US 2658252 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov. 10, 1953 Filed June 28. 1950 A. c. AVRIL 2,658,252
h FORM FOR MOLDING OPENINGS m CONCRETE STRUCTURES 2 Sheets-Sheet l 15 I Z7 Z6 Z0 5 l .18, 14 15 g ICIII ZLZIII 7:22:2
BY 'Ldov-nl (la-1 II 'v/ ATTORNEYS.
A. C. AVRIL Nov. 10, 1953 FORM FORMOLDING OPENINGS IN CONCRETE STRUCTURES Filed June 28, 1950 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 2 z 4 C, IN V E N-TOR.
Patented Nov. 10, 1953 FORM FOR MOLDING OPENINGS IN CONCRETE STRUCTURES Arthur C. Avril, Cincinnati, Ohio, assignor to A and T Development Corporation, St. Bernard, Ohio, a corporation of Ohio Application June 28, 1950, Serial No. 170,760
This invention relates to the erection of monolithic concrete buildings and resides in a form structure for blocking out various openings in walls, panels, slabs and the like during erection, particularly the door and window openings of the building. The walls and panels of a building of this class ar constructed by pouring a wet concrete mix in spaced forms which delineate the inner and outer wall surfaces and the present form structure consists of sectional units which are assembled collectively to delineate the sides of the opening formed in the wall. These units are designated in this disclosure as breach forms to distinguish them from the wall forms with which they cooperate.
The breach forms are installed between the spaced wall forms and provide a temporary dam corresponding in size and shape to the desired opening, serving to exclude the wet concrete mix from the delineated area. After the poured concrete is set, the Wall and breach forms are removed, leaving in the wall an opening to receive a standard door or window frame which is later installed permanently in the opening, following the usual practice.
The present structure is intended particularly for use in erecting building walls according to the method disclosed in my co-pending application, entitled Method and Apparatus for Erecting Concrete Structures, Serial No. 85,748, filed April 6, 1949. This co-pending application discloses a method of erecting buildings by the progressive erection of relatively shallow wall forms which are clamped in horizontal courses upon opposite sides of preset vertical guide columns so as to embed the columns in the wall when the wet concrete is poured and tamped into the spaced forms. In practicing this method each course of wall forms preferably is poured and tamped individually; in other words, one course of forms is installed and poured, then the next course is installed upon the first and poured and tamped so as to homogenize the courses of concrete. The procedure of installing and pouring form courses is continued until the full wall height is reached and the wall forms are removed when the concrete is set and are used also in forming a concrete roof slab upon the building.
The present breach forms constitute sectional units corresponding in size and shape to the wall section and are interposed between the spaced wall forms as the forms are erected one upon another, the breach forms being arranged to seat one upon another in the same manner as the wall forms. If it is desired to form openings in the roof slab, the breach forms are applied in the same manner upon the forms which support the roof slab.
In defining a window opening, the wall forms are successively installed and poured until the height of the opening is reached and at this point a breach form unit is placed between them. As succeeding form courses are erected, successive breach forms are inserted one upon another to outline the opposite sides of the window opening. The same procedure is followed in forming door openings and other openings except that the breach forms are started at the bottom of the Wall for door openings.
Each breach form consists essentially of a pair of dam plates corresponding to the cross section of the wall and a spacer bar which has its opposite ends in bearing engagement against the spaced dam plates. The spacer bar holds the plates rigidly in position to resist the hydrostatic pressure developed by the tamped concrete and is conveniently detached to permit removal of the dam plates from the opening after the concrete has set.
A primary object of the invention has been to provide a sectional form unit adapted to cooperate with the sectional wall forms and permit the progressive erection of walls having door and window openings in accordance with the procedure disclosed in the above noted co-pending application.
