US 2665690 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 12, 1954 M. L. LocKHAR-r 2,665,690
PLURAL-COMPARTMENT ADMIXING CONTAINER 0R VIAL Filed Sept. 29. 1950 TJCTI. l 34 J7 404/' -15 /33 40 /4 4/ 24 2/20/9 /7 23 25 22 26 34 /5 n .EL T :1 1:14. 57' 4 /a /5 2a /026/5- 0 ATTO RNEYS Patented Jan. 12, 1954 PLURAL-C-OMPRTMENT ADMIXING CONTAINER OR VIAL Marshall L. Lockhart, Rutherford, N. J assigner,
by directandmesne assignments, to The Compule Corporation, Rutherford, N. J., a corporation ofNew Jersey Applicationrseptember 29, 1950, Serial No. 187,501
11 Claims. (Cl. 12S-272) The present invention relates to containers or vials .for segregated storage therein of different ingredients of solutions and liquid mixtures so constructed as to permit at will admiring of the ingredients Without necessitating opening of the containers or valsand, more particularly, tosuch structures. desirably `adapted to preservative storage of segregated liquids, `medicaments and liquid vehicles or solutes and. solvents to be aclmixed for productionof medicinal solutions `and therapeutic preparations, other liquid mixtures or solutions, andthe like.
'A general object of the present .invention .is to rprovide .such a container or vial structure, the parts of which are of sim-ple construction, readily produced economically .on a mass basis and easily assembled to form sucha plural-compartment container or vial with .chambers thereof `charged or loaded with the different ingredients in a manner which Vassures sterility if desirable; the structure featuring a tubular container or vial body having a valve-equipped lpartition intermediate its ends through `which passage of liquid from one Vchamber to the other for admixture of contents 'may be had by the application thereto of a differential in iluid pressure easily and effectively applied by manipulations external ci the chambers with continued isola.- tion ci the materials by he container or vial, so as .to avoid any undesirable interference with sterile conditions which may exist.
A more specific object ci the present invention is to provide such container or vial structure in which is featured a valuing` partition to dene fone chamber from another `for segregation of diierent materials in the chambers, the valve vmeans of said partition being self-closing and openabie by application of fluid pressure to one .side thereof, readily applied hydraulically when lone chamber contains a liquid to be transferred .through said partition to the other chamber, the structure being such as `to permit creation of the 'hydraulic pressure by simple manual operation Iexterior of the chambers 'While effectively main taining them closed.
Another object of the present invention is the provision of such container or vial structure in which the valving partition comprises a. simple elastic cody having at least one self-closing perforation or puncture slit therein openable when said elastic body is distorted by application of fluid pressure to one side thereof.
Further objects oi the present invention are to provide in such container or vial structure a pressure-operable, fluid venting end closure for .the mixing chamber to 4vent iiuid-y such as rair,
therefrom as liquid is transferred thereto vfrom the other chamber; `to `close the mixing chamber with means, such `as said Venting closure, which is needle-pierceable to allow ready withdrawal of mixture; and to provide as meansiforcreating the valve-operating hydraulic pressure -a piston plug for closing the end oi' the liquid chamber.
And another object of the present invention is to provide a thrust cap structure removablymountable on the end of said container or `via-l from which iiuid, specifically air, is yto be vented, with venting ways formed therein to .parmi-teilicient fluid `escape at the sides .thereof While-its top end is engaged or covered, such as by ones finger, for application oi biasing force thereto or to push against it.
A still further object oi the present invention is to provide structural embodiments .of .the apparatus which are Vreadily and economically constructed and permit efficient .use and operation thereof, as will be more fully apparent from. the following descriptions of said embodiments shown by Way of example in the accompanying drawing.
Other objects of the invention Will fin parlt -be obvious and will in part appear hereinafter..
The invention accordingly comprises the features of construction, combination of elements and arrangement of parts,` which will be exemplied in the construction hereinafter set forth, and the scope of the invention will be indicated in the claims.
