US 2665469 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 12, 1954 J. DE HYMEL METHOD OF MAKING DECORATIVE CERAMIC ARTICLES Filed Aug.. 15, 1949 Fig. 2;. Fig. 5.
p slip Underg/aze Glaze Green Leaf Slip Fire Slip Fire Finished Under- Producr Fire Glaze glaze Bonding Leaf r Agenf Dry .S/lp Bake Leaf .7 Wash 7 Dry .Slip
Bond ng Leaf Wash D y 69am Dry Slip 7 /NVNTOR.
. JEAN DE HYMEL Leaf Reinfc ce .sn BY HER ATTORNEYS.
HARP/5, K/ECH, F 0571/? 8a Hf) RR/s Patented Jan. 12, 1954 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE METHOD OF MAKING DECORATIVE CERAMIC ARTICLES 2 Claims.
This invention relates to the ceramic art and, more particularly, to a process of providing a poi-- tery replica of a botanical specimen which closely approximates the appearance of a botanical specimen which it is intended to simulate.
Many attempts have been made in the past to closely simulate in pottery the appearance of botanical specimens such as flowers, leaves, and various other examples of plant life, but the meth ods utilized in the formation of the pottery replicas were such that a close approximation to the appearance of the botanical specimens which they were intended to simulate could not be secured. When such pottery replicas are made by hand, it is physically impossible to form the elements thereof with suiiicient delicacy and thinness to secure the natural aspect of the plant being duplicated. When an attempt is made to duplicate botanical specimens by the use of molds, it is necessary to exaggerate the thickness and the gage of the various elements of the specimens being duplicated in order that the resulting product will be of sufiicient strength to permit it to be withdrawn from the mold and to sustain the sub sequent handling necessary in the firing and coloring of the specimen.
It is, therefore, a primary object of my invention to provide a process for the creation of replicas of botanical specimens which are close approximations to the appearance of the specimens being duplicated and which have their vari ous dimensions substantially equal to those of the specimens being duplicated to insure the realistic appearance thereof.
A further object of my invention is the provision of a process for producing replicas of botanical specimens in which the actual specimen whose duplication is intended is utilized as a mold upon which the structure of the replica is erected, the actual specimen serving to provide a pattern for the replica developed thereupon.
An additional object of my invention is the provision of a process for the production of pottery replicas of botanical specimens in which the botanical specimen utilized as amold for the creation of the pottery replica is so treated that the adherence of the pottery slip coating upon the surface of the botanical specimen will be assured. This object is achieved by depositing a coating of a bonding agent upon the surface of the botanical specimen prior to applying a coating of slip to said surface to insure that the coating of slip will adhere to the botanical specimen.
A further object of my invention is the provision of a process for the production of pottery replicas .of botanical specimens in which the structure of the actual specimen to be duplicated is reinforced prior to "depositing thereupon a coating of potteryslip to insure that the weight of the coating of slip will .not cause the deformation of the delicate portions of the specimen.
Another object ofmy invention is the provision of a process of producing pottery replicas of botanical specimens which includes the step of removing the oily deposits from the surface of such specimens as may have oily deposits upon the surface thereof prior to coating said specimens with slip to insure the adherence of the slip coating thereto. It is a concomitant object of my invention to accomplish the removal of such oily deposits by washing the botanical specimen in a detergent 'or soap bath.
Other objects and advantages of my invention will become apparent from the following specification and the accompanying drawing, which is for the purpose of illustration only, and in which:
Fig. 1 is a view showing a pottery replica of a botanical specimen produced in accordance with my invention;
Fig. 2 is a "sectional view taken on lines 2-2 of Fig. '1;
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary sectional view of a specimen after the "first firing;
Fig. 4 is a flow chart illustrating the practice of my invention; and,
'Figs. 5 through Bare flow charts illustrating alternative steps adaptedto be utilized in the practice of my invention.
