded vengagement with threads 'I8 of lcap i4. After the plug has been positioned with respect to the cap,as shownjthe terminal threads of 'the cap and plug are distorted as at'26 to hold the plug in Afixed'relation with the-cap. y
The plug 22 has a central bore V28 with its left end threaded as atf3 to'receivecorrespon-ding threads of a'meter'ing screw'f321having-a `head 34 with a screwdriver receivingvslot 36. -Plug '22 has on its left endashoulderiS of reduced diameter 3 about which is positioned a circular sealing ring 46.
As shown in Fig. 1, the sealing ring 40 is compressed between the flat circular seat formed by the wall 48 (see Fig. 2) and the circular opposite surface on the end of plug 22 adjacent shoulder 3S. The pressure applied to ring 40, limited by the engagement of the end of the plug with the inner edge of wall 48 is suiiicient to provide an air and water tight seal at this area.
Between the right hand end of plug 22 and the under side of the closed end of cap i4 are a plurality of hygroscopic elements in the form of fiber discs 42. In the present instance 7 discs are shown. These discs may be or any selected coniiguration such as circular or multi-sided or with notches therein. In the preferred form shown herein the discs have had their sides clipped to render them generally square with curved corners, as shown in Fig. 8. The discs have central 'openings and fit comfortably within the cylindrical bore in the end of the cap. The squared sides of the discs upon installation asm sume random angular positions with respect to each other thereby increasing the surface area that is available for speeding evaporation. At a plurality of positions around the cap at the section filled by the discs are slow venting ports 44. There is also a fast venting port 4t through the enlarged portion of body 2 leading to the atmosphere from the area surrounding the exterior of the sealing ring 40.
Positioned in the aligned central openings oi the discs is a small round bar 41 which occupies a major portion of the volume within the central openings. Thus, the amount of water that can collect within the discs is limited and subsequent drying is facilitated. This will be referred to more fully hereinafter.
The lit of the threads of metering screw 32 with the threads 36 in plug 22is such that gas under pressure may pass slowly therebetween to reach the bore 28. If metering screw 32 is turned down tightly, the air passage will be reduced but not eliminated. If the head 34 fits closely enough against the end of plug 22 when the screw 32 is turned down all the way, it is apparent that the air passage could Vbe sealed.
A modified form of metering screw is shown in Fig. 9 in which the number of threads per inch on the metering screw is slightly less than the number of threads per inch in the plug 22. This permits the screw 3,3 to be screwed into plug 22 for a limited distance with the threads engaging progressively tighter, thus permitting variable control of the passage past the threads.
As can be seen in Fig` 2, cap I4 has been backed orf from body 2 until further movement has been prevented by the crimped-'over portion 26. In this position, it will be observed that the sealing ring 4U has been moved away to form an area 56 within enlarged portion 3 of the valve body. There is also clearance between the head 34 of the metering screw and the walls of passage 6. In this position, it is apparent that gas passing through passage 6 may flow directly through area 56 and out the fast venting port 46. This is the position the valve will assume for quick venting of a radiator.
Fig. 3 is similar to Fig. 1 with the exception that the ibre discs 42 have beenexpanded by water coming in contact therewith. It will be understood that while the discs 42, for the purpose of explanation, have been shown in Figs. 1 and 2 as physically spaced from each other, they from the wall 48 'i are not in fact so spaced but are touching each other lightly on their adjacent faces. The discs in Figs. l and 2 are dry and therefore porous and capable of passing air therethrough to the ports 44. In Fig. 3 the discs are wet. They may not be completely saturated but they have taken up at least enough water to cause them to expand in the direction of the central axis to press so firmly against each other that further passage of water therethrough is precluded. Upon subsequent drying of discs 42, they will shrink suiciently to permit the passage of air therethrough until they are again swollen by additional water which may reach the valve due to a rising liquid level.