Further objects of the invention have been to provide form units which may be installed and removed in .a rapid and convenient manner without chipping the corners of the opening; to provide an assembly which is adjustable to accommodate openings suitable for the various standard door and window frame sizes; and to provide sectional units which ar capable of being joined edge-to-edge to form an opening of accurate size having straight, smooth surfaces.
A In order to provide ready installation and removal of the breach form units, the spacer bar which maintains the spacing between the dam or end plates, has its opposite ends detachably engaged within sockets mounted upon the inner surface of the plates. These sockets permit the bar .to be installed by slipping its opposite ends downwardly into the open ends of the sockets and removed by lifting the bar upwardly to free the dam plates after the concrete has set. The adjustability of the opening size is provided by utilizing a telescopic tubular spacer bar which is provided with selective apertures such that the telescopic sections may be lengthened with respect to one another to change the spacing between the dam plates. The tubes are locked in adjusted position by slipping a taper pin through the matching apertures of th adjusted bars. The apertures preferably are arranged in respective sets in the telescopic sections, one set being spaced to provide variations in multiples of one foot, and the second set spaced to provide multiples of one inch, whereby the required opening width may conveniently be selected. In addition, a screw threaded connection is established between one section of the spacer bar and the corresponding dam plate whereby a fine adjustment of the spacing can be achieved by rotating the bar with respect to the plate. This adjustment permits the individual form units to be adjusted precisely in alignment with one another to provide smooth, flush surfaces between adjoining plates in assembly.
As disclosed in the preferred embodiment of the invention, the inside and outside wall forms are provided respectively with horizontal recesses and V-shaped channels to provide a decorative wall contour, and in order to prevent leakage of the wet concrete mix between the interface of the wall and breach forms, the side edges of the dam plates are configurated to interfit in nesting engagement with these surfaces. In order to stiffen the forms, the side edges which interfit the wall forms are provided with angular flanges which intimately embrace the surface of the wall forms. The upper and lower edges of the dam plates also are provided with stiffening flanges which provide seats whereby the respective courses of dam plate units may be mounted one upon another for the successive installation of them. These flanges are provided with matching apertures for the reception of anchorage screws for securing the superposed dam plates to one another in assembly.
Various other features and advantages of the invention will be more fully apparent to those skilled in the art from the following detailed description taken in conjunction with the drawings.
In the drawings:
Figure 1 is a fragmentary side elevation of a poured concrete wall section as viewed from the outside with wall forms removed, showing a door and window opening blocked out by the improved breach form units, the form units being shown in position in the window opening.
Figure 2 is a view similar to Figure 1 showing the wall forms installed during the course of construction, with the breach forms mounted between courses of spaced wall forms.
Figure 3 is an enlarged fragmentary cross sectional view taken on the line 33 of Figure 2, showing the interfitting relationship of the breach for-ms with the wall forms.
Figure 4 is a longitudinal sectional view taken on the line 44 of Figure 3, further detailing the relationship between the breach and wall forms.
Figure 5 is an enlarged inside face view of the dam plate of one of the breach forms as viewed in Figure 3.
Figure 6 is an enlarged sectional view taken on the line 66 of Figure 5, detailing one of the dam plates and the end of the spacer bar in associated relationship with its socket.
Figure 7 is a sectional view taken on the line 1--1 of Figure 5 illustrating the manner of de- As best disclosed in Figures 2 and 4, the breach form units, indicated generally at I0, are applied between the spaced inside and outside wall forms, indicated respectively at I2 and I3, during the course of erection. After placement of the breach form, the wall forms are clamped against the opposite sides of the precast vertical columns I4. The spaced wall forms are held in clamped engagement against the vertical columns by means of the wall ties I5 which are clinched as at I6 over the meeting flanges I! of the wall forms. The concrete preferably is cast in single courses after installation of each course of wall and corresponding breach forms, and following the casting and tamping of a given course, the next course of forms is installed and the procedure repeated successively for the full height of the wall.
