US 2656159 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. 20, 1953 s. HoLM ET AL j 2,656,159
LAMINATED. HEAT EXCHANGER Filed July 24, 1948 4 sheets-sheet 2 Wa "B'PLA rss TOPNEY oct. 2o, 1953 s, HO'LM ETAL 2,656,159
LAMINATED HEAT EXCHANGER Filed July 24, 1948 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 n "f'purf/ UJIDIQIQIDIDIBIEIDID BY Will/am Hammond ATTORNEY Oct. Z0, 1953 S. HOL-M ET AL LAMINATED HEAT EXCHANGER Filed July 24, 1948 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Patented Oct. 20, 1953 LAMINATED HEAT EXCHANGER Sven Holm and William E. Hammond, Wellsville,
N. Y., assgnors to The Air Preheater Corporation, New York, N. Y.
Application July 24, 1948, Serial No. 40,546
l The present invention relates to improvements in heat exchangers of the plate type particularly adapted for heat exchange between two confined v fluids.
The invention contemplates the construction of a plate type heat exchanger by stacking blanks that are formed With a plurality of variously arranged perforations in the form of rows of apertures or slots co-extensive with the rows, the assembly of the blanks aligning the perforations to form nuid passages and portions of certain plates forming extended surfaces or ns in the passages created by the alignment of apertures and/or slots in the plates. The invention will best be understood upon consideration. of the following detailed description of illustrative embodiments thereof when read in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which:
Figure l is a perspective view of an envelope type heat exchanger embodying the present invention, parts being broken away to illustrate details of construction.
Figures 2 to 5, 5A, 6 and 6A are perspective views `illustrating perforated plates of various forms which may be assembled in combinations to form the core of the heat exchanger illustrated in Figure l;
Figure '7 is a fragmentary perspective view of a core made up ci alternate A plates having rows of apertures and intermediate B plates having slots as shown in Figures 2 and 3, respectively;
Figure 7A is an exploded perspective view corresponding to Figure 7.
Figure 8 is an end elevational view, partly sectioned, and Figure 9 is a horizontal sectional View on the correspondingly designated section line in Figure 7.
Figure 10 is a view similar to Figure 9 but having the pin-fins in the core disposed in staggered relation.
Figure 11 also is a sectional view similar to Figure 9 but wherein all of the component plates of the core are of the A type having rows of apertures as illustrated in Figure 2, thereby providing continuous ns extending through the passages in the direction of uid ow.
Figure 12 is a sectional view similar to Figure 11 but having the continuous longitudinal uns interrupted at intervals by periodic insertion of slotted plates of the B type shown in Figure 3 between groups of row apertured plates of the A type shown in Figure 2.
Figure 13 also is a sectional view of a portion of a core made up of row apertured "A plates of the type shown in Figure 2 used in alternation with plates of the C type shown in Figure 4 which have slots as well as rows of apertures so that some passages have a plurality of pin-ns therein while other contiguous passages have continuous longitudinal fins extending through the passages in the direction of fluid now,
Figure le is a sectional view showing a core similar to that in Figure 13 but having slotted B plates of the form shown in Figure 3 interposed at intervals to interrupt the continuity of the longitudinal fins.
Figure 15 is a fragmentary perspective view of a core utilizing in alternation A and D plates of the forms shown in Figures 2 and 5 so arranged as to provide for cross ow of the two fluids.
Figure 15A is a view similar to Figure 15 em` ploying a variant of the D plates with the A plates.
Figure 16 is a partial sectional View of a core of the type shown in Figure l5.
