US 2659418 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov. 17, 1953 o. A. IBERMAN cusmou OR THE LIKE 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Feb. 9, 1952 M a I. I
IN VENTOR O. A. BERMAN CUSHION OR THE LIKE Nov. 17, 1953 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Feb. 9, 1952 INVENTOR Patented Nov. 17, 1953 UNITED STATES -ATENT OFFICE CUSHION OR THE LIKE Oscar A. Berman, New York, N. Y.
Application February 9, 1952, Serial No.
7 Claims. (Cl. 155-179) fort.
In the case of cylindrical cavities, compression increases the density of the cellular web until it forms hard rings around soft centers so that one sitting or lying thereon feels like he is sitting or lying on a plurality of hard annular formations. In the case of horizontal channel, there is a similar result except that the hard formations are elongated.
This presents the problem of finding a way to retain all the advantages of cylindrical cavities or horizontal channels, and at the same time avoid the undesirable hard formation that is not conducive to comfort.
The present invention solves that problem by means of non-cylindrical cavities that under compression avoid the formation of rings or ridges.
It is therefore, a primary object of this invention to provide a cushion that will remain uniformly soft under varying degrees of pressure without a semblance of hard formations such as are incident to cylindrical cavities or horizontal channels."
Another object even the slightest pressure on the a person sitting on a cushion'made with the aforementioned non-cylindrical cavities.
Some resilient cushions tend to lose their resiliency and supporting power in the degree that pressure is applied. If the cushion is made harder and more resilient to provide greater resistance to pressure, it is less comfortable and -.ence less desirable. On the other hand, a soft cushion, not being possessed of extreme resiliency, does not provide as satisfactory a support as does the harder cushion. The central portion of the body of the cushion is, of course, subject to greater pressure as the cushion is used.
reducing the softness or comfort thereof.-
It is a further object of my invention to \provide a cushion purposes. The material itself may be of the class of materials represented by the disclosures of the patent to Chapman et al., No. 1,852,447, and the patent to 1,156,184, and comprising, generally speaking, a body of cushioning material interposed between the outer to the Weight of a person thereon.
Thematerial is specially characterized by being formed from rubber latex,
jacent biceps femoris or biceps flexor cruris, constituting the buttocks and forward contiguous ing the shoulders, spine and legs, in which the said surfac is resiliently supported to provide additional comfort to the user.
Now it becomes apparent that if a cushion is soft all over, the weight of the body will cause the ischial tuherosities of the pelvis to sink into the face of the cushion so far that the center of the cushion will be formed upward under the coccyx with the result that part of the weight of the body is supported on the small triangular bon forming the lower extremity of the spinal column, thereby forcing the four ankylosed rudimentary vertebrae to assume an improper position for correct posture.
On the other hand, if a cushion is hard all over, the weight of the upper portion of the body rests directly upon the coccyx, thereby transmitting pressure on the lower part of the spine, forcing the spin to assume an improper position for correct posture.
The problem posed, therefore, is how to overcome the disadvantages of a cushion either soft or hard all over. The present invention solves that problem by providing comparatively hard support for the ischial tuberosities of the pelvis and the contiguous thigh portions with an opening under the coccyx so that no pressure can be transmitted to the so-called tail-bone.
Another object of my invention is to provide an improved cushion of the character described, which is adapted to be placed upon any type of living room chair to make it more comfortable for sitting than any expensive contour chair particularly built to provide a special degree of relaxation.
Another object of my invention is to provide a novel and highly improved cushion of the character described, which shall be provided in the form of a single unit with graduated resilience to provide the greatest possible comfort.
A further object of my invention is to provide a cushion which shall represent a substantial improvement in the art, that is, a cushion construction which will be simple in structure, economical of manufacture, durable, easily and quickly assembled, and highly eficient for the purpose for which it is intended.
It is also an object of the invention to provide a cushion construction in which lumping and undesirabl features resulting therefrom will be avoided.
Another object of the invention is the provision of a cushion which will retain its shape indefinitely and be possessed of a comparatively long life.
Another object of the invention is th provision of a cushion construction which will be comfortably yieldable also to persons of other than average sizes and weights, so that varying degrees of flexibility may be obtained for all types of physiques.