In the preferred mode of operation, the walls are divided into bays which are delineated by the vertical columns I4 (Figures 1 and 2), and the wall forms are of sectional construction to permit the span between the columns to be varied longitudinally. Thus, both the inside and outside wall forms I2 and I3 are made up of end sections I8I8 joined by an intermediate section 20 which overlies the inner portion of the end sections, permitting the end sections to be butted up against the inner surface of the columns I4.
In one preferred form structure, by way of illustration, the individual wall forms are twelve inches high and the closure or dam plates 2| of the breach forms are the same height, the side edges of the plates being configurated to nest with the contour of the wall forms. As best illustrated in Figure 3, the inner edge of the plate is recessed as at 22 to conform to the longitudinal recess or trough 22a of wall form I2. The outside edge of plate 2| is provided with angular corners 2323 corresponding to the V- shaped configuration 23a of the outside wall form I3.
The sets of dam plates 2I delineate the opposite vertical sides of the opening and are held in spaced relationship by respective telescopic spacers indicated generally at 24, one for each set of plates. The spacers span the opening to support the opposed dam plates against the hydrostatic pressure of the wet concrete mix, the opposite ends of each spacer being supported in sockets indicated generally at 25. Each spacer bar constitutes a tubular section 26 telescopically engaged within a tubular section 21 having an inside diameter suitable to establish a sliding fit with the section 26 (Figure 4). In order to permit the Opening sizes to be varied, the tube section 26 is provided with a series of apertures 28 and the section 21 is provided with a second series of apertures 29 arranged to register with the openings 28 to permit the insertion of a taper pin 30 (Figure 5) for locking the sections with respect to one another at the desired spacing. In the present example, the apertures 28 may be spaced twelve inches apart and the apertures 29 one inch apart to permit the adjustment in multiples of feet and inches. In addition, a very fine adjustment may be effected by rotating the tube section 21 with respect to the nut 3| which is welded to the channel 32 which engages the retainer socket 25.
The sockets 25 each consist of a pair of angle plates 3333 welded as at 34 to the dam plate 2|, thus providing overhanging flanges 35-35 adapted to overlie the side flanges 36-38 of taching the spacer bar from the spacer socket. the channels 32 which are attached respectively antenna to the opposite ends of the spacer bars. As viewed in Figure 4, the right hand channel 32 is welded as at 31 directly to the end of the tube section 26, while the channel for the left hand end is welded as at 38 to the nut (Figure 6).
Each dam plate is provided with a pair of horizontal flanges 33- 39 along its upper and lower edges, and vertical flanges 48-40 along its opposite side edges. As viewed in Figure 3, the vertical flanges bear against the surface of the inner and outer wall forms, and the horizontal flanges 39 of adjoining dam plates rest upon one another to support the superposed plates. In addition, these flanges reenforce the dam plate against distortion under the hydrostatic pressure imposed upon them by the'tamped concrete. As shown in Figures 3 and 6, the flanges 39 include matching apertures 4l--4| adapted to receive screws 42 for clamping the flanges firmly together in assembled relationship.
In constructing a wall requiring a door opening, as shown in Figure 1, the breach form units are placed in position starting with the first course of forms, preferably with the spacers 2- 4 in position and locked in adjustment. As best shown in Figures 5 and 7, there is provided a web 44 extending crosswise of the socket, the web being welded in position to support the spacer bar assembly relative to the plates 2!. After the wall forms are installed and clinched by the Wall ties, the concrete is cast and tamped firmly between the spaced wall forms, as shown in Figure 4. The next breach form unit is then placed in position upon the first, and clamped by the screws 42, following which the next course of wall forms is installed and poured. This operation is continued until the top of the opening is reached, at which point a header plate 45 is placed across the top 'of the dam plates to delineate the top of the opening. As shown in Figure 1, the header, which is shown in the window opening, constitutes a flat plate having side flanges 45 for stiffening purposes and preferably includes apertures matching the apertures 4| of the dam plates to permit it to be bolted in place. In forming a window opening, the procedure is the same as for the door opening, except that the breach forms are not installed until the wall reaches an elevation above the floor corresponding to the desired elevation of the window opening. The spacers 24, by virtue of the apertures 28 and 29, are arranged to delineate window and door openings for the several standard frame sizes, the opening size being selected by applying the taper pin to the proper matching apertures as above outlined.