The heat exchanger illustrated in Figure 1 is essentially of the envelope type with alternating passages for two fluids in heat exchange rela tionship and has a core lil consisting of a plurality of stacked blanks or plates H, l2 formed with perforations that create passage-s for counterilow of two fluids in heat exchange relationship. The fluid to be heated passes from a header i3 through the manifold lingers lli to alternate passages in the heat exchanger c ore l!) and is discharged in like manner from the outlet ends of the passages through similar iingers to a collecting header l5. At the same time the heating fluid is supplied through a header i6 to flow through the manifold iingers l'l into the set of intermediate passages and is taken oli through other manifold ngers which communicate with the discharge header I8,
One of the primary components of the core l@ is the heat exchanger plate I E shown in Figure 2, also to be referred to as an A plate, The plate l i, preferably of thin, highly heat-conductive metal or other material, is formed with a plurality of perforations which, as shown, are arranged in alignment transversely of the plate to form a series of transverse rows 2 of apertures 2l. Other plates l2 shown in Figure 3 known also as B plates have transversely extending slots 22 co-extensive with the transverse rows 2i! of apertures 2| in the plates Il and the slots 22 are spaced to correspond with the vertical spacing of the rows 2B of apertures 2l, When a number of these A plates ll are stacked (Fig. 7) in alternation with B plates I2 the apertures 2l form continuations of the slots 22 to create continuous fluid passages extending through the core (Fig. 8). The ligaments 2C: between the adjacent apertures 2l in the plates I i constitute pin-like fins 3S (Figs. 'l and 9) eX- tending across the flow passages from the passage walls .which are themselves constituted by the tranfsuegrse ligaments 25 between the rows gli of apertures 2i in the A plates and the similar ligaments 26 between the slots 22 of the l plates. The apertures 2| and ligament-nus 2li may be .04() of an inch wide or greater'andvsay .25 of an inch high. The pinrflns iig .xqllgr in the heat exchange core iii" intervals corresponding to the thickness ofl the B plates and themselves are of a depth gr thiclgness corresponding to that of the A'plates Vfrom which they are formed or in the nature of :()fiil inch.
If the apertures in adjacent rows are staggered the pie-lies i@ in adiagant Passages also become staggered.' Alay employing A plates in h the rows 2 9 of the apertures Zlibegin at Arent distances trom' the side Vedge of the .plates than shown for the rows of apertures in Figure 2, the pinfns'in the passages of the `core vmay be staggered. rhis may be brought about ,also as As hpwn in Figure l() by employing plates ii'fhlh vhave a vwider margin 2l at one side than 7at the other v and reversing alternate A plates to Yc lispvose the wider margin alternately at the right or nleft hand side of the core.
When itis desired tc provide a continuous fin structure extending entirely through the core in directionof liuid flow the entire core is then )up of A glans.. the ligaments 2i 0f the adjacent plates abutting as well as alining'to .form Continuous ,webs 91 `ribs 2.9 ,between .the 'pesaees for.. ed 'by the al'iriemsm @f .the apertures 2i ('Ffllll A v When it is desired to interrupt the continuous fins formed by'abutting the ligaments 213 of a plurality of staclred"A plates, a B plate is inserted atleachpoint where it is desired to interrupt the ns `(Fig. l2), this occurring because the QB" plates being formed with full transverse lslots 22 `donot have Vthe ligaments 2li that'sparate the apertures l2l in an iIAfplate.
To 4create a core having pin-like ns 3i! in one set of passages with continuous fins through the adjacent passages, A plates having rows of apertures'yi are combined with C' plates 3i (Fig. 4) of a type having alternateslots -2'2 and rows of apertures 2i. By assembling A plates -inlalternation with the C plates one set of passages will have pin n ns 3i! spaced in the direction of"flow while the set of intermediate passages will be provided with continuous iins formed' by the ligaments 33 between the openings ,35 abutting with the alined ligaments A2li of the A plates as shown in Fig. 13. Insertion at intervals in the corehof Bfplates serves .to interrupt the continuity of the ns (Fig. lll). 'Y
v`Althouglfrshown as being of rectangular form Itne plates I/i,' I2 etc. maybe circularoval, annular or of any other shape considered suitable for a particular heat exchanger use. With the -arrangements described above, the rows of apertures 2l in a set of A plates combine with the slots l22 in the sets of B or C plates to create passages extending through the-heatv exchange core, '-'the passages being separated by walls made up of the Aligaments 25, between rows 20 of apertures or the ligaments 2t -between slots 2-2 while tu@ ligaments" 24 between the .apertures '.21 frm spaced pin-fins when A plates formed only with apertures are stacked alternately with B plates I2 formed only with slots, while a C plate formed with both types of openings when combined with A plates formed only with rows of apertures 2l creates spaced pin-iins in one set of passages and longitudinally extending ns in .the adjacent passages.