With the foregoing constructional features in mind, the operation of the valve will now be explained. If it is desired to vent air from the radiator quickly, the user will unscrew cap I4 to the position shown in Fig. 2. Air will then pass directly from the radiator through passage E, area 5E and vent 46 to the atmosphere. As soon as the radiator isV lled with water, which will be recognized by the escape of a small quantity through port 4B, the cap is then screwed inwardly to the position shown in Fig. 1. The end of plug 22 may be brought into direct engage# ment with wall 48 at which point the sealing ring 46 will be sufliciently compressed to prevent the escape of any air or Water through vent 46. With the valve in this condition any further escape of air must be through ports 44. To reach ports 44, the air must pass along the threads of metering screw 32, through bore 28 and thence through or between discs 42 to ports 44. If air accumulates in the top of the radiator under pressure greater than atmosphere, the air will follow the aforesaid route, working its way slowly.
past discs 42, but in suilicient quantity to ultimately vent the radiator. If the pressure continues and the water level rises to a point where water enters passage 6, then the water will follow the same route but on reaching discs 42 it will gradually wet and be absorbed by the discs, causing the discs to swell as indicated in Fig. 3, thereby blocking further passage of the water. In other words, the valve provides for the slow escape of air but will block any attempt ofthe water to escape along the same route. If the water level in the radiator thereafter falls, the wet swollen discs of Fig. 3 will gradually dry out to'assume their original condition, as shown in Fig. 1.
Three modifications of the valve are shown in Figs. 5, 6 and 7. Fig. 5 is substantially the same as that shown in Figs. l to 3 except that plug 22 is held in engagement with cap I4 by a press fit between these parts as indicated at 52. The construction and operation are otherwise the saine as that heretofore described.
Fig. 6 differs from the other constructions in that cap I4 is secured against longitudinal movement with respect to plug 22 by a snap ring 54. Plug 22 is free to turn with respect to cap I4. In operation, it is immaterial whether these two parts are iixed against rotation with respect to each other. Another difference in the construction of Fig. 6 is the substitution of a metering valve 55 for the metering screw 32. This valve is in the form of a ball which partially but not completely closes bore 2B. While the ball is shown in engagement with the right hand end of passage 6 and the left hand end of bore 28, nevertheless, the seating conditions are such that there may be slow butcontinuous leakage of either water or gas past this valve so that the gastrite 'fe'ectis *the fsame eas ithat iachieved with-the metering 'screw "32. A
The modiflcation #shown in Fig. "'7 `-differs *from thepreviousforms intl'ratthere is no connection between plug -22 and cap ,|4. '.Ilheplug ts in freely slidable condition withinthe lfthand end of the cap. When the cap is iscz-'eeved down to bring .sealing ring 40 into .engagement with -wall '48s'an'dthe opposed shoulder on plug 22,ftheipresfsureis exerted through thediscs 42. However, fidue to the `iiexibility of sealing ring 40,1enough pressure may be brought to bear thereon to close off port 46 while still leaving the discs 42 in such condition that air may pass therethrough in the manner heretofore described. Attention is again called to the fact that the discs 42 in Figs. 5, 6 and 7 are shown as having their faces physically separated from each other. Ordinarily, the discs in their dry condition will have their faces touching although under some circumstances the faces might be separated to a limited extent. However, the discs which are made of any suitable type of hygrosccpic material will always expand sufficiently when wet to check the flow of any water to the ports 44. In the preferred form, the hygroscopic material will be fiber but any other form, such as a hygroscopic plastic, may also be used. Furthermore, although a plurality of discs have been shown in the drawings, it will be understood that a single disc of suitable dimensions may be used.
The bar 41, within the discs, limits the quantity of water that must evaporate through the discs before the discs separate sufficiently to permit further venting. The large peripheral areas afforded by the squared edges 45 of the discs likewise speed evaporation through the several ports 44.
Applicant has accordingly provided by the valve disclosed herein means for achieving continuous automatic venting of air from the radiators of a hot water heating system, which means will prevent the escape of water if the water rises to the level of the valve. While the explanation has been made with respect to the use of the valve on the radiators of a hot water heating system, it will be understood that the valves are capable of being used in other situations where similar conditions have to be met. 4The invention is not to be limited by the specific disclosures shown herein but should be considered as broadly as the scope of the invention set forth in the appended claims.
