US 2656683 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. 27, 1953 c. w. RIVA 2,655,533
METHOD OF INSTALLING UNDERGROUND PIPES OR DUCTS File d Feb. '7, 1950 2 Sheets-Sheet l 0 IN V EN TOR. CHARLES M R/l/A, D'cEAszp Zoo/.5: E R1 v4 ADMIN/S 1-4.4 TRIX ATTORNEYS Oct. 27, 1953 c. w. RIVA 2,656,683
METHOD OF INSTALLING UNDERGROUND PIPES OR DUCTS Filed Feb. 7, 1950 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 DIFFERENCE IN TAPE. READINGS. s-awmwwsmmrsm masazm IIIIII'IIII II'II'IIII 0'01""- IN VEN TOR. CHARLEJ hf. RIVA, OECEASEO By 400/ s: 5 RIVA, ADM/MISTRATR/x ATTORNEYS Patented Oct. 27, 1953 METHOD OF INSTALLING UNDERGROUND PIPES OR DUCTS Charles W. Riva, Cranston, R. 1.; Louise E. Riva,
administratrix of said Charles W. Riva, de-
ceased Application February 7, 1950, Serial No. 142,852
6 Claims. (CI. 61-42) This invention relates to a method for the installation of underground pipes or ducts.
Heretofore it has been proposed in certain cases to install underground pipes by jacking or otherwise forcing the same through the earth at such location Where it is objectionable or is not economical to employ the usual trenching or tunneling methods of laying pipes. In such proposed schemes, .which are familiar to those skilled inthe art, the earth or soil at the forward edge of. the pipe being jacked was excavated by workmen entering the pipe or by means of some earth boring tool, the pipe often being directed by a guide attached to the pipe. In instances where the pipe is not of a diameter sufiicient to permit workmen to enter and check the forward movement of the end of the pipe with respect to a selected line. or grade, the above schemes are impractical because the pipe may move out of the selected line and even emerge at some point removed from that desired.
The general object of the invention is the provision of an improved method and apparatus for jacking a pipe or duct through solid compact earth in a manner to avoid the difficulties of the prior art.
A more specific object of the invention is the provision of an improved method and apparatus for jacking a pipe wherein the forward movement of the pipe may be properly ascertained as the work progresses. I
Another object of this invention is the provision of an improved method for guiding and progressively effecting or changing the direction of movement of the forward end of the pipe should the same move away from the selected line.
With these and other objects in View, the in vention consists of certain novel features of construction, as will be more fully described and particularly pointed out in the appended claims.
tions heldtogether by means of a clamp to align the same for further operation thereon;
V Figure is a sectional view of the first section of the pipe shown in Figure 1;
. Figure 6 isa detail of construction on enlarged scale;
Figure '7 is a fragmental portion of a section of pipe showing a water conduit attached thereto;
Figure 8 is an elevational view of a plurality of sections of pipe extending through the earth from a guide;
Figure 9 is a similar view but showing the forward end of pipe extending through the earth from. a guide out of a straight line;
Figure 10 is a view of. a chart showing an approximate curve plotted thereon for a twelveinch rise of a particular diameter pipe along a distance of approximately five hundred feet.
In carrying out the invention, which, by way oi example, is. shown in the drawing as applied to the installation of a pipe or conduit 10 to extend beneath a river or canal bed ll, soundings are first made in order to ascertain the nature of the earth or soil along or adjacent to the selected line SL along which line it is desired that the pipe 10 is to be jacked.
It may here be pointed out that the pipe 10 is made. of a plurality of sections 12, each of a similar general construction. Each section has four equally spaced channels 13 which may be provided by means of small diameter pipes. These channels I3 extend along the inner wall of the said section from end to end thereof and are welded or otherwise attached in position along designated lit, the forward end of each channel I3 is closed (see Fig. 5) by means of a plug l4 in order efiectively to seal the same against the entrance ofearth therein as the pipe section 12 is being moved into the earth. A steel tape I5 is fastened at the forward edge of each channel in the pipe section l2 and extends within the channels, the tapes being successively threaded through the channels of the added pipe sections 12. There are four of these tapes and each is graduated similarly, preferably in increments of inches.
