US 2659956 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov. 24, 1953 J. E. I ILIENFELD 2,659,956
FABRIC. METHOD oF MAKING SAME AND ITS usEs Filed Dec.y l5, 1948 3 Sheets-Sheet l www.
//\ A A m HG. 6 A JULlUs E, IIV'RLD A? l"TTO/ZA/fy Nov. 24, 1953 Filed Deo. l5, 1948 J. E. LILIENFELD FABRIC METHOD OF MAKING SAME AND ITS USES FIGA.
5 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENToR.
JULI'US E. LILIENFELD Nov. 24, 1953 J. E. LILIENFELD FABRIC. METHOD OF MAKING SAME AND ITS USES 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed Dec. l5, 1948 INVENTOR. JULIUS E. LILJENFELD l Patented Nov. 24, i953 UNITED sTATss TENT OFFICE FABRIC, METHOD OFUMAKING SAME, AND
Julius E. Lilienfeld,` St. Thomas, V. I.
Application December 15, 1948, Serial No. 65,484
applied as an elastic support; and more specically it may be used to support the human body by upholstering furniture with it. It may also be used for form-giving support of parts of the human body.
A fabric that may be used to so support weight has to fulfill two conditions; firstly, it has to be aptA to distort when Weighted; and secondly, while so responding over the full range of the intended loads, its distortions have to be fully reversible. By reversible is meant that a definite distortion will always correspond to a definite load; and also will change practically simultaneously with the change of the load, regardless of whether that change is an increase or a decrease of the initial one.
The first condition is satisfied, to some degree, by known fabrics made of substantially inextensible yarns. Any woven fabric will show its maximum distortion when a force attacksit diagonally. Knitted or netted fabrics exhibit this property to a higher degree. In all of the knitted aforesaid cases, the distortion is due to the fact that the threads run in a sort of three dimensional zig-Zag, being for instance, coiled when the fabric is knitted. The distortion then is due to a partial straightening out of the zig-zag and, as this is indefinite, the response to a denite eld of forces is indefinite as well.
If the fabric is made of an extensible yarn, however, its behavior is even more unpredictable. Elastic distortion superimposes itself over the aforesaid non-elastic one, and any one of the set of possible responses may happen under the identical load. due to the fact that the non-elastic component of the distortion is not caused by the transformation of a definite quantity of energy. Thus, it is the very nature of all known fabrics that they will not reproduce a definite shape when attacked by a given set of forces.
The present invention avoids the indicated di'iculty by using, in the construction of the fabric, both substantially inextensible and elastically extensible filaments like threads, yarns,
In the language of physics, this is the frame they become made up of two sets of substantially inextensible filaments, the laments of the one set running along a pattern intersecting the pattern of the other set A net 24 is a good example of such structure. filament intersects the pattern of such base I mean so say that it substantially intersects both systems of the inelastic laments of the base.
Fig. 1 represents a retiform base fabric, and
more specifically a pattern of two systems of subsuspensions on frame ABCD glide freely along the frame (e. g. by inserting rings or pulleys 55 riding on the frame); and suppose elastic laments or bands are interwoven with it as indicated by the heavier cross lines 55 and their lengths so chosen that when assembled with prestretched If weighted masses are distributed over the so constructed fabric, the elastic filaments, lbands or similar elastic cross members will become elongated. The points of attachment of base to frame will spread along AB and DC, while those on AD and BC will condense along these lines by a corresponding quantity. By contradistinction, if the points of attachment on ABCD are not movable and their location is invariable, the base will be subjected to stretching forces directed mainly along AD. If a human body lies iiat lengthwise on the fabric, lines of longitudinal support, which in a somewhat slack base Iwithout the elastic bands would be curved, will shorten and the supporting, lifting action along those lines will increase. The result will be that by comparison with the case without interwoven elastic bands, the body will be lifted along the length axis of the base and simultaneously hugged by the fibres running perpendicularly to that axis. This will reduce such components of the forces exerted upon vthe body as may tend to make for a painful condition in the sacroiliac the means of holding the elastic elements which represent the elastic filaments.V
Fig. 5 is a plan view of a form-giving breast Obviously, by stating that the elastic covering made up of a retiform base which is netted like a purse net and of an extensible filament which is spirally inserted, e. g., interlaced in said base.
Fig. 6 is a plan view of a piece of fabric showing substantially inextensible filaments intersecting each other with non-slip intersections to form a diamond-like pattern and with elastic filaments crossing said pattern diagonally.