For a fuller understanding of the nature and objects of the invention, reference should be had to the following detailed description taken in connection with the accompanying drawing, in which:
Fig. 1 is a longitudinal or axial section, to an enlarged scale, of a. loaded dual-chamber embodiment of the vial structure of the present invention, showing also in axial Vsection the 'prss-ure-applying or thrust cap to be Viitted over one end thereof and depicting ypartly in section and with parts broken away a piston cup to. `be telescoped over the other end, such cap and 'piston cup being employed in accomplishing admixture of segregated ingredients;
Fig. 2 is a sectional. View similar to Fig. l, showing the thrust `capj mounted on one end of the vial structure and the piston cup being tele'scoped over the other end to accomplish transfer of liquid from one chamber to another as graphically indicated, but not shown in the preferred position of orientation indicated in.` Fig.` 6;
Fig. 3 is a sectional View similar to Figs. 'i and 2, but with the thrust cap omitted or removed, and with the piston cup completely telescoped up over the liquid chamber end of the vial structure to the fired position thereof or position of substantially complete transfer of liquid from its storage chamber to the second chamber;
Fig. 4 is an elevational view of the right end of the vial structure shown in Fig. 3;
Fig. 5 is an inside end view of the pressureapplying or thrust cap as viewed substantially from line 5-5 in Fig. 1;
Fig. 6 is a side view of the structure shown in Fig. 2, substantially to scale with parts broken away and in section, showing the piston cup pushed up to the substantially complete discharge or fired position shown in Fig. 3, parts of an operators thumb and finger being indicated in the preferred positions of orientation for manipulations to effect, first, intercommunication between the chambers, and then, admixing of the ingredients which had been segregated in the separate chambers, including shaking to assure intimate mixture thereof; and
Fig. 7 is a longitudinal or axial section of the red vial structure shown in Fig. 6 after complete admixture by shaking of the ingredients of the liquid mixture or solution, showing the pressure-applying or thrust cap and the piston cup removed therefrom and a hollow hypodermic needle thrust up through an end closure into the mixing chamber for withdrawal of mixture contents.
Referring to the drawing, in which like numerals identify similar parts throughout, it will be seen that a preferred embodiment of the present invention, there illustrated by way of example, comprises a vial structure I0, a pressureapplying or thrust cap II adapted to be fitted over one end, and a piston cup I2 adapted to be `tted over the other end during the manipulations of "ring and mixing of stored segregated ingredients of a liquid mixture or solution. The vial structure I@ comprises a substantially cylindrical tube I3 of suitable material, preferably transparent to permit inspection and observation of contents and internal actions, such as glass, a suitable plastic, or the like. Tube I3 preferably is provided between its ends I4 and i5 with a waist constriction I6 to form a circular internal seat I1 of a diameter substantially less than the internal diameter of the remainder of the tube.
Transversely-extending partition means are mounted in the tube on the seat I'I and, as shown in the drawing, preferably comprises a cupped plug I8 formed of suitable resilient or elastic material, such as synthetic or natural rubber, for example, pure gum, which, in the relaxed condition before mounting in the tube I3, preferably' is substantially cylindrical and of a diameter appreciably greater than the diameter of the internal seat I1, so that when forced into the latter it will be constricted to the shape shown in the drawing to be there frictionally retained and to resist dislocation by application of a differential in pressure to opposite sides thereof. The cupped partitioning plug I3 includes a head portion I9 formed as an integral part of the plug, preferably in the form of a substantially at elastic membrane through which are provided a plurality of self-closing perforations or puncture slits ZIB-2B. Membrane I3 may be readily provided with perforations or puncture slits 20-28 by piercing it at a plurality of points with a needle. Perforations or puncture slits 20-20 serve as self-valving passages or openings, remaining securely closed when the pressures on opposite sides of the membrane I9 are substantially equal due to the natural constrictive characteristic of the material, and opening up when greater pressure is applied to one side of the membrane to cause the latter to bulge away from the high pressure side with attendant stretching. Partition plug I8 divides tube I3 into a pair of chambers, chamber 2I at one end preferably being adapted to store liquid ingredient, and a second chamber 22 at the other end adapted to contain another ingredient of the mixture or solution to be formed and serve as a mixing chamber therefor.
A body 23 of liquid ingredient which, by way of example, may be a suitable solvent or distilled water in which a medicament solute is to be dissolved to form a liquid solution, is placed in liquid storage chamber 2I substantially to ll thel same when the end I4 of the tube I3 is closed off by means of a piston plug 24. Piston plug 24 may, as is well recognized in this art, be formed of suitable resilient or elastic material, such as syntheticv or natural rubber, for example, pure gum, and slightly oversize snugly to engage the inner walls of the tube so as to serve as a secure liquid seal at the end thereof while being slidable in the liquid storage chamber 2I so as to discharge the liquid contents therefrom with piston action. It is to be understood, of course, that piston plug 24 may take any suitable form other than that shown, such as various other types known in the prior art.