The section. 12' is, or may be, provided with four equally spaced water conduits [6 which are, positioned adjacent to or in: between the chan-- nels I3 and extend from end to end of said sec- 7 tion 12 (see Figs. 3 and 5). These water conduits are also welded or otherwise attached to the inner walls of the section II". The forward end of each water conduit I6 is sealed as at H (see Fig. 6) and the other end of the conduit is provided with an attachment to receive another section of water conduit, in the case shown being a usual pipe coupling I 8 internally threaded. As each pipe section l 2 is added, water conduits designated is are attached one to the other (see Fig. '7). Each water conduit 16 is similar to the other and each carries a threaded coupling l8 and is threaded at the other end as at E9 to engage with the coupling 18 of the previously attached water conduit I6 or [6.
The pipe section I 2' is also provided with a plurality of openings 2i! (see Fig. 6) and in line with each of the water conduits :5. These openings 2i! extend rearwardly and through the adjacent wall of the water conduit Iii. The four groups of openings provide a nozzle in the pipe section !2' with four equally spaced water outlets for directing a flow of water under pressure in any or all of four different directions or quarters from the said section 12. It may be found advantageous in some instances to provicle outlet openings 2c in a plurality of the pipe sections #2, and also in water conduit sections l6.
With satisfactory soil conditions a shaft 2| is sunk or embedded or otherwise provided in one bank of the river to provide an accessible loca'-- tion for'forcing the pipe I!) through the earth. A similar shaft 22 may be sunk or embedded or otherwise provided in the other bank of the river to provide another accessible location to receive the pipe I 0. The lower portion. of the shaft 2| may be enlarged as at 23 so to provide ample space for storing the necessary paraphernalia required in projects of this sort and. for workmen to work in. The walls of the shaft 2! maybe lined as at 24 and 25 as is usual in constructions of this kind so as to prevent caving of the said walls.
as the choice or condition may dictate. The guide 25 ismade in tubular form to accurate dimenficient to allow the next pipe section 12 to be properly set into position in shaft 2| or in shaft enlargement in order to be attached to pipe section 12. This same procedure is followed for succeeding pipe sections i2. This section [2' and succeeding sections [2 are, or may be, additional- 1y supported and held in line by a suitable guide device or cradle 28 properly supported and anchored against displacement as at 29. The next of the pipe sections to be added to section I2 is positioned on guide devices or cradles 30 which may be similar to cradle 23 and may be similarly anchored as at 3|. With the pipe sections properly aligned so that the channels and water conduits are in register with each other (the free end portion of the steel tapes first having been previously passed through the said channels of the added section), the said sections may now be temporarily clamped to each other such as by means of a clamp 32 shown in Figure 4, this clamp having a plurality of openings 33 through which the sections [2 and l2 may be initially attached together to hold them in line by various methods; in the case illustrated spot welding being used as describing the principle involved.
With the pipe sections properlywelded or otherwise attached to each other and the'tape channels and water conduits also properly secured in the pipe sections may be welded or otherwise firmly attached to each other in a manner so as to provide a seal at the joint of the sections flush with the outer surface of the pipe sections. The sections of channel It and of water conduit is may next be attached to each other in position and/or to the inner face of the added section :2; sections of channel It and of water conduit It may be attached to each other and/or to the inner face of the added section l2 prior to the welding or attachment of the pipe sections to each other, if found advantageous so to do.
With the pipe sections welded or otherwise attached to each other and the tape channels and water conduits also properly secured in place, the attached pipe sections l2 and I2 may be pushed or forced into the soil and for this purpose there is provided a hydraulic jack 34 or sions so as to slidably receive and accurately guide pipe sections !2' and I2 and is of a length sufiicient to provide ample bearing for the pipe sections to assure accurate initial movement thereof through the'soil. The guide may be reenforced in position against displacement by side or top-fins, or brackets such as angle irons 2'!, which are welded or otherwise attached to the outer side of the guide and which extend therefrom laterally to the longitudinal axis of the said guide and which are shown in the present instanceas being embedded into the soil around the guide. Howeven the fins or brackets or angle irons may be properly supported and anchored intoposition in any other appropriate manner; even in the walls of the shaft or in supports set wholly within the shaft.