Another object of the invention is th provision of a cushion comprising a plurality of noncylindrical cavities so constructed and arranged as to provide a maximum amount of movement while at the same time retaining their operative relation.
Another object of the invention is the provision of non-cylindrical cavities which aid in resisting the impact of the weight of the body of a person sitting or lying down thereon and automatically distributing the weight imposed on different portions of the cushion.
Other objects and advantages tails of construction and operation as more reside in the defully hereinafter described and claimed, reference being had to the accompanying drawings forming part hereof, wherein like numerals refer to like parts throughout, and in which:
In Figure l is shown the opening in which floats the tail-bone of a person sitting on the cushion.
In Figure 2 is shown a cross-sectional view taken along the line 2-2 of Figure i.
In Figure 3, the bottom plan view shows the with relation to cavities 5, 6, 8 and 9.
is shown a cross-sectional view taken along the line 4-4 of Fig. 3.
In Figure 5, the fragmentary cross-sectional view shows two single thickness cushions Joined by a central layer of foam rubber I3, cemented together to provide a cushion of double thickness.
In Figure 6 is shown a cross-sectional view of a generally conical cavity IS, with spiral pro tuberances A, B, C, D, E, F, G and A, B, C, D, E, F and G.
In Figure 7 is shown a cross-sectional view of a generally conical cavity I1, with parallel protuberances I, J, K, L, M, N, O and I, J, K, L, M, N and O.
In Figure 8 is shown a cross-sectional view of a generally conical cavity I8 with ratchet protuberances Q, 'R, S, T, U, V and Q, R, S, T, U and V.
In Figure 9 is shown a perspective view of a generally conical plug I4, with a spiral trough AA, BB, CC, DD, EE, FF, GG and A'A', B'B', CC, DD, EE, FF and GG.
In Figure 10 is shown a perspective view of a generally conical plug I5, with ratchet troughs QQ, RR, SS, TT, UU, W and Q'Q, R'R', SS, TT, U'U and VV.
In Figure 11 is shown a view of a non-cylindrical cavity I6 with spiral protuberances a, b, c, d, e, g and a, b, c, d, e, f and g in the first stages of vertical compression.
In Figure 12 is shown a cross-sectional view of the same cavity I6, in a further stage of vertical compression.
In Figure 13 is shown a cross-sectional view of the same cavity IS, in a still further stage of vertical compression.
In Figure 14 is shown a cross-sectional view of the same cavity IG, in the first stages of combined vertical and lateral compression.
In Figure 15 is shown a cross-sectional view of the same cavity I6, in a further stage of combined vertical and lateral compression.
In Figure 16 is shown a cross-sectional view of the same cavity IS, in a still further stage of combined vertical and lateral compression.
In Figure 17 is shown a perspective view of the opening 1, in which floats the "tail-bone of a person sitting on said cushion.
In Figure 18 is shown a perspective view showing the application of my invention to a posture chair I1.
In Figure 19 is shown the configuration of my cushion to the body of a person sitting thereon, whereby the buttocks I8, and contiguous parts rest in balanced resiliency.
In Figure 20 is shown the configuration of my cushion to the body of a person lying thereon, whereby the shoulders I9, spine 20, buttocks I8, and legs ZI, are resiliently supported to provide maximum relaxation and comfort.
Referring now to the drawings in detail, wherein for the purpose of illustration I have disclosed a preferred embodiment of the invention, the letter C designates generally the cushion therefore, is free and not As a result, the various organswithin. the body 'A cushion 'embodying thefinvention is: preferably made of segments: of sponge: Y rubber, on of being molded and vuleanize' in' the desired shape. In the drawing the-cushion is shown- -as: of the out the massfor ventilation,-also to contribute to the hysteresis properties-of the cushion. The two half sections *are preferably cemented to opposite sides of-a' latex sheet, and in the embodiment shown, the latex sheet isthe vertical medial longitudinal plans-of the cushion.
Each half section ismolded With-corresponding cored out non-cylindrical cavities- 6-;1, 8 and 9, arranged in groupswith walls I'll, Hand 12, intermediate the non cylindrical cavities. The-coredout cavities 6, 8 and 9 are of differentdia-meters depending on their positions.