In the mixing chamber 22 is placed the other ingredient of the liquid mixture or solution to be formed, and may comprise a solid body or bodies 25 of medicament solute in powder or pill form, with the remainder of the space in that mixing chamber being occupied by sterile gas, such as air. 'I'he end I5 of tube I3 is closed off by suitable plug means 26 of any suitable structure which will permit automatic valving from chamber 22 of the contained gas as liquid 23 is transferred from liquid storage chamber 2| thereto. Such closing plug 26 must, of course, be of such structure as to assure effective sealing of chamber 22 while permitting venting of gas therefrom when liquid 23 is being transferred thereto. Accordingly, closing plug 26 preferably is a substantial duplicate of partition plug I8, having either a smooth outside cylindrical surface, or, if desired, a plurality of circumambient grooves 21, 2'! formed therein as shown, and, if desired, one or more such grooves may be provided in the external cylindrical surface of the partition plug. The closing plug 26 is provided with a perforated end or top portion, preferably in the form of pierced membrane I9, having one or moreperforations or puncture slits 20-20 therein.
Pressure-applying or thrust cap I I, adapted to be tted or telescopically slid down or inward over end i5 of tube I3, preferably is formed as a molded body of synthetic or natural rubber, or the like, having a top portion or end 28 providing an end surface 29 for engagement by ones nger for application of biasing force thereto or push thereagainst. Cap II preferably has formed integral with the top portion 28 a circumambient flange or skirt 30 surrounding an axial socket 3| preferably provided with a crowned end or bottom surface 32. Socket 3| is preferably formed of a diameter slightly less than the external diameter of the end I5 of tube I3 so as to require stretching of the skirt 30 when the tube end is received or forced telescopically into the socket .3I, toassure secure frictional mount4 ofthe cap II on-the tube end` while, permitting ready sliding `removal thereof. Thus thecap II- may befitted protectively on an end` of the vial structure ifi at thetime thelatter is charged with `ingredients material. Cap` I I may` remain in such protective position` during distribution of the vial structure and until the user is ready to fire the structure and remove the mixture contents therefrom. Consequently, cap I'I may thus serve to preserve sterileconditions of` the closing plug. 26,` which is important to the use of the vial structure of the present invention for distribution of,therapeutic and medicinal ingredients, `particularly since when the mixture contents is designed` for hypo- `derrnic injection it` is intended thatthe syringe needle 'be thrust through the end: of that plug closing off the mixing chamber 22 for withdrawal therefrom of a dosage.
The thrust cap II is designedito-permit venting ofthe gas from chamber 22` with transfer of liquid 23 thereinto and, accordingly, is provided with` one or more venting ways or passages leadingfrom the vicinity of the venting perforations 2U in the closing plug 26 to atmosphereV at the side of` the cap` so as to avoid` 'being closedoff when the end of the cap is engaged by ones finger. Such ways may be` provided by a plurality of grooves` (i3` formed in the bottom or end surface 32 of socket 3l` and extending substantially radially` from the center thereof `to the skirt or flange 30. Grooves` 33` communicate with the atmosphere preferably via longitudinally-extending grooves 34-34 formed` in the inner side wall 35-of` the skirt, as shown. Thus, it will be seen that the inner side wall of socket 3| is provided with contact lands intervened by venting ways for` escape of fluid` or gas, yand it is to beunderstood that such contact lands may be provided within the scope of the. present invention in a plurality of forms other than that shown by way of` example in the drawings.
The piston cup I2 may comp-rise a socketmember 3B, having a cylindrical side wall 31 and an end` or bottom wall 3B.- to form a socket 3.9 in
whichis coaxially mounted a pistonpost preferably formed integral with` the bottom wall. aS shown, and be molded of any suitable material, such as a synthetic resin. or plastic. The end 4I of piston post 4Ipis` preferably located down in circular socket 39. an appreciable distance from` the mouth 42 of socket member 3,8, so that the initiai portion of the` socket will serve asa guide for the end I4 of Vial tube I3 before any piston action is applied to piston plug 24.
