US 2664084 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
DCC 29 1953 H. HAMMERMANN ANESTHETIC APPARATUS 2 fheets-Sheet l Filed Jan, 26, 1951 f" JNVENTR. f/fnef-Rr #AMMER/VA/m;
,frm/wv y Dec. 29, 1953 H. HAMMr-:RMANN ANESTHETIC APPARATUS 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Jan. 26, 1951 Y Mm mw M mm m Md w f mw m H Pafented Dec. 29, 1953 UNITED ySTATES PATENT QFFICE ANESTHETIC APPARATUS Herbert Hammcrma'rin, Berlin, Germany Application January 26, 1951, Serial No. 214,277
for administering vaporized narcotic liquids having a comparatively high boiling temperature and liable under the influence of light radiation and atmosphere to deteriorate and to form toxic products.
Other objects of my invention are to provide an.
anaesthetic apparatus which can be readily attached to the patients head upon and above his or her nose and which may be easily controlled; to provide an anaesthetic apparatus for the vaporization of ethylene trichloride in which the y.
inch of ethylene trichloride, the vial being inlatter Will be protected .from deteriorating factors; to provide a novel anaesthetic apparatus which is of a Simple and rugged structure, may be produced at lovv cost and is reliable in operation and easy to manipulate, and to provide an y,
complete evaporation in a single ytreatment of a patient, so that no remainder will be left over which is liable to spoil and to form toxic gases ieopardizing the Anext patient to be treated with the saine anaesthetic apparatus.
I have found that the useoi so small a container as required to store the quantity needed for a single treatment of a patient may be readily combined with an inhalation mask to form a handy apparatus of small dimensions and little weight lending itself to direct attachment to the patients head upon and'above the nose thereof. Hence, according to one of the features of the present invention the narcotic liquid is accommodated within a container preferably of bottle-shape which has a volume oi less than one cubic inch. In a container of that size even such narcotics as are liable to deteriorate under atmospheric iniiuences, such as ethylene trichloride for instance, can be kept in a pure condition for a sufficient period of time. apparatus is used in the treatment of a patient, all of the narcotic contained in the container will vaporize because of the limited quantity thereof, leaving no remainders which are liable under the influence of radiation and air to form toxic gases that might jeopardize the health of 'the next patient to be treated.'
Preferably I employ a glass vial containing a small quantity such as one-eighth of a cubic When the serted in the container of the novel anaesthetic apparatus in inverted position with a small aperture at its top facing downwardly. In this manner, the narcotic liquid may be readily introduced into the anaesthetic apparatus, no necessity existing of cleaning the vial on its outside since most of the narcotic liquids, particularly ethylene trichloride, have a powerful germkilling eiect. The container is preferably closed by an easily removable plug constituting a r0- tatable valve adapted to adjust the air-current circulating through the container. Therefore, the operator need only insert the vial and then close the container by means of the plug turning the latter to closing position until the anaesthetic vapours are to be administered to the patient, whereupon the plug is turned to a position ensuring the proper concentration of the vapours which may be controlled from zero to the highest admissible degree.
For the purpose of easy evaporation of the liquid, a piece of an Aabsorbing fibrous material, such as blotting paper, may be used which involves the advantage of being inexpensive, clean, and easily exchangeable. From the container in which the liquid is vaporized and in which the vapours are mixed with air, the mixture is conducted to an inhalation mask covering the nose of the patient.
Preferably from 0.3 to 0.5 gram of ethylene trichloride in vaporized condition is mixed with one liter of air and this mixture is to be administered to the patient Within one minute in order to attain the desired anaesthetic effect. A treatment lasting ten minutes as involved in dental work per average, requires a vial contain-l ing about ve grams of ethylene trichloride having a volume of three cubic centimeters, i. e. about one-fth of a'cubic inch. The use of a vial of thatvolume approximately, to Wit of a volume of less than one-half of a cubic inch, effectively eliminates the risk that' any substantial remainders might be left which would spoil and jeopardize the next patient to be treated. The container adapted to accommodate the vial and to provide the vaporizing space, will have correspondingly small dimensions, having a volume of less than` one cubic inch, thus being of a modest -Weight permitting the container to be arranged above the inhalation mask in front of and above the patients nose, no difliculties being involved in arranging the anaesthetic apparaa tus in a proper position interfering as little as possible with the dental Work, the container extending substantially in an oblique position from the nose upwardly across the forehead. The container and the inhalation mask may be rigidly connected to form a structure adapted to be attached to the patients head as distinguished from prior anaesthetic apparatus involving holding-means attached to or positioned beside the patients chair. The means for attaching my novel apparatus to the patients head may cornprise a rubber loop placed around the patients head.
A preferred embodiment of my invention is illustrated in the accompanying drawings -in which Fig. 1 is a longitudinal vertical. section of my novel anaesthetic apparatus taken .alongl line I -I of Fig. 2 and Fig. 3;
Fig. 2 is a cross-section taken along line 2-2 of Fig. l with the plug being in closed position;
Fig. 3 is a cross-section-taken along line 3 -3 of Fig. 1 with the plug initsclosed position;
Fig. 4 is a sectional view similar to that of. Fig. 2 with the plug in operative position, the section being taken along line .2 2 of Fig. l;
Fig. 5 is a sectional view similar to that of Fig. 3 with the plug being in operative position, the section being taken along line 3 3 of Fig. l;
Fig. 6 is an elevation of a glass vial of the kind shown in Fig. 1 but on a smaller' scale and in intact condition;
Fig, 7 is an elevation of my novel anaesthetic apparatus applied toa patients head.
The anaesthetic apparatuscomprises an inhalation mask 3 and acontainer for theliquid narcotic rigidly connected thereto, said mask tting the nose of the bearer and shaped to leave her mouth unobstructed as will appear from Fig. 7. The mask is formed by a sheet-metal cap `3 and by a flanged annular pad 5 of lsponge-rubber provided with an impervious skin 6, Y.the flange 'I of such pad being slipped over and glued to the margin 4 of the cap 3. The lower portion of the pad has reduced radial dimensions as indicated at 8 in order not -to .interfere with the dental work, particularly `with the treatment of the upper front teeth. Rubber bands 9, shown in Fig. 7, have re-inforced ends II! engaged by clamps II attached to either side of the cap 3. The free end Illa of one of the rubber bands is fitted with a sliding clamp I2 through which the end IIlb of the other rubber band is slipped and firmly held in position, whereby the two rubber bands form a loop yof adiustable width adapted to be placed over thepatents head as shown in Fig. 7. Moreover a slidable clamp I2c1, is placed on each of the two rubber bands 9 to be adiustable thereon. A. narrow rubber band I3 has its ends attached to the clamps I Za. and is passed through an eye I4 fixed to the front of a tube I attached to the inhalation mask 3 in upright position. A bracket I5 lined with sponge-rubber and adapted -to bear against the patients forehead has a conical stud I engaging a conical bore of an eye I I attached to the side of the tube I. Owing to lthis arrangement the forehead-bracket I 5 may be released from the tube I by slightly lifting` its stud in the eye I'|' and. may be then properly adjusted and xed in position by pressing its stud into the eye I '1. The tube I is thus held 'in' position in vfront of and above the patients nose extending in front of thepatient's forehead.
In the tube I a bottle-shaped container 20 is inserted having a lflanged neck-portion I8, the flange of the latter being soldered to the upper Vnarcotic liquid into the container.
rim of the tube I, the Wall of the container 2D being slightly spaced from the wall of tube I so as to leave a space therebetween for the passage of the vapour mixture to be administered to the patient. The bottle-shaped container 20 is closed by a hollow plug I9 constituting a rotary valve. A cover plate 2I is rigidly connected with the hollow plug I9, being preferably soldered thereto, such cover plate having a knurled rim indicated at 2 and serving as a handle permitting the operator to turn the plug I to any vdesired angular position. In order to protect the Vouter face of the plug I9 from damage, the cover plate2l is provided with a depending tubular 4skirt 22 engaging over the upper end. of tube I. As shown in Fig. 7 the skirt E2 is provided with an angular recess 23 havingan axial section and an upper peripheral section. The bottle neck I8 is provided with two opposite uplper ports 43 and 41 shown in Fig. 2 and with a lower port A.44 beneath port 43 as illustrated in Fig. 3. A radial pipe 24 is connected with the bottleneck I8 so as to communicate with the port 41 extending through a suitable opening provided in the wall of pipe I. The end of pipe 24 is provided with .holes 48 and with plug having a small vent .56. When the plug IS and its cover plate 2I is turned into the position shown in Fig. 7 in .which the pipe 2J. registers with the .axial section of recess 23, it may be easily lifted and removed from the container I8 so as to permit the introduction of a volatile Thereafter the plug may be inserted in the bottle neck I8 again and may be so turned as to cause the peripheral section of recess 23 to engage overl the pipe 24 whereby the plug IS will be firmly held in engagement with the bottle neck I8 and secured against accidental `removal therefrom Without interfering with rotary adjustment of the plug I9.
A tubular member 25 yprojects into the hollow plug I9 and `is rigidlyconnected therewith, preferably soldered thereto,and extends downwardly into the container 20 Yterminating a slight distance above the bottom thereof. The diameter of the tubular member v25 is so chosen that the latter is spaced from the inside of the container 2D and of the neck portion of the latter.
I have found that the volatile liquid narcotic may be conveniently introduced into the container 20 by the use of a glass vial of the shape shown in Fig. 6, such glass -vial comprising a main body 54 and aneck portion 55 with a restricted communication 53 therebetween. Preferably such glass vial has 'a volume of less than one half of a cubic inch, more particularly a volume of from one tenth to one third of a cubic inch. When ethylene trichloride is used as a narcotic, I have .found that a volume of about one eighth of a cubic inch is best adaptedl for dental work. When the neck portion 55 of the vial is broken off from the body portion 54 a small aperture 28 will bel left open at the top of the body portionSI, such aperture having an area of about ve square millimeters.
Upon `removal of the plug I9 a helical spring 26 is placed thereinto Yso as to engage the cover 2| and then the body Vportion 54 of the vial, filled with ethylene trichloride, is slipped into tbe tubular'member, whereupon a strip 3| of blotting paper or any such suitable absorbent fibrous material is slipped over the vial and with its ends l30 into the tubular member 25 so as to contact the vial in front of the aperture 28 thereof. Then the plug is inserted into the tube I so that the parts assume the position shown in Fig. 1. The spring 23 will then firmly press the inverted vial with its aperture 28 out of the lower end of the tubular member against the strip 3| of blotting paper holding the same lirrnly against the bottom 29 of theA container 20.
The wall of the hollow plug I9 is provided with opposite ports 40 and 4I which co-operate with the ports 43 and 4l of the bottle neck in a manner to be described later. Moreover the wall of the hollow plug I9 is provided with a depending extension 42, co-operating with the port 44 of the bottle neck I8. The upper section of the latter shownat 45 has an eccentric circumference as shown in Figs. 2 and 4 providing for the space 43 between the bottle neck and the wall of tube I.
The cap 3 of the inhalation mask is provided with an inhalation valve controlling the communication between the mask 3 and the tube I. The inhalation valve comprises a box-shaped valve chamber 32 inserted in a suitable opening of the cap 3 so as to project into the tube I, the interior of said box-shaped Valve chamber 32 communicating with the interior of cap 3 as shown in Fig. l. The lower wall of the valve chamber 32 has an opening 38 adapted to be closed by a super-imposed thin leaf 3lr of sheetsilver resiliently held in position by a superimposed leaf spring 39, held in position within the chamber 32 by a bracket 36. When the patient inhales, the vacuum thus produced within the mask 3 will cause the valve members 38 and 39 to be lifted so as to permit the vapour mixture to flow through the valve chamber 32 as indicated by the arrows in Fig. l.
Similarly the inhalation mask 3, 5 communicates with the atmosphere through an opening controlled by an exhalation valve. For this purpose the cap 3 is formed with a forwardly and upwardly extending shaft 34 open at its top. A horizontal pivot 35 extends through the shaft being journalled in the side wallsy at the lower end thereof. On this pivot 35 a box-shaped valve chamber' 33 is pivotally mounted, such valve chamber extending upwardly within the shaft 34 projecting therefrom. The upper end of the chamber 33 projects from the shaft 34, is open, and freely communicates with the atmosphere. rIhe lower wall of the chamber 33 is provided with an opening 33 controlled by inner valve leaves 3l' and 39', which are similar to the valve leaves 31 and 39 and are held in position by a bracket 36'. Suitable means, not shown, are provided to hold the valve chamber 33 in any angular position to which it has been set by the operator. This angular position may be so chosen as to more or less obstruct the shaft 34. In this manner, the patient may be permitted to inhale more or less air through the shaft 34 depending on the adjustment of the valve chamber 33, while the patient must inhale the balance of the air through the inhalation valve chamber 32.
The operation of my novel anaesthetic apparatus is as follows: When the plug i9 assumes the position illustrated in Figs. l, 2, and 3, the container 2D is sealed. When the plug i3 is turned by means of the knurled cover plate 2, 2l towards the positions shown in Figs. v4. and 5, a communication will rst be established between the ports 4l and 4I and between the ports 43 and 43. As a result, atmospheric air may circulate through the holes 48, the pipe 24, the port 4'I of the bottle neck, the port 4I of the plug, the port 40 of the plug, the port 43 of the bottleneck, the space 46, the tube I. the valve chamber 32 to the inhalation mask 3, 5. When the plug I9 arrives in the position shown in Figs. land 5, however, the ports 43 and 43 will no longer register and, therefore, the airentering through the p-ipe 24, the port 41, and the port 4I will now downwardly within the tubular member 2 5 as indicated by the arrows 49 in Fig. 1 to be saturated with the volatile narcotic absorbed by the blotting paper strip 3i supplied with the liquid through the aperture 28. Thence the air mixed with vapours will pass upwardly within the space between the tubular member 25 and the wall of the container 20 as indicated by the arrows 5 Iv leaving through the port 44 now uncovered bythe projection 42 of the plug and entering the space between the container 20 and the tube I ilowing downwardly through the inhalation valve chamber 32 into the` inhalation mask 3, 5. In the mask fresh air entering through the shaft 34 may be admixed provided valve chamber 33 has been set accordingly. When the patient exhales the inhalation valve opening 38 is automatically closed and the air is exhaled through the shaft 34 and the exhalation valve chamber 33.
When the valve chamber 32 has been set to the position illustrated in Fig. 1 in which the shaft 34 freely communicates with the atmosphere, the vacuum produced within the inhalation mask 3, 5 is so small when the patient inhales that the inhalation valve 32 will hardly open; thus free air will be inhaled even when the rotary valve formed by plug I9 is open.
When the valve chamber 33 is rso set, however, as to more or less obstruct'shaft 34, the patient will inhale the air through the valve chamber 32. In this event, the narcotic vapours are administered to the patient, the quantity thereof depending on the size of the blotting paper strip- 3I and on the rotary adjustment of the plug I9. ITherefore, by electing a strip 3I of proper size and by suitably turning the plug I9 with the cover 2, 2I, my novel anaesthetic apparatus may be rendered effective to produce a deep anaesthesia without rendering the patient entirely unconscious, even upon an extended administration of the narcotic vapours.
I vhave found that with an aperture 28 of the glass vial having a cross-section of about ve square millimeters,`the vial will not run empty even upon strong vibrations, but will gradually discharge to the extent required to keep the absorbent fibrous strip 3| moisty. In this manner, the narcotic liquid is not unnecessarily exposed to air and thus protected from undesirable deterioration. Morever, no liquid particles will be carried along by the air-current into the inhalation mask 3, 5 and into the patients nose.
In exceptional' cases in which no sealed t can be attained by means of the pad 5 on the patients face, a flexible hose may be fitted over the pipe 24 and connected to an air-pump of the customary type. Such hose will close the openings 48 and permit the air fed by the pump to be supplied to the container 25 through the vent 56 which is so small as to preclude the administration of an excessive quantity of narcotic vapours.
While my novel anaesthetic apparatus is primarily applicable to dental work it may be equally used in the Obstetric practice to relieve pains. In this event a larger quantity of the narcotic is required. In order to supply suchlarger quantity with the use of vials of the standardfsize for which the tubular member 25 has been designed I have 'found it `convenientlto proceed as A`follows: Witlraiirstvial two additional strips of blotting paper are inserted extending 'between the wall of the ttle 2U and the tubular member 25. These strips will immediately suck the vial empty absorbing its content. The empty vial is then replaced by a second vial fitted with a third strip of blotting paper. This second vial will not be discharged until the two strips of blotting paper soaked from the first vial and still enclosed in the container 29 have been dried up by the breathing air.
Some people dislike -the odour of ethylene trichloride reminiscent of chloroform. I have found that by admixing -about 0.1 percent of cumaric acid (Cai-1602) ethylene trichloride can be given a very agreeable fragrance. For cumaric acid other aromatics solved in alcohol may be substituted.
While I have described my-invention with reference to a preferred embodiment thereof, my invention is capable of numerous modifications within the scope of the appended claims.
What I claim is:
1. An anaesthetic apparatuscomprising a, container, a glass vial having a small aperture at its top and concentrically positioned in said container in an inverted position and spaced from the walls thereof, a piece of an absorbent fibrous material placed in said container in contact with said via-l in front of said aperture thereof, means for conducting air through said container past that fibrous material, and inhalation means communicating with said container.
2. An anaesthetic apparatus comprising an inhalation mask iitting the nose of the bearer, an upright tube rigidly connected therewith, an inhalation valve co-ordinated to said tube and to said mask to control the communication therebetween, said mask being provided with an outlet, an exhalation valve mounted on said mask to control the outlet thereof, 'a container mounted within said tube and provided with at least two ports, one communicating with the interior of said tube and the other communicating with the atmosphere, a plug adapted to close said container and forming a valve controlling the ports thereof, and means connected with at least one of the aforementioned elements for connecting the apparatus to lthebearers head.
3. An anaesthetic apparatus for dental work comprising a mask fitting the nose of the bearer and provided with an outlet and shaped to leave his or her mouth unobstructed, an exhalation valve mounted on said mask to control said outlet, an upright tube rigidly connected with said mask, an inhalation 'valve co-ordinated to said mask and said tube to control a communication there-between, a container of bottle-shape inserted in said tube and having its neck rigidly connected with the upper rim of said tube and sealed there-against, a hollow plug rotatably inserted in the neck of said container, a cover rigidly connected with said plug and embracing the rim of said tube, the neck of said container being provided with two ports, one communicating ".vith the interior of said tube and the other one with the atmosphere, a tubular member connected to said hollow plug and extending downwar ly therefrom into said container near the bottom thereof, a glass vial having a small aperture at its top and Vpositioned in-said container within said tubularmember in inverted position, a piece of an absorbent fibrous material placed 8 in said container in said tubular member and contacting said vial in front of the aperture thereof, said plug being adapted to control said ports, and means connected to the structure formed by said mask and said tube for connecting same to the bearers head.
4. In an anaesthetic apparatus, the combination comprising a container', a glass vial provided at its top with an aperture and placed in said container in inverted position concentrically spaced from the inner wall thereof, an absorbent nbrous material interposed between said vial and the inner Wall of said container and contacting said vial at its aperture, and means in Said container to pass an air current through said container in contact with said fibrous material.
5. In an anaesthetic apparatus, the combination comprising a container, a glass vial provided at its top with an aperture having an area of about ve square millimeters and placed in said container in inverted position concentrically spaced from the inner wall thereof, an absorbent fibrous material interposed between said vial and the inner wall of said container and contacting said vial at its aperture, and means in said container to pass an air current through said container in contact with said fibrous material.
6. In an anaesthetic apparatus, the combination comprising a container, a glass vial for narcotic provided at its top with an aperture and placed in said container in inverted position and an inlet for said container, blotting paper in said container in contact with said vial at the aperture of the latter, means in said container to pass an air current there-through in contact with said blotting paper, a rotary valve mounted on said -container and adapted to control said air current and means for applying the narcotic to a patient.
7. In an anaesthetic apparatus, the combination comprising a container, a hollow plug rotatably seated in the neck thereof, co-operating ports being provided in said hollow plug and the neck of said container enabling said plug to act as a rotary valve, a tubular member rigid with said plug and extending within said container into the proximity of the bottom thereof at a distance from the Wall of said container and blotting paper in said container constituting a volatile liquid absorbent, at least one of the ports provided in the neck of said bottle being adapted to communicate with the space between said tubular member and the wall of said container.
'8. An anaesthetic apparatus, comprising in combination, a container, a glass vial for narcotic provided at its top with an aperture having an area of approximately five square millimeters and placed in said container in inverted position, a` narcotic absorbent material contacting said vlal at its aperture, and means in said container to inhale air through said container in contact with said narcotic material.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,112,312 Oliva Sept. 29, 1914 1,671,011 Braecklein May 22 1923 2,141,793 King Dee. 27 1938 2,292,568 Kanter Aug. 111 1942 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 334,277 France Sept. l0, 1904