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Publication numberUS2660047 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 24, 1953
Filing dateJun 28, 1951
Priority dateJul 19, 1950
Also published asDE948392C
Publication numberUS 2660047 A, US 2660047A, US-A-2660047, US2660047 A, US2660047A
InventorsVillalba Pedro Del Pozo
Original AssigneeVillalba Pedro Del Pozo
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Permutation lock and key
US 2660047 A
Abstract  available in
Images(6)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

1953 PEDRO DEL POZO VILLALBA 2,660, 47

PERMUTATION LOCK AND KEY Filed June 28. 1951 6 Sheets-Sheet 1 at 6R 7 R. 0 WNW NW my m m X m W A U C 7 2 f PEDRO DEL P020 y/uALBA B Y W mm 8% mw mm A na PEDRO DEL POZO VILLALBA Nov. 24, 1953 PERMUTATION LOCK AND KEY 6 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed June 28. 1951 l mv lw kwf mwl x Q Q PEDRO m P020 mule/a ATTORNEY Nov. 24, 1953 PEDRO DEL PQZO VILLALBA PERMUTATION LOCK AND KEY Filed June 28. 1951 6 SheetsSheet 5 A K Y. on E M M m m o .I Y [Z A 6: m .m R. D 3m w mw Nov. 24, 1953 PEDRO DEL POZO VILLALBA 2, 6 ,0

PERMUTATION LOCK AND KEY 6 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed June 28. 1951 PEDRO DEL POZO VILLALBA Nov. 24, 1953 2,660,047

PERMUTATION LOCK AND KEY 7 Filed June 28. 1951 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 we I! Q? INVENTOR- n @KMN ma PEDRO DEL P020 VILLALBA ATTORNEY Nov. 24, 1953 PEDRO DEL POZO VlLLALBA 2,66 ,047

PERMUTATION LOCK AND KEY 6 Sheets-Sheet 6 Filed June 28. 195] I46 PAW \JLK I l" j x w P i L a \:g 0 w a Q a i INVENTOR. PEDRO DEL P020 VILLMBA BY% H 53' Q 7 ATTORNEY Patented Nov. 24, 1953 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE PERMUTATION LOCK AND KEY Pedro del Pozo Villalba, Madrid, Spain Application June 28, 1951, Serial No. 234,010

Claims priority, application Spain July 19, 1950 19 Claims.

The present invention relates to safety locks wherein a plurality of independently movable detents are selectively displaceable by a key to occupy predetermined positions in order to enable opening of the look, as by permitting rotation of an otherwise immobilized cylinder.

An object of this invention is to provide a lock of this general description which may be readily preset to any desired combination of detent positions, and a key therefor adapted to be just as readily adjusted to fit any lock the combination of which is known.

Another object of this invention is to provide a universal key, adapted to cooperate with any lock in accordance with the invention, which may be maintained preset to a certain lock combination without revealing the character of such combination to its holder; more particularly, in this connection, it is an object to provide means in such key to destroy the combination upon attempts to learn the character thereof by dismantling the key.

A further object of this invention is to provide a lock of the character set forth which will so "completely reject a key bearing any but the right combination that, on attempts to force rotation of its cylinder or barrel, the lock will jam, with the driver members of the key only serving to solidify the obstructions blocking rotation and preventing, furthermore, the withdrawal of the key.

To realize the above objects there is provided, according to the invention, a lock comprising a plurality of members at least one of which is movable and bears the selectively displaceable detent elements each of which, in any but a zero position, engages another of these members to prevent displacement of the movable member, the detent elements being individually connected with respective toothed members each adapted to be controlled by a toothed drive member of the associated key upon insertion of the latter into an aperture of the lock; the look also includes means for normally (1. e., in the absence of the key) maintaining one or more (usually all) of the detent elements in other than their zero positions.

The toothed members of the lock are gears or sector gears and the coacting driver members of the key are toothed bars or racks. These racks :are preferably displaceable in unison, under the control of an operating member, being normally concealed inside an opaque shell of the key in -predetermined relative positions. The racks in an ;v a a 9 in t eir selected positions.

.previously withdrawn into the shell.

within the shell, with the aid of retaining means designed to become inoperative when it is attempted to remove the racks from the shell in any but the regular manner (i. e., through the use of the operating member), such regular removal being normally prevented by blocking means adapted to be rendered ineiiective only upon insertion of the key into the lock, yet said blocking means will also prevent detachment of the key from the lock unless the racks have been A user unacquainted with the combination of the key will thus be unable to learn its identity either by manipuating the key alone or by applying it to the look.