In operation` of the embodiment shown in the drawing, a loaded vial construction, such as ISL, is selected from a supply, such as by a physician or other technician in the case of administering .an injection to a patient, The loaded vial construction` Ilias distributed,` may have thrust capl II mounted on the end IE of the vial tube i3 for protective purposes, as previously explained. The end i4 of the vial tube I3 is placed in the mouth ofsoclret 3S, as indicated in Fig. l, and-the combination may then 'be `grasped by the technician between his` index `finger 43 and thumb 44, in the manner and approximate orientation indicated in Fig. 6. He then applies mechanical pressure to the pistonV cup I2 as he biases the thrust cap Il so as to. telescope the piston cup up onto the liquid chamber end of the tube I3, as indicated in Fig. 2, but preferably with the vial I0 oriented as indicated in Fig. 6 so that as `of socket 3l to terminate at the free outer edge 6 liquid` is displaced into mixing. chamber 22V it` will not escape with air through the venting closure 2E. As aresult,` piston plug` 24 is forced or slid forward by piston post 4l). ,into liquid chamber 2I to develop. fluid. pressure against partition membrane` I9 `te apply thereto,` a differential in pressure greater on the liquid chamber side than on the other side. As result,` membrane I9 will bebulged with` attendant stretching out away from theliquid chamber side and in toward the mixing chamber side with attendant opening of the perforatons or puncture slits 2i)l to permit liquid 2B to `squirt therethrough into the second chamber in which the solids 25 are housed. Simultaneously,` as indicated in Fig. 2r, the gas or air inthe mixing chamber 22 is caused to apply duid pressure on the inner side of membrane I9 of closing plug L26 causing it to bulge outwardly thereby opening Yits perf orations or puncture slits 2,01.. vDue to this-bulging of membrane I9 of closing plug 215.,` the bottom or end wall 32 of socket 3i inthrnst cap I is. preferably crowned or coned as previously indicated, so as to accommodate such bulging. .As liquid 23` thus is transferred in this `manner from liquid chamber 2l into the mixing chamber 22., the gas or air in the latter will be displaced and Vented out through the valved closing plug. 2B. to the atmosphere via the ways provided` by the intercommunicating passages 33 and 34.
After thev piston cup I2 has been substantially completely telescoped up about the liquid chamber end of vial` I3, to bring the piston plug 24 to the vicinity of partition plug I8 with transfer of `substantially, al1 of the liquid 23 from liquid chamber 2I4 into the mixingchamber 22 as indicated in.Fig..3., thorough admixture of the solvent and solute is` attained by shaking the apparatus endwise` Vor longitudinally,` as proposed by the double-endedV arrow 45 shown in Fig. 6. As a result of the` endwise sloshing of the liquid in the mixing, chamber 22and thorough agitation thereof with the solids therein, the desired mixture or solution 46 is formed, all without access to the interior of the tube I3 with preservation of the sterile conditions of the contents of the chambers.`
Thereafter thrust cap. Il and piston cup I2 may be removed by the operator by positioning the vial' structure IU, in a canted position as indicated inFig. 7, with the closing plug 26 facing down. The operator may then thrust a hollow needle 4lof a conventional hypodermic syringe 43 up through the relatively thin membrane I9 of closing plug 26 `intothe mixing chamber 22 to withdraw therefrom as a syringe charge part or i all. of the body of solution 45. By virtue of the self-closing characteristic of the venting perforations or puncture slits 2B in the membrane I9 of' closing plug 26the inversion of the vial structure Il! tothe position `shown in Fig. '7 for withdrawal of dosages is permitted without danger of spillage of any ofthe solution d6.
It is to be understood that although the partition `plug I8A shown by way of example in the drawings is of' a type which` may be considered to be a two-way` valving structure, other suitable valving partition means may 'be employed wherein it is possible to passV therethrough fluid in only one direction. Flat membrane ZB of partition plug I8, of course, would pass iluid through in the reverse direction if its membrane I9 was bulged` inithe opposite direction, as can be understood from the action of the membrane I9 of closing plug 2S'. However, that'possibility is of no moment to the structure shown by Way ofe'xample in the drawing since reverse ow is not intended and at no time in use of the device is pressure on the mixing chamber side of the partition membrane I9 ever appreciably increased above any pressure developed on the liquid chamber side thereof. For example, a one-way valving plug structure of the type shown in Fig. 9 of my copending application Ser. No. 160,987, led May 9, 1950, now Patent 2,577,780, granted December 11, 1951, maybe used in lieu of partition plug i8, with, of course, the crowned end thereof oriented to extend toward or into mixing chamber 22.
