US 2656707 A
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Oct. 27, 1953 F. NILSSON ,7
LOCK MECHANISM Filed Sept." 16, 1948 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR FABMN NILSSON arrolmsvs Oct. 27, 1953 F. NILSSON 2,656,707
LOCK MECHANISM Filed Sept. 16, 1948 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR FABIAN NILSSON Patented Oct. 27, 1953 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE LOCK MECHANISM Fabian Nilsson, Stockholm, Sweden Application September 16, 1948, Serial No. 49,47 9 In Sweden September 29, 1947 3 Claims. 1
The present invention relates to such mechanisms, for instance lock mechanisms, which comprise a shiftable member, for instance a catch for the bolt of a lock, which can be shifted only by the aid of a key which suits the individual mechamsm.
In hitherto known lock mechanisms and other mechanisms of the kind set forth the appertaining keys are comparatively heavy and take up a great deal of room, at least when burglar-proof mechanisms are concerned, so that only a limited number of keys can conveniently be carried in the same bunch of keys. This is an inconvenience which is particularly serious in such cases where one and the same person has to take care of a very great number of keys, for example newspaper distributors, which must have front door keys to all the houses where newspapers are to be delivered early in the morning, night Watchmen, concierges, cashiers, et cetera.
The present invention has for its object to provide a mechanism of the kind set forth in which the said inconveniences are avoided by making the key for the mechanism in the shape of thin, in some cases flexible band of steel or other suitable material. The mechanism proper may comprise, in accordance with the invention, a number of individually grouped locking pins, which extend transversely to a guide for the bandshaped key and are adapted normally to lock the member, which is to be shifted or released by means of the key, and to enter, on the insertion of the correct key in the guide, into correspondingly grouped perforations in the key while releasing the said member. In such mechanism even a single one or a small number of locking pins may be placed or grouped in a very great number of different ways, both longitudinally and transversely of the key guide, so that the possible number of keys having mutually different positionings and/or combinations of perforations becomes very great.
In case a still greater number of variation possibilities is required than is obtainable by increasing the number of locking pins and the number of perforations of each key, such an increase is readily obtainable in accordance with the invention by making those ends of the locking pins which co-operate with the perforations of the key with different diameters and/or forms and shapes the perforations in the key in a corresponding manner. As a matter of fact, so many mutually different mechanisms and keys respectively may be made in accordance with the invention, that it is entirely out of the question that the shiftable member of the mechanism could be released or shifted respectively by any person other than the one who is in possession of the correct key, this being true even if the keys are made so small that several hundred keys may be conveniently carried in the same bunch of keys.
In a particularly suitable embodiment of the mechanism according to the invention the looking pins are adapted to enter the perforations of the correct key with reduced end portions only, the key guide being then provided, on the side opposite the locking pins, with one or more locking teeth which are engaged by the locking pins if a key having correctly placed or grouped, but too large, perforations is used, so that the shifting of the member in question or the continued insertion of the key into the key guide is prevented.
Particularly, when it is desired not only to release but also to shift a member in the mechanism by means of the key, for instance when it is desired to displace a catch for a lock bolt from its looking to its non-locking position, the mechanism according to the invention may suitably be made so that on the insertion of the key into the key guide the member is first released and is thereafter shifted by the key during the continued movement of the key along the guide. The looking pins may then be arranged so as to couple together normally the member, which is to be released and shifted by means of the key, with a member which is arranged for limited movement together with the first mentioned member on the insertion of the key into the key guide and consecutively to leave the engagement with the latter member, so that the member in question may be moved past the limit position of the member having a limited movement by inserting the key further into the key guide.
In the mechanism according to the invention the locking pins may be radially guided in a member, which is rotatable about a fixed axis, and the key guide may be designed to follow a circle which is concentric with the said axis, but also mechanisms having a straight or other noncircular key guide and locking pins extending transversely to such guides are conceivable.
Two embodiments of a mechanism according to the invention are illustrated by was of example on the attached drawings.
On such drawings:
Figure 1 is an axial section through the first embodiment.
Figures Za-d are cross sections on the line IIII in Figure l and show the various movable parts in four different positions.
Figure 3 is an elevation showing the mechanism as viewed in the direction of the arrows III-III in Figure 1.