It will thus be possible to use but a single key for any number of locks bearing either similar or different combinations; on the other hand it will also be possible to adjust any one of a number of keys for use with a given lock. An owner may thus, for example, entrust a key to his em-- ployee or servant without risk of abuse; moreover, the employee's use of the key may be limited to one or a few locks only by giving these looks a special combination and by either confiding the combination to the employee or by presetting the key thereto, whereas in the hands of the owner the key will also serve to open the remaining locks. Also, if a key should have been lost or is found so badly tampered with as to indicate an attempt to ascertain the combination, it will always be very easy for the owner to change the combination of the lock and to reset his own keys in accordance with the changed combination. The invention will be described with reference to the accompanying drawing in which: Fig. 1 is a front view of a lock representing an embodiment of the present invention, with the latch projecting from the lock;

Fig. 2 is a side elevation of the lock, with the lock housing shown in section substantially on the line 2-2 of Fig. 1;

Fig. 3 is a section on the line 3--3 of Fig. 2; Fig. 4 is a rear view of the lock of Figs. l-3,

with the latch withdrawn inside the lock;

Fig. 5 is a section taken on the line 5-5 of Fig. 2;

Fig. 6 is a view similar to Fig. 3 but showing the lock in opening position, with the latch withdrawn;

Fig. '7 is a section through the lock barrel with the key inserted, drawn to a larger scale;

Fig. 8 is a view similar to Fig. 7 but with the Fig. 14 is a top plan view of the assembled key,

with the shell shown in section;

Fig. 15 is an enlarged section on the line l5l-5 of Fig. 14;

Fig. 16 is a side elevation of one of the racks forming part of the key;

Fig. 17 is a section on the line l'll1 of Fig. 14;

Fig. 18 is a section on the line I 8l8 of. Fig. 1.7

Fig. 19 is a fragmentary section on the line 19,-4.9 ofFig,

Fig. 20 is a bottom viewof the shell of the key;

Fig. 21 is a side elevation of the shell shown in Fig. 20;

Fig. 22 is a view similar to Fig. 14 but showing a modified form of key;

Fig. 23 is an enlarged fragmentary section on the line 23-23 of Fig. 22;

Fig. 24 is a section taken on the line 24-24 of Fig. 23';

Fig. 25 is an end view on the line 2525 of Fig. 24;

Fig.v 26 is a section through a lock according to the invention representing still another embodiment;

Fig. 27 is a fragmentary top plan view of a table with, drawer, the latter bearing a lock representing, yet a further embodiment of the invention; and

Fig. 28 is an elevation, partly in section, of the table and drawer shown in Fig. 27.

Referring first to Figs. 1'6, there is shown a lock 36 comprising a stationary housing 3! and a cylinder or barrel 32 rotatable in said housing. The barrel carries a gear 33' meshing with rack teeth 34' provided on a sliding bolt or latch 35. The bolt is provided with bores 36!, 36b registering with holes 31, 31b in an extension 38 of the housing when the bolt is fully retracted as shown in Figs. 4 and- 6-, thereby enabling insertion of a horseshoe-shaped retaining member 39 to immobilize the bolt in this position.

Rigidly connected: with the. barrel 32, by way of arms Mia, 4th, is aback plate 4! traversed by a pair of wires 42a, 42b and by a handle member. 43,. these members 42a, 42b and 43 extending forwardly into the barrel 32 for purposes presentl-y to be explained. The.- wires 42a, 421) are: tensioned inside the barrel and have their ends engaged by a crosspin 24. which bears against a wedge member 45 slidablev in a bracket 46 on the plate All; with, the wedge 45 depressed as. shown in Fig. 4 and in full lines in Fig. 2-, the wires are pulled toward the. real; whereas raising, the wedge as indicated in dot-dash lines (Fig. 2) allows these wires to slide forwardly toward the barrel 32. The handle 33 is, likewise slidable with respect to the barrel between limits indicated in full lines and, in dot-dash lines in Fig. 5.

Projecting rearwardly from the barrel 32, by way of parallel slots 41a, 41b, 61c and 47d, are the detents 48a, 28b, 48c and 48d having the form of hammerheads swingable about a pivot inside the barrel. Hereinafter, for the sake of plicity; these slots and detents will b ol 1 the barrel 32.

tively referred to as slots 41 and detents 48, and in analogous manner certain other parts will be collectively referred to by their numerical designations alone, without the postscripts a, b, c, d. In the normal or quiescent position of the lock (Figs. 1, 2, 3, 5) these hammerheads register with slots 49a, 49b, 49c, 49d, respectively, provided in the bolt 35, and with similar slots 58a. 50b, 59c, 5311', respectively, provided in a, depending portion 5i of the housing 3|. Normally these detents (or at least one or more of them) will enter more or less into the slots 49, as shown in Fig. 3, thereby preventing relative movement between the bolt 35 andthe gear 33 which is rigid with When the proper key is inserted, the hammerheads are raised sufiiciently to clear both the slots. 43' in. the bolt 35 and the slots 50 in the, fixed housing portion 5|, thereby enabling rotation of the barrel and displacement of the bolt as shown in Fig. 6. If, however, an improper key is applied to the lock, then one or more of the detents 48 will be displaced either insufiiciently, thereby remaining engaged with the corresponding slot 49, or excessively, thereby entering a corresponding slot 50, so that rotation will be prevented in either case.

Reference is now made, in addition, to Figs. 7 and 8, Fig. '7 showing the hammerheads 48c and 4801 after insertion of an improperly fitting key, Fig. 8 showing these hammerheads after withdrawal of the key and zeroizi'ng of the detents by operation of the handle 43. It will be noted that each hammerhead terminates in a respective sector gear 53, of which the gears 53c and 53d associated with detents 48c and 48d are visible in Fig. 7, these sector gears being rotatable on a common pivot or pin 54. When a key 55 is inserted into the lock through the rectangular opening 56 provided at the front of barrel 32, a set of racks 51 corresponding in number and location to the gears 53 may be operated to enter the barrel and to engage these gears, as here shown for the rack 57c meshing with gear 530. It will be noted that in Fig. '7 the rack 510 has rotated the gear 530 (in the direction of the arrow) by too great an angle, causing the hammerhead 280 to enter the slot 550 in member 5|. On the other hand, the rack 57d (not visible in Fig. '7') associated with gear 53d has rotated the latter only by an insufficient angle, thereby leaving hammerhead 43d engaged with the associated slot 49d (likewise not visible in this figure) of bolt 35. Since the sector gears 53a, 53b, 53c and 53d are positioned for engagement by the racks of the key, their nadirs are visible in Fig. 1 through the front aperture 56.

Means are provided for normally maintaining the sector gears 53 (and, with them, the detents 58) in individually selected initial positions representing the characteristic combination of the lock. In the em'bodimentrepresented by Figs. 7, 8 and 9 these means take the form of a frame 53 inserted into the barrel 32 and supporting four parallel rods 59a, 59b, 59c, 59d upon which counterweights 60a, 63b, 60c and 60d are vertically slidable. Each of the sector gears 53 is provided with a spur 6| (only the spurs 61c and Girl of gears 53c and 53d being shown) respectively engageable by a corresponding weight 60 to define this initial position, the weights being held in their selected positions by a friction plate 62 which has a stem horizontally slidable in a hub 53 and which is pulled rearwardly by the wires 32aand 42b against the force of springs 64a, 6 317- It Will thus be apparent that release of these wires by a raising of wedge 45, as previously described, will permit the springs 54a, 64b to retract the friction plate 62 from the counterweights '60, thereby enabling the latter to slide freely on the rods 59 to assume positions defined by the positions of the associated spurs 6|.

It will be noted that handle member 43 is provided with abutment means 55 defining its rearmost position, as well as with cross bars 65, 61 adapted to engage, respectively, the hammerheads 48 and the gears 53 when the member 43 is pushed forwardly as illustrated in Fig. 8. If no key is inserted and the detents are in their initial or quiescent position (shown in Fig. 3), then inward (forward) movement of the member 43 will cause its bar 51 to cam with the flanks of the gears 53, thereby moving these gears to zero position as shown in Fig. 8. Since the handle 43 is accessible only from the rear of the lock, such zeroizing will be possible only from behind the door which is guarded by the lock 30; when this is done, the barrel 32 will rotate freely, so that the lock may be opened by means of a suitable handle (not shown) or with the aid of a plain rectangular bar inserted into the opening 56.

In the embodiment of Figs. 11 and 12 the frame 58 with rods 59 and counterweights 60 has been replaced by a set of gears 68a, 68b, 68c, 68d mounted on a common pin 69 which is slidably mounted by means of bearings or hubs 63a, 63b in like manner to the plate '62 of Figs. '7-9. Individually connected with each gear '68 is a Weight a, 10b, 10c, 10d pivoted on the pin '69; when the wires 42 are tensioned, the gears '68 mesh with the sector gears 53, as shown, and the weights 10 (which of course must be relatively heavy, compared with the hammerheads 48) tend to maintain the detents in their selected initial positions.

Referring now particularly to Figs. 1, 7, 8 and 10 for a description of the entrance opening 55, it will be seen that this opening represents a rel- 'atively wide mouth followed by a reduced channel I2 likewise of rectangular configuration. The sides and the top of mouth 56 are provided with grooves 13a, 13b and 14a, 14b to facilitate insertion of the key 55 as will subsequently become apparent. There are also provided inside the mouth 56, directly above the entrance to the channel 12, three horizontally projecting pins 15a, 15b and 150. Two vertical bores 15a, 16b, registering, respectively, with the grooves 14a and 14?), contain pins 11 urged downwardly by springs 18 without, however, projecting into the aperture 50.

1 Fig. 13 shows the elements of the key adapted to fit into the aperture 56. They include a shell 19 adapted to receive a pressure plate 80, a frame member SI shaped to embrace the pressure plate, four driver members or racks 51a, 51b, 51c, 51d slidable on the plate 80, a retaining member 84 for holding the racks in selected relative positions, and a sleeve 85 adapted to engage the retaining member 84 and/or the pressure plate 00 for displacement thereof as hereinafter described. Frame member BI terminates in a head 85 projecting beyond the shell 19, in the assembled condition illustrated in Fig. 14, the sleeve 85 embracing this shell for slidable movement along its length; movement of the sleeve 85 toward the rear (insertion) end of the key is limited by a ridge 81. Sleeve 85, as seen in Fig. 15, is provided with a guiding stud 88 sliding in a slot 89 of the shell I9, the sleeve being further provided with a transverse 6 slot 90 (also seen in Fig. 13) aligned with a wider longitudinal slot 9I in the shell 19 (see also Fig. 20). at 92 in the pressure plate and at 93 in a little plate 94 mounted on the latter, these slots communicating with a channel 95 provided on the underside of a block 96 which rests on the plate 94 and is secured thereto, and to the plate 80, by means of a, bolt 91. Block 96 normally is aligned with an extension 98 of retaining member 84 and coupled thereto by means of an elbow pin 99 which is slidable in the channel 95 and projects from the underside of the sleeve by way of slots 93, 92, and 9|.

As best seen in Fig. 16, each rack 51 is pro-' vided at its front end with a stepped head I00 rising from a transverse plate IOI which also carries a stud I02. The retaining member 84, whose legs 84a, 84b straddle the plate 30 but are guided inside the frame 8|, has four parallel slots I03a, I031), I030, I03d adapted to receive the heads I00a, i001), I000, 30d, respectively, as well as four rows of holes I04a, I041), I040, I04d adapted to receive the associated studs I 02a, I021), I020, I02d. There are ten holes in each' row I04, numbered from zero to nine. As shown in Fig. 14, the positions of the racks have been selected in accordance with code number 2634, i. e. studs I02a, I021), I020 and mm penetrate, respectively, the #2 hole of row I 04a, the #6 hole of row I 04b, the #3 hole of row I04c and the the #4 hole of row i04d. It will be noted that the top of each head I00 projects above the retaining member 84, the latter being engageable by the rear cross strip I05 of frame 8| which, as best seen in Fig. 7, lies just back of this retaining member 84.

The elements of the key so far described op erate as follows:

We shall assume, for convenience, that each detent 48 is 'displaceable from its bottom position (in which it penetrates most deeply into the associated slot 49) to its top position (in which it penetrates most deeply into the associated slot 50) in nineteen steps, ranging from 9 to +9 by way of zero which alone is the position in which the barrel may be turned. Thus the four detents shown here by way of example will initially assume by gravity, if left to themselves (as by raising the wedge 45 to detach them from their presetting means '50 or 68), a bottom position identified by the code number 9999. If this position were changed to -2634 (by selectively raising each detent by a number of steps corresponding to the nines complement of a respective digit of this code number), then the key 55 shown in Fig. 14 will just operate to set the detents to 0000, enabling opening of the lock. If, however, the code number of the lock were different, say 1357, then use of a key with code number 2634 would raise the four detents into positions +1, +3, 2 and +3, respectively, causing detents 48a, 48b to engage slots 50a, 50b and detents 48c, 48d to engage slots 49c, 49d, respectively, hence the barrel could not be turned.

The actual displacement of the detents with the aid of the racks 51 will be apparent from Fig, '1. Thus the rear end of the key shell 19, provided with apertures I 06a, I05b and I560 to receive the pins 15a, 15b and 150, is introduced intothe mouth 56 of the lock, whereupon sleeve 85 is displaced toward the barrel 32 to impart similar displacement to the members 80 and 84 to which it is coupled via pin 99. Since the racks 51 are coupled with the slotted retaining Slots coextensive with slot 90 are provided member 8!; by heir.- stus s l=02-,, t y ar ikewis displaced in. nis n wi h, o e no h r without alt rms, their relat v p sitionsrearwar y nQ tioned racks su h; as a 5 b, will engage the corresponding gear, such as 531), ahead, of the. more, forwardly positioned ones, the angle of rotation of each gear 53 will depend uponthe position of the associated rack in the key. When the sleeve 85 abuts ridge 8-1, the lock: will open if its combination corresponded to. that of the key. On withdrawing the racks from the lock; preparatory to, removal of the key. the detents are returned to their original position, thus re-locking the barrel; it will be ahllarent that. the key may not be withdrawn unless. the gear 33 andthe latch, 35 are in their position of closure shown in Fig. 3.

The key- 55: mayalso be used for the initial Setting of the lock-. For this. purpose it is necessary, however, to change each digit of its cornbination to the, nines complement of the combination desired to be put into the lock. In the example chosen the racks will thus have to be Placed in a.- position identified by the code come bination 7365,, obtained by subtracting 2634 from 9999. Before setting the lock ity is. necessary to raise the releasing member 45, thereby dropping thev detents to position 9999; next the key is introduced into the lock and the sleeve 85. is pushed toward the barrel, causing the racks 51 to engage the gears 53 and to raise the detents 48 to. the desired position. Thereafter the wedge 45 is depressed to fix this position, whereupon the key may be withdrawn if the presetting mechanism is of the type shown in Figs. ll and 12; in this case the gears 53 will rotate together with the pinions 68, thereby raising the weights 10 which after removal of the key will restore the detents to the selected position. It may be mentionedin this connection that the weights 10 may also be supplemented or replaced by springs or the like, e. g. in analogy to the arrangement shown in Fig. 26 subsequently described. If, however, the lock is of the type shown in Figs. 1-9, then the 'counterweights 60 immobilized by the friction plate 62 will act as backstops upon the spurs 6|, thereby preventing withdrawal of the racks 51 from the look. In that event it will be necessary to decouple the sleeve 85 from retaining member 84 (by moving pin 99 to the right as viewed in Fig. and to retract. this sleeve, thereby withdrawing the pressure plate 80 from under the racks 51. Once this is done, the racks will drop out of engagement with the gears 53 and may be retracted; at the same time the pins I02 will also have left the holes I04, so, that the combination in the key will be destroyed. RetractiOn of the. racks may be effected by pulling at the head 86, of frame 8|, causing strip I05 of the latter to engage the rear edge of member 84 which in turn will entrain the racks 51 by the tips of their stepped heads I00.

The purpose of the pins 15 and 11 will now be explained. Referring particularly to Figs. l7, l8 and 19 which show the insertion (rear) end of the key, it will be noted that this end forms a compartment I01 wherein there is vertically displaceable a horizontal roller I08 positioned just ahead. of and partly obstructing the mouth apertu le Illilfof the, key which registers with channel 12 of the lock. Roller I08 has two gudgeons I Illa, IIOb projecting laterally from the shell 19 by way of short ve tical slots I II (see Fig. 21) Risof the gudge ns H0 in the slots. I l is m Since the. more mal rrerented y ree; hor ides Hm. 1112b... H20 lyi n front; o he ape re 0 6 Iflfib, I 06c, resp t v y; toward; which t ey are rge t springs II 3a, II3b, I-I? c-. The slides. II'2 are pro-. vided at their undersides. with arcuate grooves Ilda, H41), H40 conforming; tov the periphery of the roller I08 but normally oiiset therefrom, as best seen in Fig. 19,, to prevent upward movement of the roller. When, however, the key is. introduced into the lock, the three unequal pins 15a, 15b, 150 of the latter act upon these slides. IIZa, IIZb, II2-cso. as to bring their grooves IIA into alignment. with one another and with the roller I108, whereupon the roller may be cammed' upwardly by the racks 51 (see Fig. '7) and will allow the latter to leave the shell 19. In so doing, the roller I08 acts upon pins II5a, II5b which thereupon enter the bores 16a, 16b of the lock, respectively, thereby preventing withdrawal of the key from the lock and compressing the springs 18; it will also be seen from Fig. '7 that the roller cannot descend as long as the racks 51 extend through the aperture I09, 50. that retraction of the racks into the shell 19 is a prerequisite to removal of the key'f-rom the lock. The previously mentioned grooves or recesses 13a, 13b and 10a, Mb serve to provide clearance for the gudgeons IIOa, H01) and for the pins II5a, II5'b, respectively, which may project somewhat beyond the shell 19.

A modified form of" key I55 is shown in Figs. 22-25. Shell I19, pressure plate I;8,0 and sleeve I85 are generally similar to the elements, 19, and of the preceding figures, a pin I99 analogous to pin 99 again serving to couple the sleeve to the pressure plate and/or to the retaining member which is here shown at I8}. The racks I51 are also similar to racks 51' except that they. are headless and provided with teeth over their entire length. The retaining member I84. is provided at its underside with four parallel runways II 6a, IIEb, I160, IIBd, respectively receive ing the racks I 51a, I511), I510, I51d, the face of each runway being corrugated to mesh with the teeth of the racks, thereby retaining them in selected positions. The rear end of plate I80 bears. markin s numbered from zero. to nine to assist in the positioning of the racks before introducing the assembly I51, I80, I84 into the shell I19. Such introduction is possible since the member I84 is provided with two humps I I'm, II1b between them defining arecess H8 so as to cleara hinged stop element II9 provided at the entrance of the sleeve I19, this stop element preventing withdrawal of the assembly from the shell by way of its loading end- (opposite mouth aperture I09) unless. pressure plate I 80 is. removed first, thereby destroying the combination. The recess I I8 may have a serrated surface, as shown, in order more effectively to cooperate with stop element IIQ in preventing the intact. withdrawal of the rack assembly; moreover, the slot serving to accommodate pin I99; is narrowed at the loadmg end to form a shoulder I9I which prevents use of the sleeve I85 for forcibly removing member I84 and racks I51 from the shell, since pin I99 must be shifted to decouple this sleeve from said member I85 in order to clear shoulder I9-I. The insertion end of. key I55 is identical with that of key 55.

In Fig. 26 there has been shown a simplified lock according to the invention, adapted to be operated with a key as shown either at 55- or at I55 n he precedingfigures. The lock I30, Fig.

.26 have been omitted.

26, comprises a rotatable barrel I32 having a mouth aperture I56 which communicates with a channel I12, a gear I33 secured to the barrel I32 and meshing with rack teeth in bolt I35, and a set of toothed members I53 which are the operative equivalent of sector gears 53 in that they are engageable by racks 57 or I51 to control the position of detents I48. The detents I48 are short toothed bars or racks lodged in an extension I38 of the barrel, the latter having slots I 28 normally aligned with slots I49 provided in bolt I35 as well as slots I2I normally aligned with slots I50 provided in a stationary bracket I5I which is fixed to the door I22 in which the barrel is journaled. Movement of the bars I48 is effected by way of similar, intermediate bars I23 engaged by the gears I53 and meshing, in turn, with other gears I24 mating with the bars I48; three such intermediate bars I23a, I231), I230 are visible in the figure.

Means for presetting the bars I25 and I48 are provided in the form of pinions I68 which are somewhat similar to the pinions E8 of Figs. 11 and 12, being rotatable on a shaft assembly I69 which is vertically displaceable by means of a knob I43 but is normally urged downwardly by a spring I64 tending to maintain the governors or pinions IE3 engaged with their respective racks E23. Each pinion I58 is provided with a spur ISI defining a limiting position for the pinion and the rack I23, as well as with a spiral biasing spring IIfl tending to maintain them in this limiting position; the combination of limiting positions of the several racks'thus defines the initial setting of the lock representing a particular code number. Presetting, with the knob I43 lifted to decouple the gears I58 from the racks I 23, may again be conveniently effected by means of a key adjusted to a number complementary to the desired code number (although not necessarily representing the nines complement of each digit). The sense of displacement of the elements I53, I68, I23, I24, I48 upon insertion of a key into the aperture I56 has been indicated by arrows.

Figs. 27 and 28 represent a still further simplified embodiment adapted to be used particularly advantageously under conditions of limited space. Thus the lock 230 has been shown secured to a drawer 222 slidably held in a table 225. The barrel 282 of the lock, with its extension 238 and presetting knob 2 43 projecting therefrom, is generally similar to the corresponding elements of Fig. 26 except for a reversal of position, yet the gear I33 and the bolt I35 of Fig.

Instead, there is provided in the table 225 an insert 25I of inverted V U-shape having slots 249, 258 on opposite sides of the extension 238, these slots being engageable by the detents 248 of which four, indicated.

at 248a, 248b, 2480 and 268d, are visible in'Fig. 27. It will thus be understoood that barrel 232 in this case is not rotatable but is fixedly secured to the drawer 222 which latter may be lock extension 238.

Although the invention has been described with reference to certain embodiments it is to be understood I that the same may be modified in numerous respects without departing from its scope. Thus the number of detent elements in a lock and driving members in a key may be'different from that shown in the examples given, and the configuration and relative arrangement of the parts may also be altered in various respects. Furthermore, while it will be apparent from the foregoing description that a key such as shown at 55 will be particularly adapted to preset a lock of the character shown in Figs; '7 and 8 whereas a key such as shown at I55will not be suitable for this particular purpose yet will have the advantage of eifectively preventing withdrawal of the racks from the shell with the combination intact, it ought to be understood that features of the two types of keys may be conveniently combined to produce a universal key suitable for both operating and presetting purposes.