In fabricating the wall, the courses of concrete are poured and tamped preferably while the next lower course is still in plastic condition, so that the successive courses will knit firmly together. After the lower courses have set permanently, the wall and breach forms may be removed and re-used for the succeeding courses, thus, reducing the number of forms required for a given job. After removal of the wall forms, the breach forms are removed by knocking the spacers upwardly to dislodge them from their sockets, as indicated in Figure 7, then removing the screws 42. The individual dam plates can then be removed easily from the opening leaving a smooth surface for installation of the door and window frames in the customary fashion.
Although the improved structure is intended expressly for use with the sectional forms of the type disclosed in the co-pending application, it is contemplated also to use them with standard forms in substantially the same manner by changing, if necessary, the edge configuration of the plates to correspond with the forms. .Also, the use of the plates is not necessarily limited to the construction of walls, but they may be applied substantially in the same manner tothe construction of concrete roof and floor slabs which require openings. By virtue of the adjustability provided by the nuts 3|, the dam plates in assembly can be adjusted accurately in vertical alignment with respect to one another to .form a straight, smooth surface which is devoid of undesirable irregularities and which'is extremely accurate as to size and shape.
Large openings for garage doors and the like can be formed by using spacer bars of increased length, following the same technique followed for the smaller openings. Thus, the same basic unit is capable of forming almost any type of opening, simply by adjusting the required number of units to correspond to the width and stacking them one upon another for the required height. Since the forces imposed upon the dam plates are resisted in compression by the spacers, no additional bracing is needed for larger openings.
The dam plates preferably are oiled to prevent bonding to the concrete; thus, after the spacers are removed, the plates can be easily pulled away from the sides of the opening without danger of chipping the corners. Exceptionally sharp, clean corners are produced by the close fit between the side edges of the dam plates and the inner surface of the wall forms.
The opening can be formed with flush sides, or if desired, the inner edge of the opening can be recessed to interfit the sides of the door or window frame by attaching a demountable recess former to the face of the bulkhead or closure plates. The structure for forming the flush sides is illustrated in Figures 1 to 3 inclusive,'and in Figures 4 to 7 the closure plates are provided with face plates 41 which are secured by countersunk screws 48 to the face of the closure plate. As shown most clearly in Figure 6, the face plate is shaped along one side to form a vertically disposed channel portion 50, and along its opposite side to form an angular lip 54, The channel 50 molds an inset recess in the side of the opening along the inside wall surface and thus presents an abutment 50a (Figure 4) for engagement by the window frame when it 'is inserted in the opening. Also, as shown in Figure 4, the lip chamfers the corner of the opening along the opposite side of the wall.
The header 45 may be removed from its position across the opening when the closure plates are removed but it is preferable to cast it in as a permanent part of the opening to improve the appearance of the opening. The permanent header preferably is formed from aluminum to eliminate corrosion and discoloration of the wall surface. As disclosed in Figure 1, the header 45 of the window opening is greater in length than the width of the opening, with its opposite ends embedded in the wall as at 52. The header may be keyed to the wall by the provision of bolts, lugs or the like extending upwardly and adapted to be embedded in the concrete above the header. The header can be made removable simply by (6 cutting it to the width of the opening so that 7 its ends rest upon the closure plates but do not become embedded in the concrete.
In order to provide a rigid support for the header of exceptionally wide openings, the standard breach form units consisting of closure plates and spacers can be placed end to end in horizontal courses one upon another with the closure plates resting one upon another. The stacked plates thus provide a series of columns supporting the header at intermediate points to prevent sag. The opening thus is rigidly braced in both directions against the pressure developed by the wet tamped concrete.