"With the guide 26 in properposition the work of pushing the pipe sections through the soil may proceed. The first pipe section i2 is set orpushed or'positioned into guide 23 so that the rearward. endof pipe section I 2 overhangs the rearward end of the guide .25 a distancesufsome other suitable device which is properly supported such as by means of blocks 35 so as to be at the proper level axially with the pipe sections. The jacl: rests against an abutment 36 which may be of concrete or some other construction. Heavy timbers may be'position'ed between the end of the pipe section and the ram of the jack 34. It is of extreme importance to prevent any largemovement of earth or water back through the pipe being installed, such as may occur when forcing the pipe through wet and soupy soil. To preventsuch movement of earth there is provided a plug designated '31 which is positioned between the ram 33 of the jack and.
the edge of the last attached pipe section l2. The plug 31 is provided with a reduced portion as whichis received within the pipe section [2 (and 12 if needed) and a shoulder 49 which abuts V the end or edge of the said section I2 (and 1'2 if needed).
The plug 3? also'has recesses 4| at the outer peripheral edge thereof into which the water conduit it andchannels i3 may extend and which will allow the free end'of thetapes'to pass out of said plug. After the pipe sections 62" and I2 are moved ahead into the ground through guide 26 to the proper position, this plug 31 is replaced by a smallerplug while added pipe sections l2 and channels l3 and water conduits l6 are being attached to the pipe sections ahead of them .The purpose of the smaller plug is to prevent large movement of earth or water back through the ,pipe sections l2. When the pipe sections t2 and channels l3 and waterconduits 16 are securely attached and ready to be moved ahead, the smaller plug is withdrawn outof pipe sections 12 and the plug 31 ispositioned between the rearward end of pipe section 12 and the ram 38.
Other pipe sections 12 may be similarly attached and pushed through the soil. As work progresses a check is made at frequent intervals to ascertain the movement of the forward end of. the pipe Hi. This is accomplished by taking, readings of the four tapes 15 at the edge 42 of the last attachedpipe section 12 (see Fig. 8)." Should the pipe be moving substantially along the selected line SE1, then the readings on opposite tapes will be substantially similar to each other. Should the pipe, however, be moving too far out of the selected line SL, then the readings on the opposite tapes at the edge 42 of the last attached section l2 will be differcut and will indicate the direction and the amount of deviation from the said selected line SL, and this difference in tape measurement will then be known, and thus indicate the amount of rise, falljor side movement of the pipe, as the case may be. For example, assuming in Figure 9 the difference in the readings between the upper and lower tapes to be three-sixteenths of an inch at a three hundred foot distance of inserted pipe; then by proper computation it will be seen that the end of this particular pipe is twelve inches above the selected line SL.
Should the pipe section be moving too far out of the selected line SL, then its direction of movement may be changed by the application of water under pressure at the forward end of the pipe l0 through one or more of the water conduits l6 and openings 20, thus readjusting the earth pressures which have been tending to move the pipe sections l2 out of the selected line SL. The use of water under pressure through water conduit l6 and openings will also help in making the driving of pipe l0 easier, as the water will cut down the friction of the earth against the outside of the pipe I0. This principle holds whether the pipe I0 is substantially along the selected line SL or is too far out of the selected line SL. Further jacking will cause the end of the pipe to return to the desired direction. Upon the pipe having been jacked to the other accessible location, such as the shaft 22, then the earth or soil in the pipe may be removed by appropriate means such as by a boring tool, cleaning tool, by flushing, or otherwise as the condition of the soil may dictate.
In Figure 10, there is supplied a chart showing an approximate curve C, plotted for a twelveinch rise at various distances of a particular diameter pipe. On the left of the chart are shown readings in increments of inches'and' at the lower edge the distance in feet. It will be seen in this particular instance that a difference in tape readings of one-eighth of an inch will curves for various rises in pipe distances may also be plotted to provide a chart by which the out of line movement of the pipe may be had directly at the time of the readings of the tapes without further computation.