' '-.To create manifolds at either end of the heat exchange ore 4IE) (Figl' 1) a` numb/eroi slotted fB plates (Fig. 3) are stacked upon and below the heat exchange core so that the fingers I4, I'I of headers I3, I5, I6, I8 may be inserted in the tes'l2v ateach end of core I0.
n ross-.flow is desired, instead of the ""plates'of'ligf, plates 6i! of the form shown `in Fig. Y5v are Aemployed with the A plates. It will be noted that in the D plates 68 alternate sl'ots'tl are longer than the other slots 62. The slots El are wider than the rows of apertures 2l Vtl 1e"A- plates and thmD platesthemselves are' v p'roportion'ately wider. 'When- D- plates of this'f'o'rm'are'ised in alternation with A plates with the shorter slots 62 in the D plates alined with 'the rows lof openings -i in the A plates so as .to becor-extensive therewith, the side portions of the'plates' are ycut oli in planes X located at the positions beyond the ends of slots 62 and passing through the intermediate long slots 6I near'threir ends. This opens up the ends of these slots to f orm passages for fluid to flow through them in a direction from the side edges of the plates" (Fig. V15). With this form special end plates 63 .of the type shown in Fig. 6 and known 'as E plates are" employed which have slots Gli to communicate with the passages formed by the slots @2 etc. while imperforate portions B5 of the E plates are Wide enough toclose the sides of the passages created by the slots 6I that open to that face of the core.
Figure 415A shows an arrangement similar to that of Figure l5 but the* plates d6 (called D' plates) have rows of apertures E? instead of short slots 6 2 ofthe D' plates. -Whenassembled with A plates continuous ns are formedin one set of passages.
What we claim is:
l. A heat exchanger comprising; a, core made upof stacked plates formed with spaced parallel rows of apertures separated at intervals by plates formed with Vsimilarly spaced', parallel slots with the apertures and slots alined to form parts of parallel passages and the ligaments between cony wells or recesses formed by the slots 22 in the tiguous apertures in said rows'constituting' ns .that occur inthe passages at intervals in the direction of flow Corresponding .to the thickness'of said slottedplates; a plurality of plates disposed at each end of the core formed with slotsspaced to correspond with the spacing of said passages and .constituting ,extensions thereof; a( pair of inanifolds disposed at opposite ends of the core having ringer-like conduits extending into alternate slots .in 'said end, plates .for admitting'fluid vto andreceiving it from the passages of said core; and othersimilar manifolds having fingers connecting with .the intermediate slots in said end plates for circulating another fluid through intermediate passages.
2. A :heat exchanger comprising: a core made up of stacked plates formedwith spaced parallel rows of apertures with the apertures of contiguous .plates alined to form parts of parallel passages and the ligaments between contiguous aperturesin saidrows constituting ns in the passages in the direction of flow; a plurality of plates disposed at each end of the core formed with slots spaced to correspond with the spacing of said passages and constituting extensions thereof; a pair of manifolds disposed at opposite ends of the core having linger-like conduits extending into alternate slots in said end, plates for admitting iiuid to and receiving it from the passages of said core; and other similar manifolds having ngers connecting with the intermediate slots in said end plates for circulating another iiuid through intermediate passages.
3. A core for a heat exchanger comprising a plurality of stacked plates all of good heat transferring material, each formed with a multiplicity of non-circular, elongate spaced perforations arranged in substantially uniform patterns to occupy corresponding areas on the various plates, said perforations aligning from plate to plate to form parts of parallel iiuid passages through the core; sections of the plate members which lie between perforations forming ligaments adapted to abut to constitute iins extending through said passages in the direction of fluid flow; plates having parallel rows of slots of a length corresponding to said rows of perforations so that pin-like fins occur in the passages at intervals in the direction of ilow corresponding to the thickness of the slotted plates, said perforations being 1ocated at diiferent distances from the marginal edges of the plates so that fins formed by ligaments between perforations are offset transversely of said passageways.
4. A core for a heat exchanger comprising: a plurality of stacked plates of heat exchanger material formed with a multiplicity of apertures arranged in parallel rows; other plates disposed among said rst plates and formed with slots :3o-extensive with and spaced at intervals corresponding to the spacing of the rows of apertures in said first plates for alignment therewith, whereby the ligaments on the plates between said rows of apertures and said rows of slots constitute opposite walls of iiuid passages extending through the core, and the ligaments between the apertures in said rows constitute pin-like iin extensions from said walls into said passages; the initial aperture in each row of apertured plates being located at different distances from the marginal edges of the plates than the nal aperture, and
alternate apertured plates being reversed so that the said ns formed by ligaments of contiguous apertured plates are staggered in said passages.
SVEN HOLM. WILLIAM E. HAMMOND.
References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,508,860 Stuart Sept. 16, 1924 1,734,274 Schubart Nov. 5, 1929 1,863,586 Wilke June 21, 1932 2,179,702 Saunders Nov. 14, 1939 2,537,276 McMahon et al Jan. 9, 1951 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 18,516 Great Britain Dec. 18, 1888 618,450 Germany Nov. 29, 1928