Referring "to the drawing, and particularly to Fig. 1 thereof, I show a pottery replica M of a botanical specimen which has been produced in accordance with the process which is the subject of my invention. The pottery replica shown in Fig. 1 is produced by utilizing a natural botanical specimen as a mold for the various substances which go into the creation of the pottery replica.
The flow chart of Fig. 4 illustrates a typical cycle in the production of a pottery replica of a leaf, such as a pottery replica It of Fig. 1. To produce such a pottery replica of such a leaf, the leaf is first coated with a very thin coating of pottery slip. This coating may be either pottery or porcelain slip and it may be applied by either brush, spray, or dip depending upon the structural characteristics of the botanical specimen being coated.
:Subsequent to the coating of the botanical specimen with slip, it is placed in a kiln and there fired. The resulting bisque product has a cross-sectional aspect similar to that shown in Fig. 3 since the original botanical specimen has been consumed by the heat applied to the surface of the slip in the kiln, as indicated by the ashes ll. Usually, the subjection of the slip coated botanical specimen to the heat of the kiln not only causes the consumption of the specimen which is sheathed in the slip coating, but also causes the formation of steam and vapors which issue from the interior of the slip coating through cracks or fissures l2 formed thereby in the coating. The resulting unglazed or bisque product therefore has a substantial number of such cracks or fissures l2 in its surface and a second coating of slip is applied to said surface to reinforce the first coating of slip and to cover up the fissures or cracks l2. The bisque specimen is then placed in the kiln and fired once again.
If desired, the bisque specimen may have applied thereto an underglaze of chosen color, pattern or design. A glaze may then be applied to the underglaze and the specimen once again placed in the kiln for the final firing. The resulting pottery replica of the botanical specimen which served as the mold for the production of the pottery replica, is an exceedingly close approximation to the appearance of the original botanical specimen since the dimensions of the pottery replica closely approximate those of the original botanical specimen because the crosssectional dimensions of the botanical specimen are but slightly modified by the coatings of slip and glaze deposited thereupon.
The above described process may be utilized where the surfaces of the botanical specimen being used as a mold are of sumcient porosity or roughness to permit the adherence to said surfaces of the coating of slip deposited thereupon. However, there are certain plants which have a very smooth and hard surface and slip applied to such hard and smooth surfaces tends to collect in globules thereupon or to slide off vertical or inclined portions of such surfaces. When such smooth and hard surfaces are encountered, I apply a coating of a bonding agent to the surface prior to depositing a coating of slip thereupon. The bonding agent serves as a base for the slip and prevents the occurrence of globules or slippage which is encountered with untreated hard and smooth plant surfaces. I have discovered that a very good bonding agent for this purpose is gum arabic, but I do not desire to be limited to the use of any specific bonding agent since there is a wide variety of such bonding agents which may be used upon various plants such as lacquer or glue. When the bonding agent is applied to the surface of the specimen, it may be air, oven, or lamp dried prior to the placing of a coating of slip thereupon. When sufficiently dry, the coating of slip is either sprayed, dipped, or brushed upon the bonding agent and the specimen is then fired to produce a bisque replica of the original botanical specimen, as best seen in Fig. 5.
It is also possible to avoid the separate step of applying the bonding agent to the specimen by mixing the bonding agent in the first coating of slip and then applying the mixture to the specimen.
In the production of pottery replicas of botanical specimens, botanical specimens having oily surfaces are frequently encountered, such as the gardenia or acacia leaf. Such oily surfaces do not provide a good base for the coating of slip and it is necessary to'wash the specimen in a detergent or soap bath to remove all traces of the oily substances from the surfaces of such specimens. After the specimens have been washed, it is necessary to air dry them prior to the deposition of the coating of slip thereupon, as best seen in Fig. 6.
Frequently, however, when such oily specimens have the original oily coating removed therefrom by washing in a detergent or soap bath, a smooth and hard surface results to which the coating of slip will not adhere. In such cases, it is necessary to first wash the leaf in the detergent or soap bath, subsequently air drying the leaf, applying a coating of the bonding agent to the hard and smooth surface, drying the bonding agent coating and then applying a coating of slip to the bonding agent coating, as best seen in Fig. 7.
One of the greatest obstacles encountered in the handling of botanical specimens and particularly flowers of the more delicate type, is the fact that they are not of sufficient structural rigidity to support a coating of slip even though the coating be extremely thin and applied by such delicate means as light sprays, etc. I have discovered that this obstacle can be overcome by reinforcing the specimens prior to depositing the coating of slip thereupon. For instance, there are some botanical specimens which, when a coating of slip is de osited thereupon, tend to droop and sag and to lo e the appearance which is characteristic of their structure. To eliminate such drooping and sagging and to rigidify the various delicate portions of the specimen, I reinforce the speciments prior to coating them with the slip (see Fig. 8).
The reinforcing process can be accomplished by the utilization of a bonding agent or, where large areas must be covered, the use of thin coatings of slip applied to the weak portions of the specimen. For instance, I find it necessary to apply a preliminary reinforcing coating of slip or a bonding agent to the under sides of large petaled flowers or to the under sides of delicate and large leaves which would be readily deformed if the entire coating of slip were to be applied at one time. When the reinforcing coating has been applied it is permitted to dry and, when dried, the coating of slip is applied to the entire surface of the specimen with the reinforced portions held in a natural attitude by the reinforcing coating previously applied. It is also occasionally necessary to coat certain portions of flowers such as the stamen and pi til to prevent the bending thereof under the weight of the coating of slip applied thereto.
By the use of my process, I am able to produce unusually accurate pottery replicas of botanical specimens. This desirable end is accomplished by utilizing the specimens themselves as the form for the pottery replicas. To accomplish this end, I apply a preliminary thin coating of slip to the surface of the specimen to be reproduced and fire the thinly coated specimen in a kiln. Subsequently, I apply a, second coating of slip to the bisque resulting from the first application of slip and then glaze and color the specimen in a conventional manner. By the use of my process, I am able to produce pottery replicas of specimens having hard and smooth surfaces by coating the surfaces with a bonding agent prior to the application of slip thereto. I am also able to produce pottery replicas of specimens having oily deposits upon the surface thereof by washing said surfaces in a cleansing bath.
Most important of all, I am able to accurately reproduce the botanical specimen with the various component parts thereof established in the relationship which they assume when the specimen is growing. I accomplish this desirable end, in the case Of delicat specimens, by reinforcing portions of the specimen prior to depositing the coating of slip thereupon.
Shown in Fig. 2 of the drawing, is a cross section which shows the manner in which the various layers of material are built upon and about the original botanical specimen. It should be understood that the layers are greatly enlarged and that, in actual practice, each of the layers is extremely thin.
The first coating of slip is innermost and subsequent to firing is covered by a second coating of slip. The second coating of slip may have applied thereto an underglaze which is subsequently covered with a glaze.
Although I have shown and described specific steps in my process, it is, of course, obvious that processes embodying departures from the general practice of my process may be used which will not prevent such processes from falling within the scope of the patent claims.
I claim as my invention:
1. A process for producing a pottery article including the steps of: depositing a coating of um arabic upon a botanical specimen; depositing a coating of slip upon said coating of gum arabic; and firing said coated specimen to produce a bisque replica thereof.
2. A process for producing a pottery article including the steps of: depositing a coating of gum arabic upon the surface of a botanical specimen; drying said coating of gum arabic; depositing a coating of slip upon the coating of gum arabic; and firing said coated specimen to produce a bisque replica thereof.
JEAN DE I-IYMEL.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 212,478 Low Feb. 18, 1879 721,441 Hayhow Feb. 24, 1903 2,171,006 Morgan et a1. Aug. 29, 1939 2,341,999 Lennington Feb. 15, 1944 2,360,479 Detrick et al. Oct. 17, 1944 OTHER REFERENCES Encyclopedia of Ceramic Industries, Searle, vol. 1, page 129.
Scientific America, Preserved in Plastics, October 1939.
Plastics World, Biological Specimens Embedded in Clear Plastics, August 1947, page 1.