The chair shown in Fig. 2 is designed to follow the same principle and with similar beneficial results and its economical and simple construc-V tion is indicated in Figs. 2, 3 Vand 4. Two properly and identically shaped boards 25 are held firmly parallel by crossbars 26, 2l, 28 and 29 at a distance apart to comfortably hold the human body. A pattern of one inch holes 55 has been drilled through both boards 25 before they were assembled, as indicated bya series of successive circles shown on Fig. 2. The pattern follows the conventional lines of seat and back of a chair. A qua'drangular base EFGH netted of about a one and one-half inch mesh is firmly attached to the sides 25 by its long borders EF and HG so as to'follow said pattern. As means of said attachment for base are used strips of wood or metal 3| which are drilled so that the holes coincides with those of the aforesaid pattern. The base fabric is secured to said attachment by providing its borders EF and GH with random threads 62 which are passed between the strips 3| and sides 25 by screwing or nailing such strips to the inside of sides 25. The border FH is firmly tied to crossbar 2S. The border FG is tied to a freely swinging rod 3U, hung by two parallel Wires or twines 32 over two pulleys 33 held in position above it and attached to the sides 25 or to one of the crossbars. Said wires or twines .32 run over the lower pulleys 34 and are attached to another freely swinging rod 35, which in turn, is connected with a crossrow of meshes 36 of that part of the net which forms the seat, said crossrow being selected according to the required performance of the chair under load. Said performance is controlled by turnbuckles 5l inserted in the wires 32. The role of the elastic cross bands is in the present instance taken over by soft rubber tubes 31 whose outside diameter is the same as the diameter of the holes drilled in the sides 25 and strips 3l. The tubes may be replaced by solid soft rubber rods. And again they may be reinforced by slipping into them helices of spring wire or spring band. Such reinforcement of rubber tubes is well known. The important advantage of tubes or rods above thinner laments or bands is that the fabric becomes, so to speak, three dimensional and additional elastic give is provided when the reticular base stretches and compresses said tubes interwoven with the base. In some applications however, rubber tubes may be omitted altogether and helical spring wire or band may be used. This would save rubber; however, it would have obvious drawbacks. Such tubes or their equivalents may incidentally also be used in the diagrammatically presented. case of Fig. 1, and in other cases. When assembling the chair, first one end of the rubber tubes 3l is passed through the holes in one of the sides 25 and in the adjacent strip 3i and conical Stoppers 38 are forced into that end with the result that the tubes will not slide out of the holes even if pulled by strong forces. Next, the other end of the tubes 3l is passed diagonally, in an interweaving manner, in and out through the meshes of the corresponding crossrow, then longitudinally pulled through the corresponding holes of the other side 25, and finally stoppers 38 are forced into that end too so that said tubes remain in a prestressed condition. The assembly is completed by pulling taut the wires or twines 32 which run over the pulleys 33 and 34. When a body seats itself, and the rubber tubes are deflected downward, the part of the base net forming the seat shortens and its pull transfers itself over the lower pulleys 34 to the upper pulleys 33 and hence to the back of the chair and so lifts up the back. The latter pull .in turn expands the length dimension of the seat, thus lifting the cross row of meshes 36 by which action part of the load of the seated body is counteracted with the result that a perfectly elastic reaction may be obtained with smaller rubber cross section than without the pulley arrangement; and also the seat shapes itself more effectively for comfort.
There are other fundamentally inherent features which warrant an exceptionally pleasant performance of said fabric. Due to the large number of crossings between the elastic and nonelastic threads, all elastic oscillations are so strongly damped as to become aperiodic. Also, when the fabric is loaded, a pressure is exerted between the inelastic base laments and the elastic laments crossing them. As a consequence each intersection of one of the former with one of the latter will remain at the same point of either one, partly because the elastic filament distorts, so as to oppose the sliding along it of the crossing non-elastic one, and partly because of frictions. If the base is a net with non-sliding knots, this makes each mesh to become, so to speak, an isolated cell inasmuch as each elastic cross-piece becomes firmly anchored to its mesh, so that if the elastic filament is cut in a percentage of the meshes, no vital disruption occurs. Also in other ways the action of the fabric is more to be compared to the action of as many individual springs as the number of meshes it contains, than like anything else. A good idea of the action is given if the ends of the elastic filaments are not anchored at all, e. g. if the elastic cross-members in Fig. l are disconnected from the frame. Still, a fair measure of control is enacted by the elastic laments. The device performs with much less discomfort than an ordinary hammock even if the net itself is disconnected from the long sides of the frame and instead rimmed with a twine, thus becoming practically a hammock.
The fact that each mesh may be considered as self-supporting lends to the fabric the further advantage of possessing a large measure of safety, which feature may be enhanced by actually tying the elastic laments to each mesh crossed. If the elastic filaments are damaged in a few places, no breakdown occurs and the device continues to perform in much the same manner as before, provided the damage is restricted to a relatively small number of defects.
If, however, the base of the fabric is not knotted with non-slip knots as indicated, e. g., if it is knitted, anything may happen and runs of trouble may develop analogous to those in a knitted stocking. This recommends the fabric of the non-slip knotted kind for use in many cases, instead of the conventional springs, etc. for instance, for support of automobile bodies upon the chassis. Other possible applications obviously are not hard to indicate.
It is to be understood from the preceding paragraph, that while the language speaking of a fabric made up of threads or yarns is conveniently retained, in some practical cases heavy rubber tubes, wires, rods or helices may be made part of the design instead of the elastic crossthreads; and perhaps wire cables or steel rods may take over the role of a non-expansible yarn. rlhus a heavy substructure may result for the support of large loads like automobile bodies, instead of what conventionally is meant by fabric 1t is also to be noted that on the one hand not only knotted nets have been designated as retiform base While such nets, with non- Sliding or stopped knots, as occasion demands, correspond to the conventional .meaning of "retiform, obviously when a construction be made in which instead of knotting, a cementing or welding .were applied to the threads at their crossing, the so produced fabric would behave like a net with stopped knots and therefore would be appropriately called retiform- On the other hand the fabric does not have to be necessarily knotted to make it possible to obtain, to some extent, similar effects as with the knotted base, by combining it in the aforesaid manner with an elastic filament. With the knotted base, however, the pattern of the fabric is strictly defined yfor any given set of forces. This is true with nonsliding knots to a certain extent if the knots slide with-significant friction.
The preceding part of this specification aims at clearly conveying the notion of the novel fabrics The applications mentioned heretofore were to demonstrate the properties of various such fabrics. The specic use, however, of one of such fabrics with which the present specification is to deal, is its application to the already indicated elastically supporting breast covering.
The breast presents a more differentiated problem than that of support only, inasmuch as it also calls for adequate shaping. For this purpose the breast may be considered as an incompressible plastic mass. The mas of an individual breast is not strictly constant as it somewhat varies from day to day. This, however, does not affect the design to be presented here; and no reference to it will be made henceforth.
Fig. 5 is a plan View of a breast covering showing elastic laments interlaced with a retiforrn base fabric.
The retiform base is, in the case of a breast covering, designed as a circular disk, such as is shown in Fig. 5. One way to produce such a disk is to have it netted of one continuous run of yarn after the manner of purse nets. The net resulting from such netting is shown in Fig. 5. The thread runs in a Zig-zag spiral from the center or from the periphery of a circle of about two inches in diameter about that center and is joined, e. g. knotted at al1 points of intersection of said continuous spiral zig-zag. Such a disk presents to the eye, roughly, a structure made up of two sets of intersecting curves, the curves of one set being oppositely curved to the curves of the second set, the curves of either set eX- tending in the direction from center to perimeter. Due to said structure the net may be produced by means different from the conventional netting, to wit, the thread may be laid out in the pattern of the said two sets of curves and cemented or welded at the intersection of the threads. Synthetic thread such as nylon or vinyon lend themselves to such technique.
Fig. 6 is a plan view of a piece of fabric showing the inelastic filaments of the base mutually knotted at their points of intersections with nonslip knots which are well known in the art, the straight parallelly running elastic filaments being strung through said base and interconnected with it in any way by using such elastic filaments as a warp, interweaving, etc.
Although the invention is described in detail and therefore certain specific terms and language therein is used, it is to be understood that the present disclosure is illustrative, rather than restrictive, and that changes and modifications may be resorted to without departing from the spirit or the scope of the claims appended hereto.
1. An integrated fabric, in its undisturbed condition lying flat in a plane, and consisting of a retiform non-slipping base pattern of substantially inextensible filaments, and an elastic pattern of mutually non-intersecting elastic laments crossing the pattern of said inextensible filaments.
2. A fabric according to claim 1, wherein the elastic filaments are in the form of a pattern of straight parallel lines.
3. A fabric according to claim 1, wherein the elastic filaments are interwoven with said base pattern.
4. A fabric according to claim 3, wherein the base pattern is provided with substantially nonslipping knots.
5. A fabric according to claim 4, wherein the elastic filaments are joined to the base pattern at the knots thereof.
6. A member comprising the fabric as claimed in claim 1, and a border element edging the fabric to which both patterns are anchored.
J ULIUS E. LILIENFELD.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 362,440 Goodman May 3, 1887 931,151 Sidey Aug. 1'7, 1909 1,446,316 Niemiec et al. Feb. 20, 1923 1,844,201 Budny Feb. 9, 1932 1,877,799 Brigham Sept. 20, 1932 1,878,620 Bunnell et al Sept. 20, 1932 1,885,749 Mehler Nov. 1, 1932 1,887,643 Huber Nov. 15, 1932 1,894,062 Schrank Jan. 10, 1933 2,072,542 Busch et al. Mar. 2, 1937 2,108,424 Bakely Feb. 15, 1936 2,114,274 Huppert Apr. 12, 1938 2,173,214 Peterson Sept. 19, 1939 2,337,303 rSpraragen Dec. 21, 1943 2,352,866 Stacy July 4, 1944 2,387,620 Shank Oct. 23, 1945 2,411,175 Wagler Nov. 19, 1946 2,411,462 Plehn Nov. 19, 1946 2,423,308 Frieder et al. July 1, 1947 2,455,146 Tann Nov. 30, 1948 2,466,016 Fallek Apr. 5, 1949