Figure 4 is a plan view of an appertaining key.
Figure 5 shows, for the sake of comparison, a plan view of a key which does not suit the mechamsm.
the embodiment of the mechanism according to the invention illustrated therein. comprises a permanently closed housing H) in the form of a cylindrical flat box.
annular recess I2 in one of its side faces, so that a hub portion 13 and a rim portion [4 are formed, and with a cylindrical axial bore 15.
Inserted'in the axial bore l5-is a' journal Itprovided with a flange I! having a circular slot |87into which engages a stop pin [9 on the housing, soithatthe journal I6 is turnable with respect instance.
Disposed in a recess 23 in the journal E5 is a leaf'spring 2 3, which is secured to the surrounding hub I3 and is adapted to press with its free end against the plane bottom of the recess so as to hold the wheel ll and-the journal 16 yieldingly in the relative angular positions shown in Figures Za-c.
In-addition, the wheel H and the journal 16 are normally positively coupled together by means of a number'of, in the shown example two; radially extending locking pins 25 and 2G which are longitudinally displaceable in the wheel and are adapted to enter with their free ends corresponding bores 2i and 28 in the journal I8.- Leaf springs, which at one of their ends'are rigidly secured to the rim portion is of the wheeland are adapted to press with their other ends againsta-shoulder 30- on the respective lockingpins, endeavour to move the locking pins outof engagement with the bores in the journal.- The locking pins are, however, normally held inserted'in the bores due to the fact that their outer ends abutagainst a guide surface 3! onrthehousing lbformed by a flange 32 on the lid portion of the housing, said flange 32 projecting into a-corresponding annular recess 33- in the outer cylindrical surface of the wheel rim [4.
The flange 32 is interrupted between the points 34 and 35, so that there is formed between the housing H] and the wheel rim 14 a channel 36 of rectangular cross section, said channel serving as .a key guide, Between the point 34 and a point 3.1there is provided, right opposite the guide, a somewhat narrower circumferentially extending groove 38 in the cylindrical wall of the housing, and at the bottom of said groove there are providedlocking teeth 39. At the point 34 there is providedin the wall of the housing a rectangular opening 40 which smoothly connects to the channel 36 and through which there may be inserted into ,saidchannel a key in the formof a flexible steel band 4| which fits accurately in the channel. Provided on the wheel II is an abutment 42,
Turnably, mounted. the. housing or box H] is a wheel ll provided with an;
which in the normal position of the wheel lies a short distance in front of the key opening 40 and against which the end of the key 4| is adapted to abut.
As will be clear from Figure 6, which shows a locking pin on an enlarged scale, the locking pins are provided at their outer ends with a reduced portion 43 of such a length that a shoulder 44 is formed on the pin at a distance from its outer end which somewhat exceeds the depth to which the pinswith their inner ends enter the lockingholes inthe journal IS. The locking pins areiadapted to enter with said reduced end portions 43. corresponding perforations 45 in the key ii'when the latter is inserted into the key guide 36 through the key opening 40, as will be clear fromthe following description of the manner of operation of the mechanism;
' Whenthe key 41 is inserted throughthekey. opening 46 into the key guide 36-it engages with itsend the abutment 42 on the wheel. I] and compels said wheel to turn clockwise with regard to Figure 2a while carrying along the journal lfi coupled therewith. The locking pins -2.5'=and-2'6 then slide with their outer ends along theguide surface 3|, while the band-shaped key isbent:to conform-to the circular key guide. andto form with-its inner surface a direct continuation: of the fixed guide surface 3| on the. housing 10'. When the wheel H has been turnedlso far that the first locking pin 25. isabout'to slide oh the guide surface 3|, the first perforation 45in the key 4| has been moved right opposite thelocking pin, so that said pin, under the action of its spring 22, enters the perforation with its reduced end 43 and engagesthe inner sideof the key band with its abutting surface 44. This movement is sufficient to permit the inner end of the locking pin entirely to leave the locking hole 21 in the journal 15, but itis not sufficiently large for the outer end of the locking pin to reach the k-. ingteeth 39 onthe housing [0. On continued insertion of the keyii into thekey guide 36, the rotationofthe wheelil is thuscontinued, permitting the pin26to enter the second'perforas tion in the key.