'As shown in Figure 5, the'non-cylindrical cavitieswi, 8 and 3, of each half section-are aligned or registered with the corresponding core cavities of-theother half section, when the'flat faces of the, two half sections are cemented, opposite. each other, thus providing the assembled. cushion with a multiplicityof double nonrcylindrical: openings extending throughout the cushion, except for'the opening l, and affording an internal cushion structure of weblike'walls offoam latex.
The foam rubber of. the cushion. body is of intercommunicating open cell texture, compressionand expansion of the cushion causes movements of ventilating currents not. only" through the non-cylindrical cavitiest6,.3, and"9,"b.ut.also through the webs and walls of the foam rubber itself.
In use, the cushion of" this invention may be placed ontthe cushion of any seating device. An individual who then seats himself on thecushion is afforded proper supportbyvirtue .ofthe size and arrangement of the non-cylindrical, cavities.
tuberosities of the pelvis, will be. disposed directlyabove the groups of smaller, cavities 8 and 9, and the under side of' the thighs will normally extend above cavities 6. The Weight of the body above the pelvis is transmitted by Way of the ischial tuberosities to'cavities 8 and 9, and the tail-bone column floats in the opening 1. The ,coccyx subjected to pressure.
are maintained in proper position, and fatigue is minimized. Because cavities 6 8 and. 9. automatically fill in andfiatten down in proportion to the weight upon them, resiliency is graduated and there is no line of-dema'rcation between contiguous cavities to cause discomfort.
. A cushion constructedzin accordance withithis.
.or end of. the spinal.
, The. cavities} and 9 prevent sagging or tiltin of:;thej;-.-p lvis and ass prop r leaicnshipsbetween the pelv sand the sp al co .umn.
- soon as" a person starts to .tained; and which at the same time permits resil- ,,of,,the entire body support as a .whole. In this manner some of the disadvan- :tages in :the. types of bod resting members herethroughout'gthe major portion of their length. The-shellpreferably has a thickness of the order 'of%". Formed as aunitintegral with the shell is-a"web-zzflsurrounding all the cavities which their'ver-t'exes 23; bases 24; iormingwith the web 22, between them, the bottom 01 the cushion. The cavities throughout the-area of the cushion, generally c conical, pyrimidal, tetragonal, or any other shape so long as the sides of the cavitiesapproach oblique lines which will 'produccvertices 23, and bases. 24. The bases 24, 'maybecircular, square, oval, triangular, pentagonal or any other or combination of The =web -portions25g between the bases 24, of closely contiguous cavities are relatively thin. The web portions 26;-bet-ween the vertices 23, of contiguous cavities are-relatively thick. This web pattern provides a web thickness gradually decreasing from a'maximum thickness at the top of the cushion to-a minimum thickness at the bottom, to thereby' provide the least density at the bottom while retaining suflicient structure to maintainthe shape of the cushion.
"The superior bottom, as shown in Figures ll, 12 and 13. As sit down on the cushion,--' the-first contact causes protuberance b-b' to descend-inside abutments aa-; then protuberances c- -c" descend inside abutments bb'; then abutmcnts deed :;-descend inside 'l'he-zcompression. ofxthe conical cavity operates like; the compressionora spiral spring; there be ingrmough. slope in thewalls of the cavity to permit the-nrotuberancein. the apex to fit. inthe larger of the water method. In the protuberance contiguous and below the arc in the apex, the second protuberance fitting within the third, etc., until all the protuberances have been compressed into approximately a horizontal plane. This avoids any line of demarcation as exists between a web and the usual cylindrical cavity or channel I, which produces a hard ring, uncomfortable to a person seated thereon.
This capacity to avoid any line of demarcation as exists between a web and the usual cylindrical cavity or channel also characterizes these noncylindrical cavities when pressure is applied laterally as well as vertically when a person sits on the cushion as shown in Figures 14, and 16.
