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Publication numberUS2656630 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 27, 1953
Filing dateMay 20, 1950
Priority dateMay 20, 1950
Publication numberUS 2656630 A, US 2656630A, US-A-2656630, US2656630 A, US2656630A
InventorsJr Eugene F Mcdonald
Original AssigneeJr Eugene F Mcdonald
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Advertising device
US 2656630 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Oct. 27, 1953 MCDONALD, R 2,656,630



HIS ATTORNEY I Patented Oct. 27, 1953 UlTED :51

ENT OFFICE 2 Claims. 1

This invention relates to novelty advertising devices.

It is known in the art that if a plurality of vanes, each having a radiant-energy absorbing face and a radiant-energy reflectin face opposite the absorbing face, are similarly supported for rotation in a rarefied atmosphere about a common axis, incidence of radiant energy upon the absorbing faces of the vanes causes the system to rotate about the axis. Such devices are known in the art as radiometers and have found application in the measurement of the intensity of the radiant energy of rarefied gases and in other scientific measurements. However, until the present time, radiometers have been regarded as scientific instruments or, to the layman, as a sort of curiosity, since there is no readily apparent reason for the rotation of the vanes.

Because a radiometer has the appearance of a perpetual motion machine to one not endowed with an understanding of the manner in which it operates, a display centering about a radiometer seldom fails to attract the attention of large numbers of passersby. Indeed, radiometers are often displayed as objects of curiosit in jevelers windows, for no useful purpose other than to attract the attention of window shoppers to the other items included in the display. Thus, some of the advertising potentialities of the radiometer have been recognized. However, while radiometers have been employed in the role of an attention-getter to attract the public eye, full use has not been made of the fact that it is the radiometer to which the attention is primarily directed and not the surrounding merchandise.

It is a primary object of the present invention to provide a new and useful device for display advertising purposes or the like. It is a further object of the invention to provide a new and improved advertising device in which the full advertising potentialities of a radiometer are uti- Ilized.

In accordance with the invention, a novel device of the class described comprises a radiometer including a plurality of vanes, each having a radiant-energy reflecting surface and a radiantenerg absorbing surface opposite the reflecting surface. The vanes are similarly supported in a rarefied atmosphere for rotation about a common axis in response to incidence of radiant energy upon the vanes. Indicia of luminescent material are inscribed on the vanes to provide the effect of a continuous image in response to rotation of the vanes about the common axis, the luminescent material being of substantially the same color as the vane surfaces on which it is deposited in order not to detract from the efficiency of the radiometer.

. The features of -the present invention which J are believed to be novel are set forth with pa!- ticularity in the appended claims. The invention, together with further objects and advantages thereof, may best be understood, however, by reference to the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawing, in the several figures of which like reference numerals indicate like elements, and in which:

Figure 1 is a composite view, partly schematic and partly in fragmentary cross section, of an advertising display device constructed in accordance with the invention, and

Figure 2 is a composite detail view of a portion of the apparatus of Figure 1.

As shown in Figure 1 a display advertising de-- vice constructed in accordance with the present invention comprises a radiometer I 0 and a source I I of radiant energy. Radiometer I0 is of a type generally well-known in the art and comprises a plurality of vanes l2, l3, I4 and I5 supported by means of a frame It which is pivoted by means of a bearing I 7 for rotation about a common axis. The entire system is supported within a glass envelope l8 which is partially evacuated to provide a rarefied atmosphere. Each of the vanes I2, l3, l4, and I5 is provided with a radiantenergy absorbing surface and a radiant-energy reflecting surface opposite the absorbing surface. For example, each of the vanes may comprise a thin sheet of mica or the like which is blackened on one side and polished on the other. The vanes I2, 53, i l and I5 are similarly supported on frame it; in other words, the blackened or radiant-energy absorbing surfaces of all vanes face in the same direction around the common axis. Envelope I8 is not fully evacuated but instead is evacuated to such an extent that the mean free path of the residual gas molecules is comparable with the transverse dimensions of each vane.

As is Well-known in the art, when radiant energy impinges upon the blackened or absorbing surfaces of the vanes I2, I3, I4 and I5, the absorbing surfaces rise to a higher temperature than the reflecting surfaces. Consequently, residual gas molecules colliding with the blackened surfaces acquire greater rebound velocities than those impinging on the bright surfaces. Thus the reactionary force'produced by the rebounding gas molecules is greater on the absorbing surface of each vane than on the reflecting surface, and a net torque is developed which causes'the entire system to rotate in a direction away from the absorbing surfaces. For instance, if the front surface of vane I2 as shown in Figure 1 is the absorbing surface, the system rotates in a counterclockwise direction as viewed from above.

The radiant energ which may be used to drive the radiometer It) may advantageously comprise a source of concentrated light or heat. For example, source H may constitute an ultravioletray lamp energized by a suitable power source here shown as a battery 20. Moreover, means such as a variable resistor 2| may be provided for controlling the intensity of the radiant energy emitted Joyspurr'ie '1 In some I applicationslit may be desirable to provide collimating or focussing systems for the radiant energy. Such systems are well known in the art and are here indicated schematically as a single lens 2}.