The positive coupling together of the wheel. H and the journal iE-has now ceased, so that there'- afterthe journatit will follow the wheel only onaccount of the resilient couplingby means .of the leaf spring 24. Soon afterthe last locking pin- 25 has left the journallfi', the limit pin- [9 secured in the housing will engage with theother end-of the slot 18in the flange on the journal, sothat further turningof the journal l6.:is rentdered impossible. On'further insertion of. the key into the keyguide, only the wheel I I will thus turn. Said latter portion of the movement of the-wheell l, duringwhich the pin 2| projecting through the wall of 1 the-housingmoves between the positions A and B in Figure 3, constitutes the useful shifting movement and may beutilized for various practical purposes, for example to remove -a catch forthe bolt of a:lockin'g mechanism, not shown, for-closing an electric contact in an operating circuit, et cetera.
In a mechanism orthe kind set forththe perforations 45 in the key 4! must not only beplaced in a correct mutual grouping and at a correct distance from the endof-the key, but theperforations must also=havethecorrect sizeand shape, i. e; they must be large enough to permit the'reduced end portions 43 of the locking pins 25 andx26-to pass but they must'not be so large that the movements-of the'lockin'g pins are not stopped by the key band through engagement with the abutting surfaces 44 of the pins. In case one of the perforations in the key should be too large, the locking pin would move too far outwards and engage a locking tooth 39 on the housing, thus preventing a continued insertion of the key. If it is attempted to use a key having too small or wrongly grouped perforations, for example the key according to Figure 5, or a key which is entirely void of perforations, the locking pins cannot leave the locking holes in the journal |6, wherefore the latter remains rigidly coupled with the wheel so that the journal, after it has reached its limit position, will prevent further turning of the wheel H, i. e. it will prevent the wheel from performing the useful or active portion of its movement.
In a mechanism according to the invention the locking pins may in practice be made very thin, for example of the order of magnitude of .5 millimeter in diameter, and the key may be made correspondingly narrow and short. The selected thickness of the key should not be greater than is necessary to assure that the key is sufficiently rigid to be able to catch and retain the locking pins and to transmit a sufiicient force for shifting the wheel II and the lock bolt catch or the like coupled therewith. If the key is made of band steel or other suitable material, a thickness of only .1 millimeter will in many cases be suflicient.
In the embodiment illustrated in Figs. 'Ia-c and 8 having a straight guide for the key there is provided in a housing 50 a slide which is linearly displaceable against the action of a spring I 52 from the normal position shown in Figure 7a to the limit position shown in Figure '70. In the slide 5| the member 53, which is to be actuated by means of a key, is in turn linearly slideable against the action of a spring 54 from the normal position shown in Figures 7a and b to the limit position shown in Figure 70. In the same plane with the underside of the key-operated member 53 there are provided in the opposite walls of the housing two grooves 55, which form a straight guide for a band-shaped key 56. For cooperation with the end of the key an abutment 51 is provided on the member 53.
The slide 5| and the key-operated member 53 are normally coupled together by means of a locking pin 58, which extends transversely to the key guide and is axially moveable in corresponding bores 59 and 60 in the slide and member respectively. The locking pin 58 is, similarly to the locking pins of the embodiment according to Figures 1 to 6, provided at its lower end with a reduced portion 6|, so that an annular abutting surface 62 is formed near the lower end of the locking pin. Against the upper end of the locking pin abuts an auxiliary pin 63 which is axially moveable in the bore 59. For cooperation with the upper end of said auxiliary pin there is provided a leaf spring 54, which is rigidly secured at one end in the housing 50 and the free end of which is bent to form an inclined surface 65.
For shifting the locking pin 58 to the coupling position shown in Figure 7a and for holding the pin in said position there is provided a thin plate 66 which is moveable in a slot 61 in the key-operated member 53, said slot being parallel with the key guide. The plate 65, which at its rear edge permanently projects outside the slot 61, is provided with a circular hole 68 for the locking pin, and the latter is provided right opposite the said hole with a notch having an inclined sliding surface 69 adapted for cooperation with the edge of the hole.
In the bottom of the housing wall right opposite the path of movement of the locking pin there is arranged an elongated recess 10 provided with a plurality of locking teeth H. The bottom of the recess merges via an inclined sliding surface 12 with a surface I3 which coincides with the underside of the key.
The mechanism shown in Figures 'la-c and 8 operates in the following manner.
On insertion of the key 56 through the keyhole the key engages with its inner end the abutment 51 and pushes the parts 5| and 53 which are coupled together by means of the locking pin 58 to the left while compressing the spring 52. The auxiliary pin 63 then enters into engagement with the inclined surface 65 on the leaf spring 64, the auxiliary pin 63 and thus also the locking pin 58 being then pressed down through the holes 59 and 60. If a correct key has been inserted in the key-hole, a perforation in the key will then be positioned right opposite the reduced end 3| of the locking pin, so that the locking pin can enter the perforation with said end and place itself with its annular abutment surface 62 against the upper side of the key band 56, as is clearly seen in Figure 7b. The contact surface between the locking pin 58 and the auxiliary pin 53 is now positioned in the same plane as the sliding surface between the slide 5| and the key-operated member 53, so that the positive coupling together between said parts has ceased. Under the action of the spring 54, which is more powerful than the spring 52, the member 53 will remain in its normal position relatively to the slide 5|, however, pressed against an abutment H on the slide, and carry along the slide during its movement until the slide with the front edge of the thin plate 49, with which it is coupled together by means of the auxiliary pin 63, abuts against a fixed abutment 15 on the housing 50. On further insertion of the key the member 53 is displaced along the slide 5| while compressing the spring 54, as seen in Figure 7c, the: auxiliary pin 53 being then, on account of clamping action between the plate 49 and the pin, retained in the position shown in the said figure. The latter movement of the member 53, which constitutes the useful movement, may be transmitted by means of the pin 15, which projects through the housing wall, to e. g. the catch for the bolt of a lock mechanism, not shown.
When the locking pin 58 was moved downwards through the bore in the member 53 the plate 66 was, due to cooperation between the inclined surface 69 on the pin and the edge of the hole 68 in the plate 66, forced to move further out of the slot 61 to the position shown in Figures 7b and 10.
When thereafter the key 55 is retracted from the key guide, the member 53 first returns to its normal position with respect to the slide 5| under the action of the spring 56. the slide 5| and the member 53 are displaced further as a single body under the action of the spring 52. Near the end of said movement the plate 66 abuts on the housing 5|), the edge of the hole 68 is pressed against the inclined surface 69 on the locking pin 58 and the latter is forced upwards and into the bore 59 in the slide 5|, the lower end of the locking pin being then simultaneously pulled out of the perforation in the key. The parts have now returned to their normal positions according to Figure 1a and the key may be taken entirely out of the mechanism.
Thereupon member. and with respect to:
amid? If somebody shouldt'ry' to use a"key,having, an incorrectly, positioned, perforation, the locking pin 58lcan. evidently. never be moved j'down out of'fth'e bore 59 in the slide. and iconsequently, thencoupling between. theislide 5]:and'1ithe key;- operated. member 53 1' cannot .be'. released: which. according. to the above, is necessary; if. the slid shall be able to'perform the last and useful. part of its. movement. I
If instead an attempt is made-to .use aikey hayling, too large. a. .per-forationrconsisting,e, .g. .of "a correctly;- placed. circular hole having at 'least the samediameter as themain portion. of. the look: ing pin 58-; the .-.1ock'ing.,pin .willcnot beearrested by thelkey but wil-Lbe. pressed-1 so fardown under the-actionnof' theusp'ri'ng- 64 that its lower end enters into engagement with. the first locking tooth. atthe bottomaof.thehousing 53'. Eurthen displacement-oi. the member 53: is hereby prevented, so that said: member cannot even startit stuseful,movements Although the invention has. been described above. as applied -tomechanisms havinga-keyoperated member in the shape of at turna-bly mounted-wheel anda; circular guide for a flexible key,,and in a. mechanism. having a-rectilinearly displaceable key opera-ted memberanda straight keysguide,,it.-is,';,of. course, not limited; to said embodiments butthe inventive idea maybe realized also in other waysthan those shown on the drawings .-and=described in detail above.-
