US 2665387 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 5, 1954 J. B. BARTOW RAY DIRECTING DEVICE 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Dec. 14, 1950 Jan- 5, J B RAY DIRECTING DEVICE 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Dec. 14, 1950 Jan. 5, 1954 J. B. BARTOW RAY DIRECTING DEVICE 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed Dec. 14, 1950 Patented Jan. 5, 1954 RAY DIRECTING DEVICE John B. Bar-tow, Blue Bell, Pa., assignor to Bartow Beacons Inc., Blue Bell, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania Application December 14, 1950, Serial No. 200,795
This invention relates to ray directing devices for X-rays and the like, and more particularly to a novel ray directing device composed of component members which are erranged in an assembly to constitute the complete device.
X-rays have been used to an increasing extent in diagnosis and treatment of ailments of the human body, and the present invention is especially useful in that field, although it is not limited thereto. In the treatment of ailments by me: us of X-rays, it is desirable to be able to concentrate a large number of such rays upon a particular spot or local area of the body. In the diagnosis of ailments, it is desirable to be able to collect radiation given ofi by parts of the body after introduction of radioactive substances into the body. The device provided by the present invention is well adapted for such purposes.
An object of the invention is to provide a ray directing device which is readily adaptable for use in any instance in which it is desired to provide for directivity control of Xrays and the like.
Another object of the invention is to provide a device which may function generally in the manner of a lens and which is readily adjustable to give different focal lengths and also to give dififerent sizes and shapes of the focal area.
Another obiect of the invention is to provide a device which may be manufactured at low cost and which may be constructed in any desired size.
A further obiect oi the invention is to provide a device which is made up of a plurality of similrr units, and the size of which is determined by the number of units assembled in any particular instance.
A further obiect of the invention is to provide a structure hich is adapted for use of multiple layers of units.
A still further object of the invention is to provide a device which is well suited for use of radioactive elements, such as isotope capsules or the like. to pro ect directed rays from such elements.
Other objects and fettures oi the invention will be apparent from the following detailed description with reference to the accompanying rawings, wherein Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a device constructed according to the invention;
Fig. 2 is a side elevational view taken from one side of the device shown in Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a side elevationrl View taken from another side of the device shown in Fig. 1;
Fig. 4 is a top view of one of the component members of the device;
b Fig. 5 is an elevational side view of such mem- Fig. 6 is a sectional view taken along line 5-5 of Fig. 4;
Figs. 7 and 8 are perspective views of two of the sections of a component member;
Figs. 9 and 10 illustrate diiferent adjustments of the device to give different focrl lengths; and
Fig. 11 is a side elevational view of a multilayer arrangement.
Referring first to Figs. 1 to 8 of the drawings, the device comprises a plurality of component members it! which are assembled in any desired number, as shown in Fig. 1. Each of the members i0 is of block-like form and has slightly convex sides, as may be seen more clearly in Figs. 2 and 3. This enables the assembly to be curved and thus enables change of the focal length, area or shape, and also precludes any direct radiation path through cracks or joints. As shown in Figs. 1 to 3, the members it may be secured together by means of two sets of flexible rods extendin through apertures provided in said members, one set of flexible rods H extending in one direction and the other set I 2 extending at right angles to the first direction. As may be seen in Fig. 2, rods I! have associated with them set screw blocks l3 and also set screw blocks M which carry a threaded extension IE to accommodate a tightening nut l6. As shown in Fig. 3, the rods [2 have similar associated elements designated by reference numerals I? to 29. By mes us of the arrangement shown, the assembly may be fixed with any desired degree of curvature within the limits established by the convexity of the component members.