It will now be apparent that there is disclosed a method: of installing underground pipe which provides for accurately determining the direction of movement of the pipe and for controlling the movement of the said pipe should the same be moved too far out of the said selected line SL.
What is claimed is:
1'. Method of installing an underground pipeor duct which comprises erecting a tubular guide at one accessible location pushing through said guide into solidly compacted earth and along a selected line, successively, a series of end to end pipe sections until such series extends from said location to a second accessible location, and as the work progresses welding, each pipe section to the one ahead of it, said guide being arranged to engage at least the full length of one of said sections prior to a section being pushed beyond said guide, attaching at the leading edge of the first of said pipe sections prior to the pushing thereof through said guide a plurality of measuring tapes to extend along the inner wall of said joined pipe sections with pairs of said tapes positioned diametrically op- I posite each other to extend along the inner surface of said pipe sections, and measuring with said tapes at the free edge of the last joined section the length of said pipe sections at opposite diametrical sides thereof as the pushing progresses and without removing the earth from the pipe to determine the line of movement of said pipe sections as the work progresses.
2. A method of installing an underground pipe or duct as set forth in claim 1 wherein a plurality of water conduits are attached to the inner side of said pipe sections with pairs positioned diametrically opposite each other as the work progresses, said conduits having openings from said water conduits to extend through the sides of at least the first of the said pipe sections at positions rearwardly of the front edge of the leading section closing the forward ends of said water conduits and forcing water under pressure through said water conduits and out of said openings to loosen'the earth on a selected side of the first pipe section for controlling the direction or" the pipe as advanced. and temporarily sealing each section of pipe as added to prevent a backflow of earth through said sections as advanced.
3. Method of installing an underground pipe or duct which comprises pushing from one accessible location into solidly compact earth and along a selected line, successively, a series of end to end pipe sections and as the work progresses welding each pipe section to the other Without removing earth from within the pipe. attaching to the inner side of said pipe sections pairs of water conduits with the conduits of each of said pairs positioned substantially diametrically opposite each other and to extend end to end through said pipe sections, said conduits having openings from said water conduits to extend through at least the side of the first of the said pipe sections at positions rearwardly of the front edge of the. first of the said pipe sections closing the forward ends of said water conduits and forcing water under pressure through said water conduits and out of said openings "to loosen the earth on a selected side of the first pipe sec 7 tion for controlling the direction of the pipe as advanced.
4. The method of installing an underground pipe or duct through solidly compacted earth along a selected line from one accessible loca 'tion to another which comprises attaching a plurality of smaller pipe sections to the inner surface of a main pipe section at diametrically opposite locations thereof with tapes in each of said smaller. pipe sections attached adjacent to the leading edge thereof, forcing the assembled pipe sections into the earth in the direction of said selected line, adding to the first pipe section a second main pipe section with smaller pipe sections attached and in registry with those of the first pipe section and with the tapes extending through the second smaller pipe sec tions, welding the second main pipe section to the end of the first main pipe section, forcing both first and second assembled pipe sections into the earth, successively adding additional main and smaller pipe sections in repetition of the adding of the second main and smaller pipe sections with the tapes extending therealong and pushing the sections into the earth as assembled and measuring with said tapes the combined length of a series of the smaller pipe sections at diametrically opposite locations of the main pipe sections'from their most distant to their nearest ends to determine by the difference in said length the line of movement of said pipe as the work progresses.
5. The method of claim 4 wherein a. plurality of water conduits are also attached-to the inner side of said main pipe sections as the work progresses with pairs positioned diametrically opposite each other, said conduits having openings at the forward portion of the first main pipe section coinciding with openings through the sides of the first main pipe section at a position rearwardly of the front edge thereof, and forcing Water under pressure through said water conduits to loosen the earth on a selected side of the first pipe section to control the direction of movement of the main pipe section.
6. The method of claim l wherein the initial step is erecting a tubular guide in the accessible location where the duct is started and directing all main sections through said guide, said guide being arranged to engage approximately the full length of one of said sections prior to the section being pushed beyond said guide.
CHARLES W. RIVA.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Williams July 2'7, 1943