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Publication numberUS2662835 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 15, 1953
Filing dateApr 6, 1951
Priority dateApr 6, 1951
Publication numberUS 2662835 A, US 2662835A, US-A-2662835, US2662835 A, US2662835A
InventorsThomas S Reid
Original AssigneeMinnesota Mining & Mfg
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Chromium coordination complexes of saturated perfluoro-monocarboxylic acids and articles coated therewith
US 2662835 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Patented Dec. 15, 1953 UNI 'CHRGMIUM COORDINATION commxes 0F SATURN-min PERFLUORO-MONOQAR ROXY-L10 ACIDS AND ARTICLES COATED THEREWITH Thomas "s. Roi-q, New Canada Townshi Ramsey Mining "assignor to ltlilin{coil a L r ing com any, St. Paul, Minn, a com oration -*of Delaware Noniaw'in ap lication April 6, 1951. Serial-No. 219,749

4 Claims.

This invention relates to 'm discovery of a new class of fluorocarbon compounds having novel and useful properties.

rhes'e new compounds are ehmmiuin scorch nation com lexes or the saturated oer'nuorpe monocarooxyl'ic acids which have from 4 to n carbon atoms in the molecule. "They are solids which are slightly soluble in "water and are highly soluble in acetone and alcohols. H

These complexes are quite ol-ifierent from the ordinary chiominum salts or the saturated perflaoro 'monooarooxyiio acids, crtO'OCRo ("Ri represents a fully fiuorinated saturated 'fliloro= carbon group). Such salts are insoluble in water to such an extent that they cannotoe coated from a ueous solutions in single coating operatiohs to form coatings of appre'ciable thickness.

The present com ounds ha' ye particular value as Siirface treating agents. They can be uses to provide extremely thin, tightly bonded, water= repellent films on a variety of surfaces. 'rhey can be coated from solutions in water or in organic solvents to form tightly b'o'hded water-in soluble greenish-colored films ohfglass, and on a Wide variety of other materials having hydrophilic surfaces, including metals, eellulo io 'filins, paper anti textile fibers and fabrics The poly carbon fluorocarbon groups form lluoro'carboh tails which are locateo n t e outer or en osed surface region of the rum and provide what may be termed a fluorocarbon surface. saturated fluorocarloons have a high degree of chemical ihertnes's and thermal stability and are waternepeilent.

A unique feature of the present chromium complexes is that they can be employed ih forming surface treatments or coatings that are not only highly hydrophobic but also possess oleophobic properties.

A complex of the present type can be made by reacting together a saturated perfiuoro-monm carboxylic acid (RiCOOH) having from a to 10 carbon atoms in the molecule, with chromyl chloride (CrOzClz), in an inert ahhydroussolve'iit Vehicle (such as carbon tetrachloride), in the presence of a reducing agent ('such as absolute ethanol or the like). An alcohol reduci'ng agent is itself oxidized to form oxygen-containing organic compounds, such as acetic and, etc. A solution of the chl'or'nyl chloride in the solvent is slowly added to a refluxing solution of the fluorocarbon acid and alcohol in the solvent, with constant stirring. The reaction is strongly exothermic and supplies the heat for maintaining the reaction mixture in a refluxing state tar d ring the addition of the cromyl chloride. Mixing is continued for at least an bout with sumoient heating to maintain a refluxing state. The resultant green solution is evaporated to constant weight to remove volatiles, resulting in the dried product compound, which is a green solid. Aqueous solutions ofthese complexes have a lesser degree oiacid strength than oo r'respond= ing' solutions or the fluorocarbon acid starting compounds, the latter being relatively strong acids.

It is not feasible to represent the structure of these complexes by formulae. Available ahalytical procedures do not permit of accurately determining the oxygen content. Because of the complex nature ofthe reaction product, the use of non-stoichiometric proportions of the start-- ing compounds does not mean that one or the other will necessarily be present in unreactefl form inthe product. The use of the huor ooai-=- hon aoio in higher than a l to 2 ratio (relative to the chi 'om l chlorine) will enhance the fluorocarbon characteristic of the surfac -treatment coatings ionized from the complex. The absence of uncoinbineol fluorocarbon acid in the complex is readily proved by the abseh'ce of the characteri'stic odor of the fluorocarbon acid.

Cyclic as well as non-cyclic i'i'uoi-ocarbon acids can be used. the acids can be represented by the formula RfCOOH, wherein Rf is a fully fiuorinated saturated fluorocarbon group, cyclic or non-c clic, containing from "3 to 9 carbon atoms and consisting solely of fluorine and carbcn. Theseare the fully nuorinated (periluoro) analogues of the saturated inonocarbox lio acids of the hydrocarbon system of or anic acids, the carbon-bonded hydrogen atoms having been entirely repl ce l by fluorine atoms. These fluorocarb'on acids have distinctive and unique pro er ties and are not mere equivalents of the hydrocarbon acids of conventional organic chemistry. They are much stronger than the latter, resembling the mineral acids in strength. The perfluoroalkyl nionoc arhoxylic "acids have the fornlula': *CiiFfiiiHCGOH. The perfiuoiocarbooyclic monocarboxylic acids have the formula:

CaFsziwrGQOH The Value of it is 3 to 9 f01" th acids employed in mating the present complexes. The carboxyl roup (-C'OtiH) can be linked either to a cyclic arbon atoin or tea hon-cyclic carbon atom. Examples of the latter are erfiuorocyclohexane caiboiiyhcacid lCsFnCOO'H') an' nerfiuor'ocyclohexa'ne acetic acid ((ftF'nfiFzfifiOfih A preferred proportion of the starting materials is such as to provide two chromium atoms per acid molecule, such as is obtained by reacting the chromyl chloride and the acid in a 2 to 1 molar ratio. However, this ratio can be varied.

Complexes made from hydrocarbon acids do not form surface films having marked water-repellency unless there, are ten or more carbon atoms in the acid molecule and. hence it is necessary to use the higher acids (such as stearic acid). Moreover, films formed from such hydrocarbon complexes have .oleophilic properties, being wetted by hydrocarbon oils and greases which are adsorbed thereoi-if 'in contrast to the oleophobic films formed from' the present fluorocarbon complexes. I

The above-mentioned complexes made from chromyl chloride initially contain combined chlorine atoms. They can be hydrolyzed and can be ammoniated to form derivative complexes which are also slightly water-soluble and highly soluble in acetone and alcohols, and which polymerize inter se to a highly water-insoluble state. These derivative chromium coordination complexes are a part of the present invention. Chlorine atoms are replaced by hydroxyl groups in the hydrolyzed complex, and by amino groups in the ammoniated complex. These hydrophilic elec tronegative polar groups are capable of undergoing reactions leading to a polymerized waterinsoluble state. The original complex can be hydrolyzed before or after being coated on a surface.

The following coating procedures illustrate suitable techniques:

, (1) A solution of the original chlorine-containing complex in a non-aqueous solvent, such as acetone or isopropanol, is coated on the material to be treated. The coated complex will react with adsorbed surface moisture if present, and in any case can be treated with applied moisture, to hydrolyze the complex. Subsequent heating in an oven will eliminate the excess water, hasten the setting of the coating to a highly water-insoluble state, and drive off I-ICl formed by hydrolysis.

(2) An aqueous solution of the original chlorine-containing complex is coated on the material to be treated, followed by heating to hasten hydrolysis of the complex and convert the coating to a highly water-insoluble state. The heating also drives off excess water and the HCl formed by hydrolysis.

(3) An aqueous solution of the original chlorine-containing complex is boiled to hydrolize the complexbutwithoutsufficientlyprolongedheating to set-up the complex to a water insoluble state minutes to two hours boiling is suitable). The aqueous solution ofthe hydrolyzed complex is applied to the material to be treated, which is then dried in an oven at 60 to 100 C. or higher to drive off the water and HCl and convert the coating to a highly water-insoluble state. A neutralizing agent can be added to the solution (for instance, sodium bicarbonate or a tertiary amine) to neutralize the HCl.

(4) An anhydrous alcohol solution of the original chlorine-containing complex (e. g., a solution is isopropanol) is treated with anhydrous ammonia in excess to form the ammoniated derivative of the complex. The reaction is exothermic and a white precipitate of ammonium chloride is formed. The. resultant mixture can be diluted with three parts of water (causing the precipitate-to dissolve) and applied to the material to be treated, followed by drying in an oven to drive off the alcohol and water and convert the coating to a highly water insoluble state. The precipitate is preferably filtered from the aforesaid alcohol solution prior to dilution. The

. alcohol solution can be used directly, or diluted 7 rials, wood, cellulosic films, paper, textile fibers,

yarns and fabrics.

Thus they can be used. to provide corrosionresisting water-repellent coatings on metals. Ice formed in contact with such a treated surface has a low adhesion, indicating utility for treating the aluminum surfaces of refrigerator icecube trays and of airplane wings, etc.

Glass articles can be treated to provide highly water-repellent coatings which are also oil-repellent, thus indicating utility for treating window panes, Windshields, and lenses of electric flash lights, search lights, automobile headlights and taillights, etc.

Glass filaments and fibers can be treated to provide tough and tightly bonded surface films that protect the glass from abrasion. This is of value because glass yarns and the like have the defect that the rubbing together of the glass filaments or fibers causes scratching of the surfaces which destroys the tensile strength of the scratched filaments or fibers.

The present complexes are also useful in producing primer coatings on glass, metal, and other surfaces, which provide a better anchorage for subsequently applied fluorocarbon polymer coatings, owing to the fluorocarbon characteristic of the surface of such primer coatings.

The saturated perfiuoro-monocarboxylic acid starting compounds (RICOOH) can be made by hvdrolyzing the corresponding acid fluorides (RrCOF), which are highly reactive and readily and quickly react with water to form the carboxylic acid derivatives. The acid fluorides can be made by electrolyzing a solution of anhydrous liquid hydrogen fluoride containing a dissolved hydrocarbon monocarboxylic acid (or its anhydride) of corresponding carbon skeletal structure, by passing direct current through the solution in a nickel-anode cell at a cell voltage of about 5 to 6 volts, which is insufficient to gen-- erate molecular (free elemental) fiuorine under the existing conditions, but which is sufiicient to cause the formation of the fully fluorinated acidv fluoride derivative (RfCOF) at a useful rate. The fluorocarbon acid fluoride product of the cell operation is relatively insoluble in the electrolyte solution and either settles to the bottom of the cell from which it can be drained with other fluorocarbon products of the process, or is volatilized and evolves from the cell in admixture with the hydrogen and other gaseous products. The electrochemical process is described in detail in the patent of J. H. Simons, No. 2,519,983 (August 22, 1950). Fluorocarbon monocarboxylic acids having four or more carbon atoms in the molecule are described and claimed in the copending application of A. H. Diesslin, E. A. Kauck and J. H. Simons, S. N. 70,154, filed January 10, 1949, since issued as Patent No. 2,567,011 on September 4, 1951.

U The following examples illustrate the preparation of typical compositions of this invention.

Example 1 The reaction apparatus was a 500 ml. 3-necked flask equipped with a mechanical stirrer, watercooled reflux condenser protected by a drying tube, and a dropping funnel. It was heated by an electrical heating mantle.

The flask was charged with 220 grams of carbon tetrachloride to which was added a solution of 6.0 grams (0.028 mols) of n-heptafluorobutyric acid, CF3(CF2.)2COOH, and 2.5 grams of absolute ethanol. After heating to a refluxing state, and with constant stirring, dropwise addition of 9.0 grams (0.058 mols) of chromyl chloride in 50 grams of carbon tetrachloride was made at such a rate that vigorous reflux was maintained. During the course of the reaction the heating mantle was replaced by a water bath Since the reaction is quite exothermic. After all the chromyl chloride had been added, stirring at reflux (with external heating) was continued for an additional hour. The reaction mixture was transferred to an evaporating dish and the solvents removed in an air-circulating oven at 80 C.

The yield of green solid material, after drying to constant weight, was quantitative. Analysis showed 18.0% Cr, 22.6% F and 19.1% C1. It was highly soluble in acetone and isopropanol and slightly but completely soluble in water.

Example 2 The apparatus and general procedure were the same as in the preceding example, but use was made of n-undecafluorocaprioic acid,

CF3(CF2)4COOH. To 8.8 grams (0.028 mols) of,

Example 3 This example illustrates the use of a cyclic fluorocarbon acid. The apparatus and general procedure were the same as in the preceding examp-les. To 18.3 grams (0.056 mols) of nerfluorocyclohexane carboxylic acid, CsFnCOOI-I, and 2.5 grams of absolute ethanol in 220 grams of carbon tetrachloride, refluxing in the flask, was added dropwise 18.0 grams (0.116 mols) of chromyl chloride in 25 grams of carbon tetrachloride. After stirring and refluxing for two additional hours, the residual light yellow color was removed by addition of 1 gram of absolute ethanol- The yield of green solid after removal of solvent and drying to constant weight was quantitative. Analysis showed 8.2% Cr, 29.4% F and 20.6% C1. It was soluble in acetone and isopropanol and slightly but completely soluble in water.

I claim:

1. Chromium coordination complexes of the class consisting of: (A) complexes formed by reacting chromyl chloride with saturated perfluoromonocarboxylic acids having from 4 to 10 carbon atoms in the molecule, in an inert anhydrous solvent vehicle and in the presence of a reducing agent, and (B) the hydrolyzed and ammoniated derivatives thereof; these chromium complexes being solids which are slightly soluble in water and are highly soluble in acetone and alcohols.

2. Chromium coordination complexes formed by reacting chromyl chloride with saturated perfluoroalkyl monocarboxylic acids having from 4 to 10 carbon atoms in the molecule, in an inert anhydrous solvent vehicle and in the presence of an alcohol reducing agent; these chromium complexes being chlorine-containing green solids which are slightly soluble in water and are highly soluble in acetone and alcohols.

3. An article having a hydrophilic type surface upon which is tightly bonded a thin water-insoluble coating film formed from a complex defined in claim 1.

4. An article having a hydrophilic type surface upon which is tightly bonded a thin water-insoluble coating film formed from a complex defined in claim 2,

THOMAS S. REID.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS

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Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
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Classifications
U.S. Classification428/422, 554/71, 8/94.22, 252/389.5, 987/22, 556/10, 106/14.11, 106/453, 428/442, 556/27, 106/14.41, 556/63
International ClassificationD06M13/236, C07C61/15, C07F11/00, C07C61/00, C07C53/21, C03C17/28, C07C53/00, D06M13/00, C03C17/25
Cooperative ClassificationC07F11/005, C03C17/28, C07C53/21, C03C17/25, C03C2217/219, D06M13/236, C03C2218/11, C07C61/15
European ClassificationC07C53/21, D06M13/236, C03C17/25, C07F11/00B, C07C61/15, C03C17/28