What is claimed is:

1. In a lock, in combination, a plurality of members including at least one movable member, a plurality of independently displaceable detent elements on said movable member, each of said detent elements having a plurality of positions including a zero position and engaging at least one of said members, other than said movable member, in any except said zero position, thereby preventing displacement of said movable member, said movable member having an opening for the introduction of a key, a plurality of toothed control members positioned in the path of a key introduced into said opening for displacement by respective toothed elements of said key, each of said control members being coupled to a respective one of said detent elements to determine the position thereof, a plurality of independently displaceable presetting elements each operatively coupled with a respective one of said control members, means including said presetting elements yieldably tending to maintain said control members in a predetermined starting position, and mechanism for varying said starting position, said mechanism including releasable locking means adjustably fixing the position occupied by each of said presetting elements in at least said zero position of the corresponding one of said detent elements.

2. The combination according to claim 1 wherein said control members are provided with biasing means urgin same into abutting relationship with respective ones of said presetting elements.

3. The combination according to claim 1, including externally accessible and operable zeroizing means engageable with said control members for placing each of said detent elements in its zero position.

4. The combination with a lock according to claim 1 of a universal key comprising a number of racks, one for each of said control members,

and releasable retaining means for maintaining all of said racks in predetermined but adjustable relative positions while enabling simultaneous Preventin displac m n of sa latch nd o 531 D3 1 l am Pa Q ha in 5 QPP1I 91. 1 introdu tion of a key, and a plurality oi tooth d I 'r l member Po on d in he Path of a k y introduced n said ope n for disp acemen by respective toothed elements of said key, each of said control members being coupled to a respectl one o sai e a e me to d termin t e posit n e ofofThe combination according to claim 5, further including a stationary member provided with slots eng ageable by said detent elements in still other positions thereof not including the said zero positions.

"L a lock, in combination, a plurality of members including at least one movable member, a plurality of independently displaceable detnt elements on said movable member, each of said detent elements having a plurality of positions including a zero position and engaging at least one of said members, other than said mova e mem r in an except said zero pos ion, thereby preventing displacement of said movable member, said movable member having an opening, a key insertable into said opening and comprising a plurality of racks, one for each of said detent elements, a plurality of toothed control 7 members in said movable member positioned in the path of respective ones of said racks, for disp a m nt h eb upon n er on of ai ke in S Op n and coupled to respective ones of said detent elements to determine the positions thereof, said key comprising a shell into which said racks normally are withdrawn, said shell having a. part receivable by said opening provided with a mouth aperture enabling the partial egress of said racks from said shell, blockms a s al bst c n at least part of said aperture, thereby preventing such e ress, re ea n m ns i a d pe in adapt to. render inefiective said blocking means upon introduction of said part of said shell int said opening, thereby enabling said racks, to be inserted through said openin into said movable member to, contact said toothed control members, and o e n m an for i ac n aid ra membe s 8,, 'lfhe combination according to claim '7 wherein said part of said shell provided with retaining means, operable by said blocking means to engage said movable member upon, said, blocking means having been rendered ineffective, by said; releasing means to. obstruct. said aperture. said racks when projecting through Said apertore preventing return of'said blocking means to, normal position.

9. The combination, with a lock having an entrance opening, of a key comprising a shell having a part insertable into said opening, said part having a mouth aperture, driver means normalooncealed in said, shell, operating means for moving said driver means. out of said shell, and blocking means adjacent said. mouth aperture normally obstructing at least, part of said aperture, thereby preventing the egress of said driver means from said shell, said lock being provided with releasing means adjacent said entrance opening adapted to render ineffective said blocking means upon introduction of said part of said shell into said entrance opening.

10. The combination according to claim 9 wherein said part of said shell is provided with retaining means operable by said blocking means to engage said look upon said blocking means having been rendered ineffective by said releas- 12 ing means to obstruct said aperture, said drivel means when projecting .through said aperture preventing return of said blocking means to normal position.

lll The combination according to claim 10 wherein said lock is provided with a bore and spring-urged pin means in said bore, said retaining means comprising a movable stud con-'- trolled by said blocking means to enter said bore against the action or said spring-urged pin.

12. The combination according to claim 9 wherein said blocking means comprises a roller and a plurality of slides overlying said roller, said slides being provided with recesses adapted to receive said roller but normally offset therefrom, said releasing means comprising abutment means adapted to displace said slides with respect to said roller to align the said recesses thereof with said roller.

13. The combination according to claim 12 wherein said abutment means comprises a plurality of pins of unequal lengths each adapted to engage a respective one of said slides.

14. A key comprising a shell, a plurality of rack members selectively positionable inside said shell, releasable retaining means for holding said driver members in selected but adjustable relative positions, said shell being provided with a mouth aperture, and operating means for moving said rack members and said retaining means in unison toward said mouth aperture with their relative position unchanged, thereby causing said rack members to project from said shell.

15. In combination, a key comprising a shell, a plurality of driver members selectively positionable inside said shell, holding means for maintaining said driver members in selected relative positions, said shell having a part provided with a mouth aperture, operating means for moving said driver members and said holding means in unison toward said mouth aperture, thereby causing said driver members to project from said shell, a look having an entrance opening adapted to receive said part of said shell, blocking means in said key adjacent said mouth aperture normally obstructing at least part of said aperture, thereby preventing the egress of said driver members from saidshell, said lock being pro.- vided with releasing means adjacent said entrance opening adapted to render ineffective said blocking means upon introduction of said part or said shell into said entrance opening, and retaining means on said part of said shell operable by said blocking means to. engage said look upon said blocking means having been rendered ineffective by said releasing means to obstruct said aperture, said driver members when projecting through said aperture; preventing. return of said blocking means to normal position, said retaining means. thus preventing detachment of said key from said lock until said driver members have been withdrawn into; said shell, thereby concealingthe. relative position of said driver members.

1 6}. The combination according to claim 15 wherein said shell is, providedv with. a loading aperture opposite, said mouth aperture, said kei further comprising a, removable pressure plate overlying said driver members and maintaining said driver. members engaged by said' holding means, and stop means adjacent said loading aperture preventing removal of said driver members from said shell except after withdrawal of said pressure plate, whereby said driver members arefree to depart from said selected relative positions upon removal thereof from said shell.

17. In combination, a lock comprising a plurality of members including at least one movable member, a plurality of independently displaceable detent elements on said movable member, each of said detent elements having a plurality of positions including a zero position and engaging at least one other of said members in any except said zero position, thereby preventing displacement of said movable member, said movable member having an opening for the introduction of a key, a plurality of toothed control members back of said opening, a key fitting into said opening and comprising a number of toothed driver members, one for each of said control members, each of said control members being coupled to a, respective one of said detent elements to determine the position thereof in accordance with its own displacement by the corresponding driver member of said key, retaining means for maintaining all of said driver members in predetermined relative positions while enabling simultaneous displacement of said driver members, operating means on said key for displacing said driver members through said opening to engage respective ones of said control members. thereby placing said control members and said detent elements in selected initial positions, a plurality of independently displaceable presetting elements each operatively coupled with a respective one of said control members, means including said driver members and said control members for placing each of said presetting elements in a characteristic position corresponding to said initial positions of said detent elements,

14 and releasable locking means adjustably fixing the relative positions of said control members and of said presetting elements in at least said initial positions of said detent elements.

18. The combination according to claim 17 wherein said presetting elements form a plurality of abutments adapted to be fixed in their said characteristic positions for engagement by respective ones of said control members in said initial positions of the latter.

19. The combination according to claim 17 wherein said key further includes a pressure plate normally overlying said driver members and maintaining said driver members engaged with said retaining means but withdrawable from said driver members to disengage the latter from said retaining means, thereby freeing said driver members to leave their predetermined positions. whereby detachment of said key from said lock is facilitated.

PEDRO DEL POZO VILLALBA.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 834,918 Lindgren Nov. 6, 1906 1,095,431 Sprague May 5, 1914 1,317,828 Sellstone Oct. 7, 1919 2,001,601 Deutsch May 14, 1935 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 395,270 Great Britain July 13, 1933

Patent Citations
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US834918 *Jan 23, 1906Nov 6, 1906Paul K LindgrenCylinder-lock and key therefor.
US1095431 *Jul 7, 1913May 5, 1914William GrossGear-controlled padlock.
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3124951 *Mar 14, 1960Mar 17, 1964 Marik
US5187957 *May 7, 1992Feb 23, 1993Yang Cherng LinPin tumbler locking mechanism
DE1169326B *Mar 21, 1960Apr 30, 1964Frank MarikSchloss mit einem Zuhaltungssystem, das mit beliebiger Einstellung eines mit veraenderlichen Bartstufen versehenen Schluessels geschlossen und nur mit derselben Bartstufeneinstellung geoeffnet werden kann
WO2006012459A2 *Jul 21, 2005Feb 2, 2006Arthur L ArledgeTool operated combination lock
Classifications
U.S. Classification70/382, 70/392, 70/411, 70/355
International ClassificationE05B33/00, E05B37/00, E05B19/18
Cooperative ClassificationE05B37/00, E05B19/18, E05B33/00
European ClassificationE05B37/00, E05B33/00, E05B19/18