I. claim-z. V I V I 1'. A=lock-;mechanism comprising in, combina; tion, a housing, aqguideway in-saidhousing for a band-shaped. key; havingaaperforation therein,. a"first member. guided for movementin said vhousing; a=1second member guided for movement in said. hOusingandJWith respect to said, first member locking; pin. means extending transversely of said key-gnideway and reciprocable in bore: -means:;in*;said' firstand second members; said locking, pinmeans being normally posi+ tioned to couple: together. said. first and, second members for unitary movement, an abutment extending; from said second: member; into said key, guideway;forsengagementiby said. key; when slidably, inserted therein,- means for limiting the movement of: said". first member with: respectzto said housing; spring, biased .means, for" axially displacing 'said ;locking-; pin means into -the: peri foration' of: said key;- during movement of; said first member from its-initial:positiontojts lime itpositiomsaidlocking pin means being arrested in' its movement into said perforation. when it reaches a position to release said secondi'memher. from said first member for permitting said second member to move relative to saidzfirst said housing" upon further insertion of said key, means forrestore ing. saidsecond member to its initial position with-respect to said -.first.member upon a preedeterminedwithdrawalof saidkey, means. for preventing themovement-in one direction of said second. member relativetosaid first member fr'omsaid initial position, and means operable upon. a. further. and. predetermined withdrawal of said. key; to causel-said locking pin meansrt0 move: back. to said; normal locking position.
2.1 A Jock, mechanism comprising incombina: tion, a-.housing, a guideway in said housingafor a... band =shaped key; having a perforation there? in, ,a..fi'r st member guided for: movement in:.said housing, ,asecond member guided .formovement in :said housing, and .withrespect to said;.first member.- locking; in means. extending, transeverselyi to saidtlkeyguideway-and reciprocablgin' b'ore means "in; said first. and second. members, said lockingpin means' beingnormally positioned to couple together, said" first and second members for; joint. movement;v an abutment extend; from... said. second; member, into said key gllidway. for engagement by. the key when slid-J ably inserted. therein, means. for, limiting, the movement L ofjs'aid. first; member with. respect to saidfhbusihgh meansidr axially. displacing. said lockingv pinamieanspinto the perforationof said key, during, movement at saidfi'rst. member. from itsjnitial position to. its. limitpositibn, said ,lock'e m m means being; arrestedlin its,movement into. said 'perforation .when..itreaches a position to release said second member fromsaidlfi'rlst memberpior. permitting saidlsecondmiemben. to move with .respectto .saidfirst. member andwith respect: to saidhousihg ,upon .further. insertion of saidkey, meansyfor restoring.v second member to its initial. positionwith, respectto said; first... member. upon. a predetermined with= drawal of the key, means for preventing. movementinonerdirection of. said second member relative to. said first member from said initial position, andme ansafor; restoringsaid locking pin means to; its normaLlock-ing, positioniupon withdrawal of said. key; from said lock mechanism.
3. A lock mechanism comprising in combina: tion; a housingiguideway means in saidhousing for. guiding a key having, perforation means, a first member guided for movement. in said housing, a second-member gui-dedcfor movement in said.housingwitlrv respect to said first member and parallel withr-saidkey guideway means looking pin means extending transversely to said key guidewayl andreciprocableein bore means in .said first and second-members, said lockingp in means being arranged normally to couple together said first and said second; members for JQ nt; move, ment,. abutment meansassociated withsaid sec ond member. andextending-into the guideway for engagement by saidkey'. when the latter is being inserted into said housingand along ,said guide! way,- meansfon limiting the, movement of said first member with respect-to said housing, means operable. in. response;- to the movement of, said first member intor its. arrested. position and against said means for; limiting the movement thereof withrespectto said housing-for bringing aboutmovement .of-saidlockingpin means; axi-= ally, for releasing the-interlocking engagement of said. pin with said. members permittin said sec? and member to moverelativeto said firstmember and-with respect.to.said.-housing, means for restoring .saidsecondmember to its initial position with. respect-to. said firstmember upon a' prede-v termined withdrawal of said key, means for pre: venting. thermovement in. one direction offsaid second.--. member. relative; to said first member from; said; iinitial position, and means: operable upon. a further andipredetermined withdrawal tof said-key, tooausesaid locking-pinmeans tomove backto said normal locking position.
R'frencesflited in the nieof this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS