US 2664395 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 29, 1953 J. F. MARCHAND DIALYZER 5 Sheets-Sheet l Filed Aug. 24. 1949 Jan Y Dec. 29, 1953 J. F. MARCHAND 2,664,395
DIALYZER Filed Aug. 24, 1949 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Dec. 29, 1953 J. F. MARCHAND DIALYZER 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed Aug. 24. 1949 Patented Dec. 29, 1953 UNITED sTATEs rATENT OFFICE DIALYZER John Felix,` Marchand, New York, VI ,\T.' Z". ApplicationV August 2.4, 1949, Serial No. 112,037 5 C1ai111sA` (01.21.70--8151` rlhis invention relates to a dialyzerfvand more particularly to apparatus of both theiilter-press; I
and tubular type for clarifying liquid and gas solutions to eliminateor reduceor interchange, the
content of solutes from such solutions. The efciency of presently used types of d1- alyzers has been limited because -there has been.-
no fully satisfactory method for holdingl the membranes, Whether madeof parchment, lcellu-v lose, or other material, in'precise alignment suitable for optimum effectiveness of operation. Various types of reinforcing units have beenA employed either to support the. membranes, or to provide fora high surface acting iiow of these:-w
lution being dialyzed.-
The effectiveness of'such apparatus has been.Vv
limited by a lack of adequate elasticity and ilexibility-in the membrane supporting devices. Al4 though rubber has been used for gaskets` and grids, it was employed only because itwas soft enough to decrease the risk of tearing the irembranes during their use in the dialysis process. As a result, ed with clearances adequate to allow for stretching and billowinf of the. membranes during their use, since all dialyzing membranes stretch andbilloW when Wet. Dalyzing equipment hereto--` foreA used for large-'scale continuous Workhas therefore been large` and cumbersome.
With the a'i-:ove disadvantages in View, it is van obiect of the present invention .to provide adialyzer of compact and eiiicient construction adaptedI to overcome the .objectionable featuresof presently used types of apparatus. This ob.
ject is achieved by the use of a iiexible.memberv whch holds the membranes tight=andinprecise alignment as they swell and'stretch during their use. tubular much closer dinensions, incorporating a micro. m feature at the membrane interfaces, reducing dead space and providingA a steep concentration gradient across a reiatively rapid attainment of'equilibrium between the solutes of ofl the membrane. A Widev variety of liquid' or gaseous solutions. ory mixtures may be dialyzed. against one another across. a semi-permeable membrane. The-fresultis aninterchangeof one or. more solutes untilv any equilibrium is attained of'v which the Well-'known Donnan equilibrium may-be taken as an example. Without intending to exclude any of such theoreticallypossiblecom--v binations.. I shall: arbitrarily;referyfor the. sake offbrevity: and. clarity, to; two.: solutions.,- termed i such equipment had to be-construct- This feature permits-construction ofboth and iiiter-press typesL of dialyzerstc said interfaces and favoring the solutions on the two sides 1) thedialyzablei solution, and (2) the Wash- Water. Any gaseous ,or liquid solution or mixture,A may be substituted for either. It should alsor be understood that for the dialysis of aqueous systems the cellulose derivatives of animal membranes are suitable, while for the dialysis of al.- cohols or otherk organic solvents, other membranes, notably rubber, or Vinylite, may be ernp'loyed.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a compact, flexible, iiaccid, easily disposable and disconnectable can be readily assembled and utilized.
In tubular dialyzers certain features of design have limited the eiiciency and general use of such apparatus `for industrial or biochemical purposes. One ofthese diiiculties has been the lack of a satisfactory method of supporting the membranes-in precise alignment for optimum efficiency. Another-hasl been the diliiculty aristhese smaller units easily interchangeable, they are madev flexible and equipped with fluid connections, the Vendsof whichl may be readily con,- nectedj or disconnected Withoutnecessitating a shutdown or dismantling of the apparatus-asI a;
whole. Standardrtaper connections of the type used Withl hypodermic syringes and needles are suitable for this purpose, but any other easy type of connection mayA be substituted. By means of these.4 relatively inexpensive, multiple, inter--l changeable, disposable, standardized units, the capacity ofthe dialysis assembly as a whole mayl be varied` accordingtq theneeds vof the. moment.
For use with` ordinary tubular dialyzing mem. brancav a..un1quev feature of this novel typ-e o f unit is the provisionofilexible supporting grids flexiblev and springy enough to expand as the` and to'bend and flex tube stretches* or expands, viiththe:tubes asvthey bender-flex during inf stal'laltion, orremoval.: cruse.
dialyzer unit which' Theedges of thesegrids may be rounded, smooth, or folded under to avoid cutting the membranes they support. By correcting the tendency ci the dialyzing membranes to bilico; during use, these flexible springgrids permit eicient operation to continue independently of variations in the hydrostatic pressure on the two sides of the dialyzing membranes. The iiexible feature permits easy interchange or screwing togethehr without risk of breakage.
Around the dialyzer tubes themselves are mounted additional flexible grids. These outermost flexible spring-grids conduct in a favorable manner the solution against which the contents or" the inner dialyzing tube is being dialyzed. At the same time, these outer grids support a flexible outer retaining tube which is impermeable and relatively tough and bends with the unit as a whole; all parts being preferably transparent, easily sterilized, boilable, and chemically inert with respect to the solutions or gases to be treated.
Other objects and features oi my invention will become apparent from the following detailed description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which:
Fig. 1 is a sectional View of an elementary unit forming part oi my invention;
Fig. 2 is a longitudinal, sectional View taken on line 2-2 of Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a somewhat enlarged detailed view taken on line 3-3 of Fig. 1;
Fig. Li is a plan view of an embodiment oi my invention including a unit similar` to the type shown in Fig. 1;
Fig. 5 is a fragmental, enlarged, sectionabdetailed view of the embodiment shown in Fig. 4;
Fig. 6 is a longitudinal, fragmental view oi another embodiment of my invention containing a unit such as that shown in Fig. 1;
Fig. 'I is a iront, sectional, partly broken away, elevational view of another embodiment ci the invention;
Fig. 8 is a sectional view taken on line 8 3 of Fig. *7 showing the details of arrangement oi parts;
Fig. 9 is a sectional detail view taken on line -l of Fig. 8 showing the relation of the cells containing dialyzable fluids and Wash iuids;
Fig. 10 is a sectional view of another modica tion of the embodiment shown in Fig. 1;
Fig. 11 is a section taken on the line II--l of i Fig. 10;
Fig. 12 is a sectional View of a modification of the embodiment shown in Fig. 5; and
Fig. 13 is a sectional View taken on line of Fig. 12.
Referring nov: to the drawings in which like numerals refer to like parts throughout, it will be noted that by my invention there is provided a fluid dispersing or grid member It made of any suitable, more or less resilient material such as rubber, metal, glass, or one of the synthetic plastics or resins which is enclosed in a flexible tubular expandible member or sac Il oi suitable permeable material, such as regenerated cellulose, cellulose nitrate, cellulose acetate, parchment or animal membrane. Said grid member l0, as shown more clearly in Fig. l, is obliquely corrugated and provided at its marginal edges I2 and i3, respectively, with notches or perforations I4 so as to effect a spiral, svvishing or turbulent flow of a solution of dialyzable material in its passage along the faces of the member I9 from one end tothe other thereof. This action so produced will effectively increase the surface activity of the solution and thereby increase diiiusion of solutes through the Wall orn member or sac li.
The sac member ll, as shown in the drawings, is co-extensive with the grid member is and is adapted snugly to enclose or retain the same. Said sac member ll is preierably cylindrical and is flattened by retaining the member lil. Said sae is normally flaccid and open at each end for accommodating at each oi said ends a tubular inember l5 which is provided with an annular l' at its terminal portion and another annular flange Il at any desired distance from the terminal portion of said tubular member l5 so as to accommodate a rigid or flexible fastening niember or collar i8 of rubber or cement or anyy suit able material, thus holding the terminal portion of the sac Il against the outside of the tubular member l5 in the area between said `flanges It and l1. The details of such connection are shown more clearly in Fig. 2. lt will be noted that the embodiment shown in Fig. 1 is a unit and can be utilized alone or in connection with any of the subsequent modifications shown and described hereinafter. Any convenient number of such units may be connected in series or in parallel.
Instead of having a member provided with oblique corrugations as shown in Fig. l, I may provide a grid uid-dispersing member le having corrugations 2li disposed at right angles to Athe longitudinal axis of said member l such as shown in Figs. 4, 5, and 6. 1n conjunction with this right angle inner grid, obliduely corrugated outer grids of the Same or larger` size may be employed. Each grid is provided with openings or notches 2i alternately disposed on each marginal edge of the grid as shown.
Said unit consisting of the grid lil, flaco-id, expandible permeable sac 22 similai` to sac it, tube l5, and collar i8 is enclosed in an outer tubular flexible member or sac 2.5i containing a pair or grid members 2d and 25 disposed in said outer sac 23 and pressing against the intermediate inner sac 22. Said outer sac may consist ci any suitable type of suiciently impermeable material such as polyethylene, polyvinylite, rubber, glass, cellulose nitrate, cellulose acetate, or nylon. The outer sac 2?, as shown, iixed at terminal ends respectively to stopper members and 2i respectively. Said stopper members may be made oi rubber or of any other suitable material and are each provided with openings 28 and 2li, respectively, or accommodating tubular members and 3 l, respectively, which are in connection with Y-members 32 and E3, respectively. Each of said Stoppers 2&3 and 3l is provided with an opening 35i for accommodating tubular member i5. It will also be noted that the outer sac 23 of the modiiication shown in Figs. Li and 5 has its ends snugl* fitted to the Stoppers 26 and 2l in any suitable manner.