As may be seen more clearly in 4 to 8, each of the members I0 is formed of a plurality of sections which collectively form the blocklike member with rectangular passages therein for the transmission of X rays and the lil; The parts or sections of each member is are formed of a material which is ncntransmissive to X-rays, for example lead. As may be seen in F e. 5 d. 6, each member it comprises a pair of interfitting inner sections or parts 25 and 22, and a pair of outer sections or parts 23 and 2s. The interfitting faces of the inner sections f! and 22 are non-planar, for example they may take the form shown at 25, the purpose of this being to preclude any possibility of passage of X-rays at the iunctures of said sections. The outer face portions of the inner sections it and 2 2, and the inner face portions of the outer sec tions 23 and 24 are complementary and are so formed as to cooperatively provide X-ray transmissive elements which may be in the form of the passages 26 and 21. Preferably, there are four passages, as may be clearly seen in Fig. 4. Furthermore, the meeting faces of the inner and outer sections or parts are of zig-zag form, as shown at 28 and 29, to preclude any possibility of passage of X-rays between said faces, and X-ray transmissive passages are formed to provide ridges or shoulders 30 and 3! to prevent transmission of secondary X-rays. The ridged formation of the passages is accomplished in a manner which will be clear from Figs. 7 and 8. These figures show the outer section 23 and the associated inner section 21 which have grooves 32 and 33 formed in their complementary face portions of the shape shown.
The construction described above provides traps within the X-ray passages which effectively prevent passage of secondary X-rays produced by a primary ray striking a surface. As may be seen from Fig. 6 such secondary rays will be dissipated or absorbed within the device.
The trap feature is claimed in this application only in the particular construction provided by the present invention. Such feature is broad- 1y claimed in copending application Serial No. 319,382, filed November 27, 1952, which is a division of application Serial No. 119,734, filed October 5, 1949.
With the four sections or parts of a component member assembled as shown in Figs. and 6, they may be held together by means of tubular members 3 extending through apertures 35 provided in the sections or parts, the ends of the tubular members 34 being flared outwardly, as at 35, to secure the sections together. The tubular members 34 also accommodate the rods H shown in Figs. 1 and 2. The inner sections 2i and 22 are also provided with apertures 37, extending at right angles to the apertures 35 to accommodate the rods 12 shown in Figs. 1 and 3. With the component members assembled to the desired form, such as shown in Figs. 1 to 3, the outer spaces between the component members may be sealed with lead wool 38 or the like to prevent any passage of X-rays between the said members.
From the foregoing description, it will be seen that the device as shown in Fig. l is composed of a plurality of component members arranged in side-by-side relation and each of which has a plurality of relatively long and narrow parallel rectangular X-ray transmissive elements or passages. In the illustrated embodiment, each of the component members I!) has a group of four mutually parallel passages. By shaping the entire assembly to concavo-convex form, as shown in Figs. 1 to 3, the groups of passages of the component members are directed toward a predetermined area on which it may be desired to concentrate X-rays or from which it may be desired to collect X-rays.
By adjusting the curvature of the device, it is readily possible to obtain different focal lengths and also to provide for diiferent areas of concentration at different distances from the device. By way of illustration, Fig. 9 shows a number of the component members H! arranged with a degree of curvature to establish a focal point 39 at a certain distance from the device. Fig. shows the same component members arranged with a greater degree of curvature to establish a focal point 49 at a smaller distance from the device. Adjustment of the curvature of the component members also enables coverage of a arranged with a different degree of curvature to give the desired concentration over the larger area.
It will be apparent from the foregoing description that the manufacture and assembly of the device provided by the invention is greatly facilitated by the fact that similar component members are used, and furthermore the sections or parts of said members are the same. Moreover, manufacturing tolerances are not at all critical.
The description thus far has been with reference to an embodiment comprising a single layer of component members or units as shown in Figs. 1 to 3. However, a further important feature of the invention resides in the fact that the device may be composed of more than one layer, with the layers arranged in superposed relation. Such an arrangement is desirable where rela-- tively hard rays are involved, as it provides a thicker body which will not be penetrated by such rays. Furthermore, it enables a change n the size of the affected area. Further still, it possible in such an arrangement to utilize radioactive isotope capsules, radium needles or the hire in cooperative association with the device so that a radiation source is provided in association with each of the ray passages.
11 illustrates both a multi-layer arran ment the adaptation of such an arrangement for use of isotope capsules or the like. Referring to this figure, there are shown a first layer composed of component members It!!! and a second layer superimposed on the first layer and composed of component members 161), each of said layers being similar to the single layer in the device of Figs. 1 to 3. As shown in Fig. 11, the layers may be secured together by means of the same fastening devices which hold the component members in assemble-r1 relation. Thus, the fastening devices may include special members M and 42 which serve as interlinks between the two layers above mentioned. It will be apparent that the passages of the layers must be aligned to provide the desired ray passages.
As mentioned above, a multi-layer arrangement enables use of isotope capsules or the like in association with the individual ray passages. This also shown in 11 wherein a third layer is provided composed of component members Mic. The fastening devices and 4-4 serve to secure the third layer to the second layer. ts may be seen from the cross-sectional showing in Fig. 11, the pasasges in the component mem bers We have been drilled almost to the bottom to accommodate isotope capsules 4 -5 or the like which are simply dropped into the passages and are retained therein by virtue of the restricted lower ends of the passages. The spaces above the isotope capsules are filled with lead wool 48 or the like. With this arrangement each or the isotope capsules constitutes a radioactive source which is individual to the ray passage with which the capsule is associated. The rays given of by the isotope capsules traverse the passage and emerge therefrom, as shown by the arrows 47 While certain embodiments of the invention have been illustrated and described, it will be apparent that various modifications and other embodiments are possible within the scope of the invention.
1. A ray directing device for X-rays and the like, comprising an assembly of component blocklike members in side-by-side relation, each of said members bein composed of material which is non-transmissive to said rays, and each of said members comprising complemental sections or parts forming rectilinear passages for transmission of said rays, said sections being formed to provide ridges or shoulders in said passages to prevent transmission of secondary X-rays.
2. A ray directing device for X-rays and the like, comprising a curved assembly of component block-like members in side-by-side relation, each of said members being composed of material which is non-transmissive to said rays, and each of said members comprising complemental sections or parts forming parallel rectilinear passages for transmission of said rays, the degree of curvature of said assembly determining the focus of the device, said sections being formed to provide ridges or shoulders in said passages to prevent transmission of secondary X-rays.
3. A ray directing device for X-rays and the like, comprising a plurality of block-like members having longitudinally convex sides and arranged in side-by-side relation, each of said members having parallel longitudinal rectilinear ray transmissive elements but being" otherwise non-transmissive to said rays, and means comprising fiexible rods extending through said members for holding them in assembled relation.
4. A ray directing device for X-rays and the like, comprising a plurality of block-like members' having longitudinally convex sides and arranged in side-by-side relation, each of said members being composed of material which is non-transmissive to said rays, and each of said members comprising complemental sections or parts forming parallel longitudinal rectilinear passages for transmission of said rays, and means comprising flexible rods extending through said members for holding them in assembled relation. 5. A device according to claim 4, wherein said sections or parts are formed to provide ridges or shoulders in said passages to prevent transmission of secondary X-rays.
6. A ray directing device for X-rays and the like, comprising a plurality of block-like members having longitudinally convex sides and arranged in side-by-side relation, each of said members being composed of material which is non-transmissive to said rays, and each of said members comprisin a pair of interfitting inner sections or parts and a pair of outer sections or parts complemental to said inner sections and forming therewith parallel longitudinal rectilinear passages for transmission of said rays, and means comprising flexible rods extending through said members for holding them in assembled relation.
JOHN B. BARTOW.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,465,340 Buck Aug. 21, 1923 1,476,048 Bucky Dec. 4, 1923 2,067,589 Antrim Jan. 12,1937 2,133,385 Freeman Oct. 18, 1938 2,139,966 Loebell Dec. 13, 1938 2,522,522 Krasnow Sept. 19, 1950 2,542,196 Haupt Feb. 20, 1951 OTHER REFERENCES Introduction to Modern Physics, by F. K. Richtmyer et al., 1947 Edition, McGraw Hill Book 00., N. Y., pp. 525-526.