1. An air venting valve comprising a valve body threaded for connection with a radiator, a central passage through said body, an expanded portion concentric with and forming part of said body, a cap closed at its outer end in threaded engagement with said expanded portion, a plug within said cap, a circular seat on said body and an opposed circular surface on said plug aligned with said central passage, a sealing ring positioned between said seat and surface and adapted to be engaged upon movement of said cap and plug toward said body to seal said central passage from the area exterior of said ring, a bore through said plug in series with said central passage, a first vent through said body leading to the atmosphere from the area exterior of said sealing ring, a second vent through the wall of said cap, and a hygroscopic element between one end of said plug and the inner surface of the end of said cap, said hygroscopic element when dry permitting the pas- 6 and, *when fwct, blocking :the :flow nf :from saideplugfbore tosa'idsecond went. A A
2. Anair ventingfvalve-fassetlforthinsc-laim u11 which f-said''hygroscopic element 'is fin Sth'e -form Iof "a plurality rof Ydiscs having central "openings aligned-with saidbore. Y
3. :Aniairventing'valveas-set vforthiin'cla'ii'h 1in which said'hygroscopicelement 'is in the form o`f a plurality yof A`discs having central "openings aligned with `saidibore'and portions of the edges :of said discs are spaced substantially zfrom the interior `of the `wall 'of said 'cap to provide an enlarged evaporation area.
4. An air venting valve as set forth in claim 1 in which said hygroscopic element is in the form of a plurality of discs having central openings aligned with said bore, said discs being noncircular in outline with limited portions of their perimeters in engagement with said cap to provide enlarged evaporation areas.
5. An air venting valve as set forth in claim 1 in which said hygroscopic element is in the form of a plurality of discs having central openings aligned with said bore, and a bar extending through some of said central openings to minimize the free space within said discs.
6. An air venting valve as set forth in claim 1 in which the plug is xed against longitudinal movement with respect to said cap.
7. An air venting valve as set forth in claim l, said plug being in screw threaded engagement with said cap to permit initial adjustment of the pressure of said plug against said hygroscopic element.
8. An air venting valve comprising a valve body threaded for connection with ya radiator, a central passage through said body, an expanded portion concentric with and forming part of said body, a cap closed at its outer end in threaded engagement with said expanded portion, Aa plug within said cap, a circular seat on said body and an opposed circular surface on said plug aligned with said central passage, a sealing ring positioned between said seat and surface and adapted to be engaged upon movement of said cap and plug toward said body to seal said central passage from the area exterior of said ring, a bore through said plug in series with said central passage, means for limiting the flow of liquid through said plug bore, a first vent through said body leading to the atmosphere from the area exterior of said sealing ring, a second vent through the wall of said cap, and a, hygroscopic element between one end of said plug and the inner surface of the end of said cap, said hygroscopic element when dry permitting the passage of air from said plug bore to said second vent and, when wet, blocking the flow of water from said plug bore to said second vent. Y
9. An air venting valve as set forth in claim 8 in which said means for limiting flow of iiuid through said plug bore comprises a metering screw.
10. An air venting valve as set forth in claim 8 in which said means for limiting the iiow of fluid through said plug bore comprises threads on the interior of said bore and a metering screw having a thread differing in pitch from the thread in said bore.
11. An air venting valve as in claim 8, said means for limiting the flow of fluid through said bore comprising a ball valve and seats therefor.
l2. An airv venting valve comprising a valve body having a threaded portion at one end for l sage of air from said plug bore to said second Vent SeeW threaded enregenlem"V With en ai? Source, a
passage through said body portion, an enlarged body portion interiorly threaded, a Wall at the interior end of said enlarged body portion, a cap closed at its outer end and exteriorly threaded at its inner open end and in threaded engagement with said enlarged body portion, a plug within said cap, a hygroscopio element between the inner end of said plug and the closed end of said cap, a sealing ring between said Wall and said plug, a port through said enlarged body portion adapted to be sealed-from said passage by said sealing ring when said sealing ring is engaged by said wall and plug, a bore through said plug in series with the passage through said body portion, and
ports through said cap exteriorly of said element.
WARREN T. FERGUSON.
Referenees cited in the fue of this parent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,398,764 Blum Nov. 29, 1921 2,153,726 Scoppola 1-.---- Apr. 11, 1939 2,467,217 Mikeska Apr. 12, 1949