The inner' unit, as shown, is provided ior the passage therethrough of any suitable dialyzable fluid, solution or gas mixture, while the outer sac 23 with its respective grid members 26 and 25 is adapted to permit the passage therethrough of Water or a second solution or gaseous mixture forced through the sac in a direction countercurrent to the rst. Both the first dialyzable uid or gas and the second solution (against Which said fluid is dialyzed) pass through the device counter-current to each other, and, as they pass over the respective grids, do so in a swirling manner.
In the embodiment shown in Fig. 6, there is provided an inner unit of a construction substanstant swirling or turbulent action. Such a device made according to my invention is compact, easy to make and operate, and can be made of any suitable material where the dialysis and passage of fluids can be readily observed. Furthermore, the parts in a device made according to my invention are easily sterilizable, easily replaceable, and inexpensive, so that the invention can be eifectively used as an assembly of disposable units for biochemical, medical, industrial or other suitable purposes. I have found, furthermore, that the now of wash iiuid around the permeable member in the ratio of ten volumes to one of the dialyzable fluid passing through the permeable member produces the best results for dialysis or diffusion.
Having described illustrative embodiments of the invention, it is pointed out that various changes and modifications therein may be made without departing from the invention as set forth in the following claims.
l. A tubular, easily portable and disposable compact dialyzing device comprising a permeable normally flaccid readily expansible tubular sac member, a nexible, easily bendable corrugated grid member contained by the tubular member, said corrugation forming spaced contacts with the interior of the tubular member, said grid member containing a series of alternately disposed marginal openings to set up a swishing motion of fluids passing through the tubular member, another tubular expandible impermeable sac member surrounding said first member, a pair of corrugated grid members one on either side of the inner tubular member adapted to flex with the tubular members, and inlet and outlet means for each of said tubular members, said device being easily nexible and disassembled.
2. Tubular dialysis apparatus for removing diffusible materials from a mixture or solution comprising a freely expansible and flexible sac unit defining an expansible passageway adapted to convey a dialyzable fluid therethrough, said unit including a permeable member enclosing duid spreading expansible and contractible grid means having a series of alternately disposed marginal openings adapted to permit the dialyzable fluid to swirl through the passageway and help dispose of solutes contained therein, another freely expansible and flexible unit enclosing said first unit adapted to conduct a washing fluid therethrough to carry away solutes permeating the first named unit, inlet means in connection with the irst unit for the passage of dialyzable fluid into iirst unit, outlet means connected to said first unit for the resultant dialyzed iluid, and inlet and outlet means in connection with the unit containing the washing huid, said sac unit being adapted to expand and contract in volume when fluids now therethrough.
3. Tubular dialysis apparatus comprising a flexible, yieldable, uneven surfaced iiuid spreading first member having successive alternate notches for agitating passing fluid in a series of continuous short diagonal directions, a membrane of flexible, expansible permeable material surrounding said first member adapted to conform with the general outline of the first member to define a passageway and permit the passage through the membrane of solutes in fluid Cil (jfl
conducted through the passageway, inlet and outlet means in connection with said membrane, an outer member of impermeable material substantially enclosing and containing said membrane provided with a pair of opposed fluid spreading second members adapted to rest against the membrane and yield therewith when fluid passes through the passageway, and inlet and outlet means for said external member adapted to permit the flow therethrough of wash fluid to wash ofi the diffused material oi the fluid passing through the passageway, said membrane being adapted to form a cylindrical bulge when fluids are passing through the passageway.
4. Tubular dialysis apparatus comprising a yieldable flexible fluid spreading member, an expansible permeable membrane defining a passageway and surrounding the member, said members adapted to permit the swirling passage of fluid conducted through the passageway, inlet and outlet means for said passageway, an external member of impermeable material enclosing and concentric with said membrane provided with a pair of opposed fluid spreading members adapted to rest against the membrane and yield therewith when fluid passes through the passageway, said opposed fluid spreading members having diagonally opposed recesses to effect swirling of uid therethrough, and inlet and outlet means for said external member adapted to permit the iiow between the membrane and the external member of wash fluid in a current counter to that of the uid passing through the passageway.
5. Tubular dialysis apparatus comprising a yieldable, corrugated fluid spreading member, an expansible, iiexible membrane dening a passageway enclosing the member adapted to permit the passage through the membrane of solutes in fluid conducted through the passageway, dialyzable uuid inlet and outlet means for said passageway, an external member of impermeable material containing said membrane provided with opposed corrugated diagonally opposed, marginally notched fluid spreading members adapted to rest against the membrane and yield therewith when iiuid passes through the membrane and expands the same, and inlet and outlet means for said external member adapted to permit the flow therethrough of wash fluid in a current counter to that of the fluid passing through the membrane.
JOHN FELIX MARCHAND.
References Cited in the iile of this patent