Having described my invention, I claim:
1. In a form structure for molding poured concrete walls and the like constituting spaced sets 01' substantially continuous horizontal inner and outer wall forms adapted to delineate the inner and outer wall surfaces, a dam structure adapted to delineate an opening at a selected position in the poured wall comprising, a pair of closure members constructed and arranged to be mounted in spaced relationship with one another between the spaced inner and outer wall forms to provide closures between the wall forms and thereby to delineate the sides of an opening in the wall, a spacer element adapted to be interposed between the closure members to maintain the members in spaced relationship with one another, the closure members being adapted to slidably contact the spaced inner and outer wall forms and to resist the pressure of the poured concrete independently of the wall forms, the spacer element constituting a pair of bars telescopically interfitted with one another, each bar having a plurality of spaced apertures, the apertures of th respective bars being adapted selectively to register with one another upon lengthwise adjustment of the bars, a pin adapted to be inserted through the registering apertures to lock the said bars at adjusted length relative to one another, and a fine adjustment element interposed between at least one of the spacer bars and its associated closure member and in screwthreaded engagement with the spacer bar, the fine adjustment element being constructed and arranged to vary the spacing between the closure members upon rotation of the spacer bar relative to the closure member.
2. In a form structure for molding poured concrete walls and the like constituting spaced sets of substantially continuous inner and outer wall forms adapted to delineate the inner and outer wall surfaces, a dam structure adapted to delineate an opening at a selected position in the wall comprising, a pair of closure plates constructed and arranged to be interposed in spaced relationship with one another between the spaced inner and outer wall forms to provide closures between the wall forms and thereby to delineate an opening in the poured wall, a spacer bar adapted to be interposed between the spaced closure plates to maintain the plates in spaced relationship with one another, said closure plates being adapted to slidably contact the inner and outer wall forms and to resist the pressure of the concrete poured between the inner and outer wall forms, a spacer bar retainer mounted on each of said closure plates adapted to support the respective ends of the spacer bar, the spacer bar retainers each constituting a pair of angle members spaced from one another and secured to the closure plate to stiffen the same, the spaced angle members being arranged to form a socket having an open end, and a respective locking member secured upon the opposite ends of the spacer bar adapted to be detachably inserted in the open end of the socket to provide a detachable engagement therewith.
3. In a form structure for molding poured concrete walls and the like constituting spaced sets of substantially continuous horizontal inner and outer wall forms adapted to delineate the inner and outer wall surfaces, a dam structure adapted to delineate an opening at a selected position in the wall comprising, a pair of closure plates constructed and arranged to be interposed in spaced relationship with one another between the spaced inner and outer wall forms to provide closures between the wall forms and thereby to delineate an opening in the poured wall, a spacer bar adapted to be interposed between the said plates to maintain the plates in spaced relationship with one another, said closure plates being adapted to slidably contact the said inner and outer wall forms and to resist the hydrostatic pressure developed by the wet concrete mix independently of the inner and outer wall forms, a spacer bar retainer mounted on each of said closure plates adapted to support the respective ends of the spacer bar, the retainers each constituting a pair of angle members spaced from one another and secured to the closure plate to stiffen the same and providing opposed flanges substantially parallel with and spaced from the closure plate, the adjacent inner edges of the said flanges being spaced from one another to receive th end of the spacer bar therebetween, and respective channel members secured upon the opposite ends of the spacer bar, the channel members being adapted to be inserted between the said angle members with the opposed flanges overlying the channel members thereby providing a detachable connection between the spacer bar and closure plates.
ARTHUR C. AVRIL.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 543,056 Rue July 23, 1895 938,010 Merriett Oct, 26, 1909 1,231,462 Tutwiler June 26, 1917 1,40 ,898 Farness Dec, 27, 1921 1,63 ,846 Penote June 21, 1927