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Publication numberUS2655350 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 13, 1953
Filing dateSep 28, 1950
Priority dateSep 28, 1950
Publication numberUS 2655350 A, US 2655350A, US-A-2655350, US2655350 A, US2655350A
InventorsJr William M Gaylord
Original AssigneeUnion Carbide & Carbon Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Tube arrangement for heat exchangers
US 2655350 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Oct. 13, 1953 w GAYLQRD, JR 2,655,350

TUBE ARRANGEMENT FOR HEAT EXCHANGERS Filed Sept. 28, 1950 l5 EA Mad. 90 R Z 1 2 o J H l5 u v A B RMRJ INVENTOR WILLIAM M. GAYLORELJR.

ATTORNEY Patented Oct. 13, 1953 TUBE ARRANGEMENT FOR HEAT EXCHANGERS William M. Gaylord, J r., Cleveland, Ohio, assignor to Union Carbide and Carbon Corporation, a

corporation of New York Application September 28, 1950, Serial No. 187,209

8 Claims.

This invention relates to heat exchangers, and more particularly to a shell and tube type having a stainless steel shell and impervious graphite tubes which are chemically resistant to practically all corrosive fluids, resistant to severe thermal shock, and have high heat transfer rates.

The shell and the tubes therein are cylindrical and have parallel axes. When speaking of shell and tube interchangers, in all cases pitch is defined as the geometric relation, arrangement or location of the tubes. Square pitch is defined as the arrangement of the tubes with their centers at the corners of squares. Triangular pitch is defined as the arrangement of the tubes with their centers at the apices of equilateral triangles. Ligament is defined as the distance between the outside peripheries of the tubes measured along a lone joining their centers. The conventional arrangement of the tubes is either on a regular equilateral triangular, or on a square pitch. These arrangements require a relatively large shell to enclose a given number of tubes for a given ligament or spacing between the outside diameter of the tubes.

The main object of the present invention is to provide an advantageous specific arrangement of tubes which will permit the use of a smaller, but not necessarily minimum, size of shell for a given number of tubes and a given ligament.

According to the present invention the tubes are partly on a square pitch and partly on a triangular pitch, preferably half and half. These tubes are also preferably arranged in rings in concentric relation, those of the inner ring being on a square pitch, those of an intermediate ring arranged in equally spaced pairs equally spaced apart in their ring, the chords connecting said pairs forming the bases of equilateral triangles, the apices of said triangles being for-med by tubes in another of said concentric rings, and those of the outer ring being arranged in pairs equally spaced apart and alternating with singles which form the apices of triangles having their bases in the intermediate ring. The intermediate ring has double, and the outer ring triple, the number of tubes of the inner ring. The tubes are arranged symmetrically in quadrants, in each of which quardants a tube center of the inner ring forms with the two tube centers of the intermediate ring the apices of an equilateral triangle. and the tube centers of the outer ring subtend right angles having vertices at the tube centers of the intermediate ring, and the two farthest apart tube centers in the outer ring in the quadrant subtend a right angle having its vertex at the said tube center of the inner ring.

In the drawings:

Fig. 1 is a vertical cross section through a heat exchanger having tubes arranged according to the present invention; and

Fig. 2 is an enlarged diagram of one quadrant A--A of Fig. 1 showing the geometrical arrangement and angular disposition of the tubes.

The heat exchanger comprises a stainless steel shell S which encloses the group of impervious graphite tubes indicated generally at T. The shell s has headers H at each end having apertures receiving the respective tubes, so that the headers and tubes contain one of the fluids to be treated. The headers are secured to each other by stay bolts or tie rods R. The other fluid is contained in the space inside the shell and outside of the tubes, which communicates through apertures E with a manifold M having an inlet or outlet connection C.

The grouping of the tubes T is best shown in Fig. 2. The tubes l0, l4 and it have their axes located at the apices of an equilateral triangle. The tubes l4, I5 and [6 are located at the apices of another equilateral triangle. Thus the four tubes H], l4, l5 and is are all on a triangular pitch. The tubes Ill and I2 have their axes in a line parallel to a vertical diameter, and the tubes In and I1 have their axes in a line parallel to a horizontal diameter. Also the grouping is symmetrical about both diameters. Hence the tubes I0, i2 and I! are on a square pitch.

With respect to the line determined by the tubes l0 and I2, the tubes M are located at an angle of 15 to this line. Thus the tubes In and. I2 form a row, in which each tube is at an angle of 15 from an adjacent tube I 4 farther from the diameter.

It will be noted that the four tubes it! determine an inner ring G, the eight tubes M and I5 determine an intermediate ring J, and the twelve tubes l2, l5 and I! determine an outer ring K. Thus the intermediate ring has double, and the outer ring triple, the number of tubes within the inner ring. The tubes It] of the inner ring are on a square pitch, and the tubes Hi and it of the intermediate ring are on a triangular pitch. As to the outer ring, the tubes Ii! of adjacent quadrants form a pair, and the tubes H of adjacent quadrants form another pair, both pairs being on a square pitch. In this outer ring, the pairs I2, l2 and l1, I! on a square pitch alternate with singles l5 on a triangular pitch.

In the inner ring, the tubes It! are 90 apart. In the intermediate ring, the tubes [4 and I6 are apart, in the sense that the arc of the ring J between the centers of these tubes i4 and I5 subtends an angle of 60 having its vertex at the center of tube Ill. Similarly the centers of the tubes l4 and I6 determine an angle of 60 having its vertex at the center of tube l5. In the outer ring, the tubes l2 and are 90 apart, as are the tubes I5 and IT, in the sense that the arc of ring K between the centers of tubes I2 and I5 subtends an angle of 90 having its vertex at the center of tube I4, and the arc of ring K between the centers of tubes [5 and l! subtends an angle of 90having its vertex at the center of tube Hi.

In the specific embodiment shown for example, there are twenty-four impervious graphite tubes all of one and one-quarter inch outside diameter, and seven eights of an inch inside diameter. The ligaments or spacing between tubes is three eights of an inch from one outside tube periphery to the next measured along a line joining their centers. The inside radius B of the shell is five inches, while all of the tubes lie within a circle of a radius D of 4.66 inches. This tube circle radius D for a rectangular pitch would be 4.875 inches, while for a triangular pitch it would be 4.687 inches.

I claim:

1. Ina heat exchanger, a shell and tubes arranged within said shell in axially parallel rel-ation and in spaced relation to each other and to the shell, said tubes being arranged with their centers in rings in concentric relation, the tube centers of one of said rings being arranged in equally spaced pairs equally spaced apart in their ring and the hypothetical chords between the tube centers of said pairs forming the bases of equilateral triangles, the apices of said triangles being formed by tube centers in another of said concentric rings.

2. In a heat exchanger, a shell and tubes arranged within said shell in axially parallel relation and in spaced relation to each other and to the shell, the centers of said tubes being arranged in rings in concentric relation, the tube centers of a smaller of said rings forming the apices of respective equilateral triangles, and the tube centers of a larger of said rings being ar- I ranged in equally spaced pairs equally spaced apart and the hypothetical chords between the tube centers of said pairs forming the bases of said triangles.

3. In a heat exchanger, a shell and tubes arranged with-in the shell in axially parallel relation and in spaced relation to each other and to the shell, the centers of said tubes being arranged in rings in concentric relation, the tube centers of an intermediate ring being arranged in equally spaced pairs equally spaced apart in their ring, the hypothetical chords between the tube centers of said pairs forming the bases of respective equilateral triangles, the apices of which triangles are at the centers of single tubes which alternate with equally spaced pairs of tube centers in an outer ring.

4. In a heat exchanger, a shell and tubes arranged within said shell in axially parallel relation and in spaced relation to each other and to the shell, the centers of said tubes being arranged in rings in concentric relation, the tube centers of the intermediate ring being arranged in equally spaced pairs equally spaced apart in their ring and the hypothetical chord between the tube centers of said pairs forming the bases of equilateral triangles, certain of said triangles being within said "intermediate ring and having their apices at centers of the tubes of the inner ring, others of said triangles extending outside at the centers of tubes the outer ring.

5. In a heat exchanger, a shell and tubes arranged within the shell in axially parallel relation and in spaced relation to each other and to the shell, the centers of said tubes being arranged in rings in concentric relation and in symmetrical quadrants, in each of which quadrants a central tube center in the outer ring forms with the tube centers on each side thereof equally spaced adjacent pairs which subtend right angles having their vertices'at respective tube centers in the intermediate ring, and said tube centers on each side thereof in said outer ring subtend a right angle having its vertex at a tube center in the inner ring in said quadrant.

6. In a heat exchanger, a shell and tubes arranged within the shell in axially parallel relation and in spaced relation to each other and to the shell, the centers of said tubes being arranged in rings in concentric relation, the tube centers of an intermediate ring being arranged in equally spaced pairs equally spaced apart in their ring and the hypothetical chord between the tube centers of said pairs forming bases of respective equilateral triangles the apices of which are formed by tube centers in the outer ring which together with the tube centers on each side there:

of in their ring form adjacent equally spaced pairs which each subtend a right angle having its vertex at a tube center of said intermediate ring.

7. In a heat exchanger, a shell and tubes arranged within the shell in axially parallel relation and in spaced relation to each other and to the shell, the centers of said tubes being arranged in rings in concentric relation and in symmetrical quadrants, in each of which quadrants a tube center or the inner ring forms with two tube centers of the intermediate ring the apices of an equilateral triangle, and the tube centers of the outer ring subtend right angles having vertices at the tube centers of the intermediate ring, and the two farthest apart tube centers in the outer ring in the quadrant subtend a right angle having its vertex at the said tube center of the inner ring.

8. In a heat exchanger, a shell and tubes arranged within the shell in axially parallel relation and in spaced relation to each other and to the shell, the centers of said tubes being arranged in rings in concentric relation and in symmetrical quadrants, in each of which quadrants the hypothetical chord between a pair of tube centers of the intermediate ring form the common base for two equilateral triangles, one of which lies Within said intermediate ring and has its apex at the tube center of the inner ring within its quadrant and the other of. which triangles extends outside of said intermediate ring and has its apex at a tube center in said outer ring, said outer ring tube center and the tube centers on each side References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 456,923 Barnstead July 28, 1891 1,891,278 Guimont Dec. 20, 1932 2,239,685 Noack Apr. 29, 1941 2,496,301 Meixl :Feb. 7, 1950

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US456923 *Dec 2, 1890Jul 28, 1891 Condenser
US1891278 *Mar 23, 1931Dec 20, 1932Heating Systems LtdWater heater
US2239685 *Mar 5, 1940Apr 29, 1941Bbc Brown Boveri & CieHeat exchanger
US2496301 *Feb 16, 1944Feb 7, 1950Howard Iron Works IncTube bundle assembly for heat exchangers and the like
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3222864 *Dec 31, 1962Dec 14, 1965Garrett CorpGas turbine engine fixed boundary recuperator
US3265124 *Jul 10, 1964Aug 9, 1966Falls Ind IncCoated graphite products
US3302880 *May 17, 1965Feb 7, 1967Hubert Enders WillibaldVehicle heater apparatus and system
US5203405 *Feb 3, 1992Apr 20, 1993Phillips Petroleum CompanyTwo pass shell and tube heat exchanger with return annular distributor
US5419391 *Jun 17, 1992May 30, 1995Westinghouse Electric CorporationSteam generator with axial flow preheater
US5653282 *Jul 19, 1995Aug 5, 1997The M. W. Kellogg CompanyShell and tube heat exchanger with impingement distributor
US6988540 *Oct 30, 2003Jan 24, 2006Honeywell International Inc.Solid buffer rods in high temperature heat exchanger
US7328738 *May 28, 2003Feb 12, 2008Cabot CorporationHeat exchanger
US7472563 *Jan 17, 2003Jan 6, 2009Alfa Laval Corporate AbSubmerged evaporator with integrated heat exchanger
US20040081609 *May 28, 2003Apr 29, 2004Green Martin C.Heat exchanger
US20040194932 *Oct 30, 2003Oct 7, 2004Honeywell International Inc.Solid buffer rods in high temperature heat exchanger
US20050039486 *Jan 17, 2003Feb 24, 2005York Refrigeration ApsSubmerged evaporator with integrated heat exchanger
US20070289722 *May 23, 2007Dec 20, 2007Bayer Material Science AgDevices for cooling gases which form a corrosive condensation product upon cooling
Classifications
U.S. Classification165/160, 165/180, 165/905, 165/DIG.402, 165/162, 165/910
International ClassificationF28F21/02
Cooperative ClassificationY10S165/402, F28F21/02, Y10S165/91, Y10S165/905
European ClassificationF28F21/02