1t will thus be seen that the objects set forth above, among those made apparent from the preceding description are eiiiciently attained and, since certain changes may be made in the above construction and different embodiments of the invention could be made without departing from the scope thereof, it is intended that all matter contained in the above description or shown in the accompanyingr drawing shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sensei It is also to be understood that the following claims are intended to cover all of the generic and specic features of the inventionherein described, and all statements of the scope of the invention which, as a matter of language, might be said to fall therebetween.
Having described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
l. A vial for. storage of a liquid and another material segregated in separate chambers having a valved intercommunicating passage to permit admixture comprising, in combination, a substantially tubular body, transversely-ez ztending partition means mounted within said body between opposite ends thereof to define from each other a liquid storage chamber and a mixing chamber for storing the other material, selfclosing valve means in said partition means openable by a differential in iiuid pressure on opposite sides thereof developed by elevated iiuid pressure applied from the liquid chamber side of the latter, said valve means being automatically closed by substantial 'balance of pressures on both sides thereof, means closing off the mixing chamber end of said tubular body while permitting access to mixture contents for withdrawal thereof, and piston plug means closing off the liquid storage chamber end of said tubular body and being adapted to be slid forward in that chamber' toward said partition means to expel liquid through the latter into said mixing chamber.
2. The vial structure as defined in claim 1 characterized by the provision of said partition and valve means as comprising an elastic membrane having at least one self-closing perforation therein openable when said membrane is bulged away from said liquid chamber by application to opposite sides thereof of a differential in fiuid pressure.
3. The vial structure as defined in claim 1 characterized by the provision of said closing means for the end of said mixing chamber as a needle-pierceable closure having self-closing, pressure-operable valve means to permit venting of fluid under pressure from said mixing chamber.
4. The vial structure as defined in claim 3 characterized by the provision of said needlepierceable closure as comprising a transverselyextending body of elastic material having at least V Y '9 one self-closing perforation therein openable by a differential in pressure on opposite sides thereof attendant upon application of elevated fluid pressure to the inner side thereof.
5. The vial structure as defined in claim 4 characterized by the provision of said partition and valve means as comprising a body of elastic material having at least one self-closing perforation therein openable when said elastic body is distorted by said differential in pressure attendant upon application of the elevated uid pressure to one side thereof.
6.' The vial structure as defined in claim 5 characterized by the provision of said partition-and closure bodies each as an elastic membrane formed as the head portion of a cupped plug of elastic material snugly fitted within said tubular body.
7. The vial structure as defined in claim 3 characterized by the provision of a thrust cap removably mounted over the mixing chamber end of said tubular body to provide a biasing member, said cap being formed with at least one duid-venting way opening to the atmosphere at the side thereof.
8. The vial structure as dened in claim 7 characterized by the provision of said thrust cap in the form of a cup-shaped member having an externally-engageable top and a skirt surrounding a socket therein, the interior walls of said socket being provided with venting ways leading from the under side of said top to the edge of said skirt.
9. A thrust cap for removable sliding mount on the end of a tubular container structure comprising a head of elastic material having a transversely-extending outer face for manual engagement to apply biasing force inwardly and axially thereof, and circumambiently arranged integral means extending from the inner side of said head substantially normal thereto to provide therewith a receiving socket for telescopic sliding reception of an end of such container, the inner surfaces of the bottom of the socket being provided with venting ways leading from the Vicinity of the center thereof laterally at least to said circumambiently-arranged means and communicating with the atmosphere externally of said means. v
10. The thrust cap as defined in claim 9 characterized by the provision of said circumambiently-arranged means as a skirt having a free outer edge with continuance of the venting Ways in the inner face of said skirt to the free outer edge of the latter.
11. The thrust cap as defined in claim 10 characterized by the formation of the venting ways by providing the inner surfaces of the socket with contact lands.
MARSHALL L. LOCKHART.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,413,703 Biehn Apr. 25, 1922 1,636,061 Kersten July 19, 1927 1,548,793 Weber Nov. 8, 1927 1,943,120 Kabnick Jan. 9, 1934 2,193,322 Lozier et al Mar. 12, 194D 2,445,477 Folkman July 29, 1948 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 544,271 Great Britain Apr. 3, 1942