US 2665577 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. l2, 1954 A. sAowsKls STEP-BY-STEP OPERATED COMBIATION LOCK Filed March 26, 1948 2 sheets-sneu 1 Jan- 12, 1954 A. sANowsK|s STEP-BY-STEP OPERATED COMBINATION'LOCK 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed March 26, 1948 IH- AW f2-20622255' jy/672156020405563 Jy @f-f W Patented Jan. 12, 1954 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE STEP-BY-STEPV OPERATED COMBINATION LOCK Albert Sanowskis, Chicago, Ill.
Application March 26, 1948, Serial No. 17,230 Claims. (Cl. 704-133) The invention relates to combination locks.
One objectY ,of the invention is to provide an improved combination lock of the type which is controlled by a set of keys or buttons, and which is provided with a lock controlling device which is shiftable step-by-step in one direction by the operation of the keys in predetermined sequence and which, when the keys are not operated in said sequence, Will eiect a reverse movement of the lock controlling device.
Another object of the invention is to provide a combination lock in which the lock controlling device is movable step-by-step and is frictionally held in the positions into which it is shifted by the keys.
Another object of the invention is to provide a combination lock which is simple in construction and which can be economically produced.
Other objects of the invention will appear from the detailed description.
The invention consists in the several novel features Which are hereinafter set forth and are taken on line 2 2 of Figure 1;
Figure 3 is a perspective of the case for the combination lock, the Acover plate being shown in section; n
Figure 4 is a perspective of the lock controlling racks and the wedge elements on rthe keys;
Figure 5 is a front elevation of the lock;
Figure 6 is a sectiontaken on line 6 6 of Figure 1;
Figure 7 is a section taken Figure l; v
Figure 8 is a perspective of one of the keys ;l
Figure 9 is a yhorizontal section or a modified form of the invention and--a door in Whichit is mounted, with the door-bolt in lockingposition';
Figure 10is a section taken Online. l--H of Figure 9, illustrating the control device.. positioned to lock the door-bolt;
Figure 11 is a similar section illustratingthe lock controlling device in the position assumed when the door-bolt is retracted;
Figure 12 is a perspective of the cylindrical rack;
Figure 13 is a perspective of the resettingshaft;
Figure 14 is a perspective of one of the keys;
Figure 15 isa perspective of the lock controlling device; l
on line l-l of Figure 16 is an inverted plan of the lock controlling device; and
Figure 17 is a developed'view illustrating the teeth on the cylindrical rack.
The form of theinvention exemplied in Figures 1 to 8 is illustrated as applied to an automobile door a which fits into an opening in a surrounding frame b of the vehicle.
The combination-lock includes a case which is adapted to be lixedly set into an opening cut into the outer side of the door a. This case includes a body-section 20 and a cover-section 26 which are suitably secured together to house the operating mechanism of the combination lock. The body-section 20 includes a top Wall 22, a bottom wall 23, an end Wall 211, and a front Wall 2l, all integrally formed. The cover section 26 closes they back of the body-section and is provided with an integral angular end 21. The cover section is suitably secured to the body section, usually by screws, to form therewith a housing or enclosing case for the operating mechanism of the combination lock. l
A series of keys 30 of rectangular contour are individually mounted in upper and lower rows for axial sliding movement in rectangular guideways 32 formed along the top and bottom of the case. Each key 30 is 'provided with an integral V-shaped vvedger element 34 which. extends through a vertical slot 35 on the inner side of a guideway 32. Each element 34 is retractable by a spring 436 which urges one end of the element 34 against the inner face of the front wall 2l of the body section of the casing. Each spring 36 extends into a recess 3l in one of the keys 30.. The outer faces of the keys 3!) are provided With numerals 0 to 9, inclusive.
The vcombination lock includes a control bolt 4I for a lever 4B which is mounted inside of the door c andis adapted tocontrol a spring-pressed door latch Buforlocking the latch against release fromrtheroutside of the door and releasing said` latch to permit the door to be opened from the. outer sideof the door. ,Bolt'l is provided with anotchwflZ'Which, when in registry with the inner angular end 39 of lever file, permits said lever to be shifted into position to release the latch 80 to permit the door tobe opened. Lever is fulcrumed at 85, as hereinafter more fully described, and carries a cross-pin 33. which is movable into-a notch itv to lock the latch Bt, which is fulcrumed at Sl, against pivotal movement. When-theinner face 38 of the portion of bolt 4l between notch 52 and the outer end .of`
the bolt is-abutted by the angular end 39 of lever q IJ 4t, cross-pin 38 on said lever `will be held in notch Se and lock latch S9 against pivotal movement. Bolt 4i is provided with a longitudinal slot, and a supplemental control bolt 41 fits in said slot, conforms in contour to the holt 4l, and is provided With a notch and a face which normally coincides with notch 42 and face 38, so that lever 40 will not be released when relative movement occurs between bolts 4! and 41 which misaligns the slots 42.
A rack 44 is integrally formed with bolt 4l and is longitudinally movable in the case for controlling the step-by-step movement of said bolt into position to release lever 49. A supplemental rack 45 is integrally formed with bolt 41, is longitudinally movable in and slidable relative to the rack 44, and controls the step-by-step movement of bolt 41 into position for releasing lever 4B. Rack 44 is provided with anges 48, and rack 4S is provided with flanges 49 which slidably t and lap the inner faces of flanges 48. Racks 44, 46 are adapted to be moved step-by-step, by the Wedge-elements 34, when the keys39 are operated according to and in the sequence of the combination used, to shift the bolts 4i, 41 into position to release lever 40.
Each of the flangesV 48 is provided with a series of teeth or tongues 5t and slots 5i between said teeth, and the flanges 490i rack 45 are provided with teeth or tongues 52 and intermediate slots 53. Said teeth have inner ends for engagement by the wedge-elements 34 on the keys 38, and the intermediate slots are adapted to receive said elements. These teeth on the racks which are successively shifted into confronting relation with the wedge-elements 34 on the keys corresponding to the predetermined combination if the keys are operated according to and in the sequence of the numbers of the combination, are provided with ends and which are inclined so that the racks will be operated step-by-step to the right and in the direction which will cause the'racks to move bolts 4l, 41 into position for releasing lever 49. Other teeth onV the racks -are provided with `v oppositely inclined ends 55 for causing the wedgeelements 34 on keys 30, which are not in the predetermined combination or if the keys are not operated in the sequence of the combination to shift the racks in the opposite direction, to prevent the bolts 4l and 41 from releasing lever 40. In other words, the wedge elements 314 on the keys 39 which are operated according to and in the sequence of the combination, will shift racks 44 and 45 step-by-step in unison to move bolts 4l,
41 into position to release lever 40, and when the i keys are not operated according to and in the sequence of the combination, one or both of the racks will be moved in the opposite direction to misalien the notches 42 in bolts 4! and 41 and thereby prevent the release of lever 40.
' The racks illustrated are designed for the combination 6-3-9-1. Normally, when they are reset for locking, the racks 44, 46 will be in the position illustrated in Fig. 1 and corelatively positioned as lilustrated in Fig. 4. When the No. 6 key is depressed, its wedge element 34 will engage an inclined surface 55 on the lower teeth on each of the racks 44, 45 and shift both racks coniointly one step toward the latch-releasing position of bolts 4i, 41; this will move both racks into position so that the wedge element 34 on the No. 3 key will be aligned with the inclined surfaces 55a on one of the upper teeth on each of the racks, and depression of said key will conjointly shift both racks and bolts 4l, 4,1 a
second step to the right or toward latch-releasing position; this second step will bring the inclined surfaces h on one of the lower teeth of each of the racks into alignment with the wedge element 34 on the No. 9 key, and depression of said key will then conjointly shift both racks the third step toward lock-releasing position; the wedge element 34 on the No. 1 key will then be aligned with the inclined surfaces 55 on one of each of the upper teeth on both racks, and when the No. 1 key is depressed, its wedge element 34 will engage said inclined surfaces and conjointly shift both racks the fourth step, so that the notches 42 in both racks will register with theangular terminal 39 of lever 49, and the latter will be released for pivotal movement from the outer side of the door.
If any key other than the No. 6 key is first depressed While the racks are in normal locking position, its wedge element 34 will be aligned with a tooth having an inclined surface 56 which will cause one or both of the racks to move to the left one step and misalign the notches 42 in bolts 4i, 41. The racks will then be disarranged so that it will be impossible to shift the bolts 4 I, 41 into releasing position by the keys until the racks have been reset to their normal position. Similarly, if after one or more keys of the combination have been operated and shifted the racks conjointly one or more steps, and the key next in the sequence in the combination is not operated, it will engage the inclined surface 56 on a tooth of one or the other of the racks to produce relative movement between them which misalign the notches 42 in the bolts 41 so that they cannot be shifted into lever-releasing position until the racks are reset into normal position and the keys of the combination are operated in the correct sequence.
Bolt 4I extends through and is guided in a slot 68 in the end 2l' of cover 25. The front faces of bolts 4i and 41 t against a bar Bl which is xed to said cover. A pair of leaf-springs 63 is interposed between rack 44 and the back wall 2t of the body section of the case to urge bolts 4I and 41 forwardly. A stop t4 fixed in the case is engageable by the front face of rack 46 to limit the forward movement of the racks by springs S3. Springs 63 permit the racks to yield back- Wardly in the event that the teeth thereon become arranged to obstruct the movement of the keys and excessive force is applied to the keys, and prevent breakage of the teeth. Springs 53 exert a pressure against rack 44 and friction between the rack 44 and the rack 4E. This friction may be suicient to cause the racks to move in unison when one of them is shifted by a wedge element 34, so that the inclined teeth 55, 55a, 55h, and 55c may be omitted from the inner rack 46.
When bolts 4i, 41 have been shifted to bring notches 42 therein in registry with the angular end 39 of lever 4G, said lever will befree to swing on its fulcrum 85, so that its angular end 39 can be shifted into the notches 42 in bolts 4I, 41 for withdrawing cross-pin 38 from the notch 89 to release the latch Gd and permit the door to be opened. A pull button 9d is slidably mounted in the outer Wall of the door, and is provided with a fork which is connected at 93 to lever 40 so that, when the bolts are in unlocking position, a pull on the button 98 will shift lever 40 to release latch Si) and permit the door to be opened.
, After each operation of the racks to shift the bolts 4I, 41 into lever-releasing position, it is of normal position, the v.shapedlend.'|| `will enter andfpass through slots 61 and SGiand'shift the racks into their normal locking position. If there has beenl relative movement` of the racks, the wedge 'II will engage the slots '-l'and` 51 'in both racksand shift them into normall relative position.
The combination lock and` latch 40 are exemplified for use in a vehicledoor, with means for permitting the door to be opened from the inside of the vehicle while the bolts 41|; 41 remain in their normal or locking position, and means for releasing the door so it can be opened from the outside of the vehicle'when the bolts 4i, 47 have been shifted to latch-releasing position by operating the keys 3l? in proper' combinaton and'sequence.
The fulcrum pin 8| and'latch 8i! is supported in brackets S2 which are fixedly mounted in the door. Av spring S3 is applied to urge latch St into the position shown in Fig. 1, the'outer side of said latch engaging the edge of a slot in the edgeof the door through which the latchl pro'- jects. A catch I 04`is pivotally'mounted at |05 in the vehicle door frame, and a spring |66 is applied to normally hold said catch against an abutment I Srl fixed in` said body. Latch 8B is provided with an inclined end Ht for swinging the catch to clear the latch when closing the door, the latch' snapping intoa recess inthe catch ||4'for locking the latch'against outward movement,
Lever :it is forked and its iulcrum pin 85 eX- tends through and is seated in slots 8G in brackets S2 and isl pressed to its seat by a pair of. springs 99. Lever 4e is operable to withdraw cross-pin S8 from leasing the latch from theinnerside of the door While lever 4|) is restrained by bolts 4I, 4'I. For
l this purpose a button 9,5, accessible from. the
inside ofthe vehicle,v is mounted side of the door and is adapted to rocka lever 9S which is fulcrumed at 9.1 and provided with a fork end to which links 98 arev pivoted. Links S8 connect the cross-pin 88 and the forked end of lever 9S; A spring l' urges lever 95 into position to-cause its forked end to hold-crosspin 38 in the notch S91 ofV latch 6u., When button 55 is pressed, lever QSY-will shift links 98 to withdraw cross-pin 88 from notch l8l? in latch 80 and release the latch to. permit it toswing inwardly against the force of spring 83, and there-- upon permit the latch to clear the catch |04 and the door to be opened. In this movement of cross-pin 88; lever 4G remains in engagement with. bolts 45, 47, and springs S9. permit the fulcrum pin 85 to be shifted whilesaid boltsremain in lockingposition. When thefdoor iszopen and is swung into closing position, latch 80 Will shift catch Iiill againstthe force; of spring |06 to permit latch SB to bellockedby catch |4-when the door is in its closed position.
in the inner In;y the construction thus far described, the lever 40 exemplies a locking element for the latch'which controls the opening and closing ofthe door; Atheracks 45 and 46 exemplify separately movabley devices which are shiftable for controlling the release of the locking element; they-shaped wedge elements 34 on the keys exemplify means for shifting the racks when the keys are operated in a predetermined sequence to release the locking element; the springs |53 exemplify spring-means for permitting the racksto beshifted'when the racks are vobstructed against step-by-step movements.
v InFigs. 9 to 17 the invention is exernplied in a combination lock fora door c which ncludes a cylindrical rack provided with teeth co-acting with. Wedge-teeth on the keys for conytrollingalocking bolt d. This Vconstruction comprises a cylindrical case which is set into a hole bored through the door, and the bolt for locking the door is spring-released. The case cornprises a cylindrical body II? provided with an integral head H8 on the outer side 0f the door, an inner head HS secured in` the inner end of the cylindrical body and provided with an integral screw-threaded sleeve I2@ and a clamping plate I 2| threaded to sleeve I 29 on the inner side of the door.
An annular series of ten keys |22 numbered 0 to 9 are slidably mounted in cylindrical guideways |23 formed in the casing body IIe and provided with integral wedge-elements |24 having V- shaped ends |27. Springs |25 are conned between a ring |26, which is xedly secured in the casing. body at the inner end of guides |23, and extend into sockets in the keys E22, and are adapted to retract the keys and hold elements |24- against the inner face of plate H8. Elements |24 extend'through and are axially guided Il()y inslots |29.
Acylinder rackor device ISE? is centrally journalled in the casing, and is provided with a shoulder |32 which is held seated on an annular shoulder on plate H9 by a spring I3@ interposed between a screw cap |35 and the adjacent end of cylindrical rack I 3i).v Cylindrical rack ISG is provided at itsl inner end teeth |38vand slots'or'notches |39 for co-acting with the wedge elements |24 to shift the cylinder I 3d step-by-step. Those teeth 38 which are. operable by. the keys of the correct denomination, when operated in a predetermined sequence are provided with surfaces for rotating rack |35 in one direction to move the rac-k into bolt-releasing position, and the remaining teeth are provided with cppositely inclined surfaces 4I for reversely rotating the rack to prevent thev cylinder from'being shifted to release the bolt d. Assuming the combination to numbers 6.-3-9-1, the teeth of the cylindrical rack are normally positioned relatively to the keys so that the No.A 6 key will engage the inclined surface |49 and shift the cylindrical rack one step;v the wedge element |24 on the No.` 3 key will engage the inclined surface Sfida' and shift the cylindrical rack the second step; the
No. 9 key will engage an inclined surface Mtb,
to shift the rack .the thirdstep; and the No. 1
key willengage an inclinedv surface |496 to shift the cylindrical rack A`the fourth step when the keysfare shifted in this sequence. Rotation of the` cylindrical rack four steps in one direction will release the bolt-controlling mechanism as hereinafter described.` If other keys are shifted or the keys are notshifted`v in the same sequence,
with alternating be composed of they will engage one of the inclined surfaces 141 and reversely shift the cylindrical rack to prevent release of the bolt-locking device, or in exceptional instances pass into a slot 139 between the teeth 138 and fail to rotate the rack.
A bolt-controlling device, which is controlled by the step-by-step movement of the cylindrical rack 135, comprises a bifurcated element 145 which is slidable between head 119 and plate 126, and provided with a stern i116 which is engaged by a head 151 on bolt d and is slidably mounted in a sleeve 148 which is set into the edge of the door and pressed into door-releasing position by a spring 149 which is confined in a sleeve |48 and engages an annular shoulder 159 on bolt d. Head 14'? is connected by a screw-threaded stem 151 to bolt d for adjustment of the projecting end of the bolt which is adapted to enter a socket in the door frame, Inward movement of control-element 145 by spring 149 is controlled by a dog 152 which is pivoted at 153 to said element, and has its distal end adapted to abut against the outer periphery of the cylinder rack 135 until said rack is rotated, to register the inner end of dog 152 with a slot 154 in rack 131] to permit dog 152 to move inwardly and release the element 1x45 for movement by the spring-pressed bolt d. A spring 155 is carried by element U15 and applied to dog 152 to normally press the distal end of the dog against an abutment 15 formed on the hea-d MS. Shaft 166 is cut away as at 1'1'1 to provide clearance for dog 152 when it passes through slot 1511 into the rack.
The mechanism for resetting the cylindrical rack to its normal rotative position in the case comprises shaft 166, which is axially slidable in the case and disposed within the cylindrical rack 130, and is provided with a pull-handle 161 at the inner side of the door for manual operation, and a cross-bar 162 which extends diametrically through and is xedly secured to shaft 165 and extends through longitudinal slots 164 Vin the cylindrical rack 131i. This bar 162 rotates shaft 160 step-by-step with the rack 1311. A coil spring 155 around cylindrical rack 136 is disposed between the portions of bar 162 which vproject from said rack, for retracting` the shaft 160 and holding it in normal position. A button 161 is slidably mounted in the outer wall 11B of the case and abuts against the inner end of shaft 160, and is provided with a shoulder 163 engaging the inner face of plate 118. Shaft 1615 is provided with a stem 169 which is slidable and rotatable in a socket 11G in button 16T.
The bifurcated element 145 is provided with inclined cams 172 at the sides of the rack 130. These cams are engageable with the bar 162 for shifting said element outwardly and for rotatively retracing shaft 151i and rack 130. When dog 152 is released by cylindrical rack 138 and spring 149 shifts the element 145 inwardly, cams 1'12 will engage the outer ends of bar 1152, and rotate cylindrical rack 130 to its normal position, and bolt d will be held retracted by spring |49. This rotation of rack 130 by cams 112 will swing dog 152 against the force of spring 155 into the position illustrated in Fig. 11. The bolt d will remain retracted until the control element 145 is shifted outwardly and latched in its outward position by the dog 152, and the bolt is reset into its locking position.
When it is desired to reset the bolt d in its locking position, from the inner side of the door,
the user will pull handle 161 which will cause the ends of cross-bar 162 to engage cams 112. This will cause the element 145 to be shifted outwardly until dog 152 passes out of slot 154 and is pressed by its spring 155 into position to engage the periphery of cylindrical rack and prevent inward movement of said device and bolt d. The outward movement of handle 161 will cause cross-bar 162 to engage cams 1'12 on control device 145 and, when the handle is released, spring 165 will retract shaft Y1511 to its normal position.
When it is desired to reset bolt d from the outer side of the door, the user will push button 16'1 which will impart axial movement to shaft 160 and shift control element 145 and bolt d into locking position in the same manner, and to withdraw dog 152 from slot 154, so it will snap into position to arrest the element When the bolt d, is in its locked position, the bolt-controlling device 145 and dog 152 will be positioned as illustrated in Fig. l0. Spring 149 will exert an inward pressure on bolt d which is transmitted to element 145. This inward pressure will hold the inner end of dog 152 against the cylindrical rack 130, while abutment 158 limits the pivotal movement of the dog in one direction by spring 155.
When the combination is composed of numerals 6-3-9-1, the slot 154 in cylindrical rack will be positioned to release the dog when the rack is moved four steps in clockwise direction. Depression of key No. 6 will cause its wedge 121 to engage the inclined edge 140 of one of the teeth 138 and rotate the rack one step; this will position the inclined surface 111111a on the rack into alignment with the wedge on key No. 3; depression of Key No. 3 will rotate the cylindrical rack the second step, which will position the inclined surface 1413b on one of the teeth 138 on said rack for engagement by the wedge on key No. 9; depression of key No. 9 will shift the cylindrical rack the third step, and position the inclined surface 1411c on the rack for engagement by the No. 1 key; and the depression of key No. 1 will shift the cylindrical rack the fourth step, whereupon dog 152 will be released and the pressure of spring 119 on the bolt d and stem 146 will shift control device 145 and dog 152 inwardly through slot 151i; the bolt d will then be released to permit the door to be opened.
When it is desired to change the combination of the form of invention illustrated in Figs. 1 to 8, it is only necessary to substitute racks 44, 45 provided with teeth having inclined ends for imparting step-by-step movement to the racks, by the keys of the combination. In the form of invention illustrated in Figs. 9 to 17, it is only necessary to substitute a cylindrical rack with inclined teeth for imparting step-by-step movement to the rack, by the keys of the combination.
In the construction last described the wedge devices 124, 121 on keys 122 exemplify shifting elements on the keys; the annular element 135 exemplifies a cylindrical rack; the teeth on the rack exemplify means shiftable by the keys for shifting the rack; the element exempliiies a control device for the bolt d which is released -by the rack when the keys are operatedin a predetermined sequence.
A characteristic of the invention is that the rack provided with wedge-teeth is frictionally held in the positions into which they are shifted Step-by-step by the keys, and the racks are free to move in one direction -by the keys of and in the sequence of the combination and are shifted in the opposite direction when the keys are otherwise shifted.
The invention exemplifies a combination lock which includes a device which is operable step by-step in one direction to lock-releasing position when the keys are operated in a predetermined sequence and which, when the keys are operated out of said sequence, the device will be shifted in the opposite direction to prevent the release of the lock until the device has been reset to its normal position. The invention also exempliiies a combination lock which is efcient in preventing its unlocking operation and is simple in construction and adapted to be applied to doors of different types.
The invention is not to be understood as restricted to the details set forth, since these may be modied within the scope of the appended claims without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. A combination lock comprising: a series of selectively operable keys, Wedge elements on the keys, a releasable locking element, a cylindrical rotatable rack provided with teeth having inclined surfaces and slots engageable by the wedge elements on the keys for shifting the rack stepby-step in one direction to release the locking element by the operation of the keys in a predetermined sequence and a slidable control device for the locking element including a pivoted dog movable with said device and engaging the rack, the rack being provided With a slot into Which the dog is movable for controlling said device to release the locking element.
2. A combination lock comprising: a series of selectively operable keys, wedge elements on the keys, a releasable locking element, a cylindrical rotatable rack provided with teeth having inclined surfaces and slots engageable by the wedge elements on the keys for shifting the rack stepby-step in one direction to release the locking element by the operation of the keys in a predetermined sequence, a control device for the locking element including a pivoted dog movable with said device and engaging the rack, the rack being provided with a slot into which the dog is movable for controlling said device to release the locking element, a cam on the control device, a rotatable shaft longitudinally slidable in the rack, and means on the shaft for engaging the cam for rotatably retracting the rack to its normal position, and a case in which the rack, control device, shaft and keys are operatively mounted.
' and teeth between the slots engageable by the transversely projecting ends of the wedge elements on the stems.
4. A combination lock comprising: an enclosing case, a series of selectively operable keys, each including a stem axially slidable in the case and a wedge element projecting transversely from the stem, the case being provided With slots through Which the wedge elements extend with ends projecting from the slots in the case, a releasable locking element, and a rack for controlling the release of the locking element by the operation of the keys in a predetermined sequence, and provided with teeth engageable by the projecting ends of the wedge elements on the keys and slots between the teeth extended to form continuations of greater depth than the teeth, the wedge elements on the stems being slidable into the continuations of the slots between the teeth.
5. A combination lock comprising: .an enclosing case, a series of selectively operable keys, each including a stem axially slidable in the case and an element projecting transversely from the stem having a V-shaped lower end and parallel sides above said lower end, the case being provided with slots through which the elements extend with ends projecting from the slots in the case, a releasable locking element, and a rack for controlling the release of the locking element by the operation of the keys in a predetermined sequence provided with wedge teeth and slots therebetween extended below the wedge teeth to form parallel sided continuations of greater depth below the teeth, the parallel sides of the elements on the stem being movable into and fitting in the parallel sided continuations of the slots in the rack.
ALBERT SAN OWSKIS.
" References Cited in the file oi' this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 980,154 Hershey Dec. 27, 1910 1,185,468 Borg May 30, 1916 2,029,080 Mills Jan. 28, 1936