In accordance with the present invention, the several vanes of the rotating system cfthe'radiometer I are inscribed with similar indigia :13, here shown as a letter Z for purposesofillustration, preferably representing a trade=mark, trade name, or other advertising message to be impartedtothe public. Indicia 23 m inscribed flw re pq ri .pp i n .o r s l2, Hand 'fie b st-e wn i iiell rz- As ac n q enq when the .v e iq eabeu the eemm exi gluegto thein enceof radiant energy, the apnee aiwfi 19 .teti'oner i a i a e ue to the persistenceof vision as the vanes sucsi-rel 'qtat z hrees th l o i 9 he 91 $W l"- 71H i qeq qe l e w t n the t r of t in.- eti .e he adiei ilhfi and ei erally similar configuration, are also inscribed ppvanes Q2, 3, l 4, and I5, respectively, inprogressively different positions thereon. nentl rwhenrihe syst m rotates. the a an pf ,a n1ovingimagelis achieved due to the progressive displacementpf the successive-indicia. Eor purposes of ,illustration, indicia 24, 25, 2,6, e i ;2' ;-he 9 hQW infiu blef to provide theeifect of a moving lightning fiash,. although the movin mage may represent any si nal mutat on -{lhe;;spe e d; .of rotation. .of the vanes about: the

.cominonaxis isudependent upon the intensity of i the; incidence, of radiant energy. ,A. convenient controhover; the speed,of rotation, and hence over the speed of the moving virtual image, jxrovidedhyresiston-Z i. --l-I owever, it. is also contemplated that thasystem may be operated with a radiant energy source of suitable constantint esi y- Mar-seve e ins m a pl n n d. s- 9 -.-r%i aet ner so rc m be u r the radiant energyof the sunsrays being, sufncient to impart thedesired motion: to the vane system. liyly i itliermore, if the vanes should be found to. rotate, too rapidly, envelope I 8, of radipn eter. 10 may be constructed of a filter glass or may -be.coated ,with a-material having the desired radiant-energy transmission properties to ,reduce the rotation speed to the desired .value.

The indicia may;,be inscribed on theseveral vanes in any .of a number of ways. For example, paintofia color contrastingwith that of. thevane surface may.;be;used. 'Moreover, paints of different colors may be usedon the several vanes to .provide unique color effects. Alternatively, the indicia may-he inscribed on the vanes-by removing-material therefromin accordance .with the desired design as by punching out or thelike.

i nce the. operation of l the radiometer l .is dependent upon; the reactionary forces developed byrebqunding gasmolecules, and since the. maximumspeed whichmay .be attained is determined by. the; temperature differential between the two surfaces of ne, the provision of indiciapf 7 contrasting colonor the removal of vane matei8- WY Q -J'eh t ti ma may de r ir mith eefteeep eae max Speed e the sys em- Conse- In accordance with another feature of the iri vention, the desired efiect may be provided without materially reducing the maximum attainable speed by inscribing the indicia with luminescent 5 material of substantially the same color as the surracion wl'iich it is deposited. ,For example, phosphors of the type used for"cathoderay tube luminescent screens may be employed. When the indicia are so inscribed on the vanes, the ,collirnated energy from source H may be in the forrn of'a light wave of a wavelength suitable fo1'" activating the luminescent indicia; at the same time the energy from source i I induces the surfaces of the vanes which is required to cause the vane system to rotate. Unique color effects ma b. p .P u iner e of di e nt glow characteristicson the several vanes.

Thus the present invention provides a' 'rlovel display advertising device which utilizesfa radiometer to attractthe' attention of the'public and in (which the advertising .message is carried by the radiometer. itself where the .ob-Servers attentign is naturally focussd.

While particular: embodiments of the present invention have been shown and described, it 'is apparent that various changes. and modifications may be made, and itis therefore contemplated in the appended claims to cover all such changes and modiiications as i all within the true spirit and scope of theinvent'i'onf I claim:

-l. In, an article of the class described: aradiometer comprising .a plurality pf vanes, each 33 having a ra'cliant energy reflecting surface and a radiant energyr-absorbing surface opposite said reflecting surface, similarly supported in a rare fled atmosphere for rotation about a common aXisin responsetoincidence of radianten'ergy upo s dyane a i c o lu n c n aterial inscribed 'on said .vane s to provide the ef ec of a eon m li ima i resp se Q- tation of saidvanes about said axis, said luminescent material being of substantially the same 9 .8 th t al .su iae .Q l h it in eposited. articleof-the class described: aradiometer comprising a plurality of vanes, each having a radiant-ener y reflecting surface and a rad ntz ne s abso b n urface po e d flec nssur a similar y. suppo me ar ;ied atmosphere for rotationabout a common axis in response to incidence of radiant energy upon said ,vanes;-.indicia of luminescent material inscribed. onsaidvanesv to provide the eiiect of a continuous image in response to rotation of said .vanesaboutsaid axis, saidluminescent material being of substantially the same color asthe vane, surfaees onwhich itis deposited; asource .of radiant enelgy; means for directing radiant ene y rom s i s rceup n i vanes tocause m te equel .rot ti o ai v n s. a out said axis and; luminescence of said indicia; said radiant energy source heing readily adjustable .to vary thespeed of. said vane rotationand the intensity. of said, luminescence.


jteferences Qited in, the V file of this .patent UNITED .STA'IES PATENTS Number Name Date l,507,l37 Juhl Sept. .2, 1924 1,945,789 Revis -Feb. 6,.1934 2,391,752": l s enherg .Dec.,25,.1945

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1507187 *Jul 30, 1923Sep 2, 1924Rufus R DardenSignboard
US1945789 *Jan 29, 1931Feb 6, 1934Morris A RevisAdvertising device or toy
US2391705 *Aug 10, 1942Dec 25, 1945Gen Luminescent CorpPrinting method and product
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3387164 *Sep 21, 1965Jun 4, 1968Robert R. AbernethyRotating vane bulb
US3500076 *Jul 11, 1967Mar 10, 1970Guilden PaulPyromagnetic motor
US4227327 *Apr 11, 1979Oct 14, 1980Thompson Marion ESolar sign assembly
US4827642 *Aug 12, 1985May 9, 1989Chatten Victor HDrive mechanism
U.S. Classification40/542, 310/301, 40/473
International ClassificationG09F13/00
Cooperative ClassificationG09F13/00
European ClassificationG09F13/00