The superior functioning of this cushion is also definitely aided by the use of the fitting plugs as shown in Figures 9 and 10. These plugs, also made of foam rubber of the same density as the web in the portion of the cushion to which they are to be applied, by closing up the cavities, make it possible to increase the resiliency of any part of the cushion. The plug shown in Figure 9 has ratchet side walls QQ, RR, SS, TT, UU, and QQ', R'R, SS', TT', UU and VV, automatically look into the ratchet protuberances Q, R, S, T, U, V and Q, R, S, T, U and V, as shown in Figure 8. The plug shown in Figure 10 has spiral side walls AA, BB, CC, DD, EE, FF, GG and AA', BB, CC, DD', EE, and G'G, which fit on to the protuberances A, B, C, D, E, F, G and A, B, E, F and G of the cavity shown in Figure 6. Various other shaped plugs may be fitted or cemented into corresponding cavities providing a cushion construction which is very easily and to persons of other than average the degrees of fiexiquickly adapted sizes and weights, by varying bility in varying portions of the cushion. Varying the number and positions of the plugs, besides aiding in resisting the impact of the bodies of persons of different weight sitting down thereon, also aid in blending the resiliency of contiguous portions of the cushion and provide varying degrees of density or resiliency so as to distribute the weight imposed on different portions of the cushion.
This arrangement also results in a flexible structure utilizing a relatively small amount of material and providing a maximum shape-retaining structure. A cushion made in accordance with this invention may be comparatively hard at the top and substantially as soft as down at the bottom, with semi-pneumatic qualities in the middle, and possessing the advantages of immediately returning to its normal shape when pressure is removed. Likewise, a cushion in accordance with this invention is relatively light, is well ventilated and is readily cleaned by washing like a sponge in soapy water.
In this connection it may be said that recent experiments indicate that my new cushion may be produced faster and cheaper than any manufactured heretofore, for it has been found that by switching from hot water to infrared heat for curing latex foam sponge rubber, it has been able to step up production by 50%, and at the same time improve the quality by the elimination of a large percentage of rejects occurring by use new method, the latex foam compound is poured into aluminum molds which are immediately conveyed through a zoned infrared oven. The first zone provides rapid heating; the second zone adjusts the mold temperature to 200 degrees F.; the remaining zones maintain this required temperature. Ra-
diant heaters in the oven are said to deliver more of the cured rubber in two shifts than were previously produced in three.
It is to be understood that even though there is herein shown and described a preferred embodiment of the invention, the same is susceptible to many changes fully comprehended by the spirit of the invention, as herein described, and the scope of the appended claims. It is, therefore, to be understood that endless variations and modifications in sizes and shapes of the various elements of my invention may be made to meet various needs, and I herein claim all such variations and modifications insofar as they fall within the reasonable spirit and scope of my claims.
1. A cushion having a plurality of non-cylindrical cavities, each containing annular integral protuberances.
2. A cushion spersed with non-cylindrical cavities, each of said cavities containing a series of annular integral protuberances adapted to fit within each other under compression, the protuberance nearest the base of each cavity descending first into said base, then the next higher protuberance, then the next higher and so on as pressure on the vertex of said cavity increases until, under maximum pressure, all of said annular protuberances in said cavity have descended into the plane of said base, said cushion having in the central rear portion thereof an opening permitting the tail-bone of a person sitting thereon to float therein without the slightest pressure on said tail-bone.
3. In a latex foam rubber cushion, a plurality of non-cylindrical cavities having spiral integral pretuberances adapted to receive spirally annulated plugs.
4. A molded, foamed latex rubber article having a plurality of shaped openings therein extending from the base thereof transversely of its longitudinal axis and terminating short of the top surface thereof, said openings conforming essentially in configuration to a conical cavity with a gradually increasing cross section from the vertex to the base thereof, the walls of said cavity having protuberances integral therewith projecting into said cavity.
5. A rubber article according to claim 4, wherein said protuberances extend spirally about said walls from apex to base. 6. A rubber article according to claim 4, wherein said portuberances are graduated in inverted steplike formation from vertex to base, the sides of said steplike formations being substantially parallel.
7. In a foam rubber cushion comprising a web and plurality of cavities, said web forming the walls of said cavities, protuberances integral with said walls and projecting into said cavities.
OSCAR A. BERMAN.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS