US 2667836 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Feb. 2, 1954 J. H. CHURCH ET AL 2,667,36
APPARATUS FOR THE USE OF SHAPED EXPLOSIVE CHARGES Filed March 28, 1950 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 V/BRA i) FILTER /c'1g ma LTU.E 1EP11 H. Church Ereqcmy l KESEETLiEh J. H, CHURCH ETAL Feb. 2, 1954;
APPARATUS FOR THE USE OF SHAPED EXPLOSIVE CHARGES Filed March 28, 1950 2 sheets sheet 2 grwmow 234-56' 78e/0l//2 STANDOFF- UNITS 0F LINEAR MEASURE LTIJ.5E 1'1 H. Church Ersqnry 'LLKEuEILSEUZiCh Patented Feb. 2, 1954 APPARATUS FOR THE USE SHAPED EXPLOSIVE CHARGES Joseph H. Church, Austin, mum, and Gregory J. Kessenich, Madison, Wis.
Application March 28, 1950, Serial No. 152,438
(Granted under Title 35, U. S. Code (1952),
see. 266) 12 Claims.
The invention described herein may be manufactured and used by the Government for governmental purposes without payment of any royalty thereon.
This invention pertains to the use of explosive charges of the type frequently referred to as lined hollow or shaped charges, and more particularly to methods and apparatus for employing one or more such shaped charges in a manner so as to utilize the optimum directed force released thereby when detonated, against a target which may be submerged in either a gaseous and/or liquid fluid medium, for the purpose of producing a number of holes of desired geometrical configuration in the target corresponding to the number and arrangement of the charges.
A principal object of our invention is to provide apparatus for chambering a lined shaped charge which may be utilized to position the chambered charge with respect to a target located remotely relative to a station for controlling the apparatus at a standofi distance to effect optimum penetration of the target by the jet formed through detonation of the charge and in a manner to permit the charge to function independently of the char cteristics of the fluid medium in which the target may be located.
Another object of our invention is to provide a system for initiating detonation of a lined shaped charge which may, if desired, be controlled through suitable radio circuits.
With the above, and other objects which will be heremafter made apparent from a description of the invention with reference to the accompanydrawings, in which:
Fig. l is a broken longitudinal sectional view hrough one form of carrier apparatus of this invention showing several different forms of lined shaped charges chambered therein, each of \Vl'liC-ll o and typical in the art;
suitable for use to control detonation of the shaped charges chambered in the apparatus shown in Fig. 1 from a station remote from the apparatus;
Fig. 3 is a block diagram of a radio receiver suitable for installation in the apparatus of l and responsive to signals from the transmitter shown in Fig. 2 to initiate detonation charges chambered in the carrier apparatus;
Fi 2 is a clock diagram of a radio transmitter Fig. 4 a fragmentary longitudinal sectional View through carrier apparatus similar to the view of Fig. 1, but showing the uppermost shaped charge only, and the standoff piston in standoff position;
Fig. 5 is a view similar to Fig. 4 showing a modified form of standoff piston with the piston in retracted position relative to the carrier.
Fig. 6 is a view similar to Fig. 5 showing another modified form of standoif piston;
Fig. '7 is a perspective view of a form of stand-- off piston particularly adapted for use with linear type shaped charges of the type illustrated the lowermost charge shown in Fig. 1 as chbered in a carrier apparatus of our invent n;
Fig. 8 is a view similar to Figs. 4, 5 and 5 illustrating modified means for operating the standofi piston;
Fig. 9 shows a method of mounting a standoff piston of this invention directly upon a clr chambered in the carrier apparatus chambelmg the charge;
Fig. 10 is a partial sectional view illustra one method of chambering a lined shaped char e in a carrier apparatus so as to be projectable from the carrier apparatus to engage a target at optimum standoff distance;
Fig. 11 is a partial longitudinal sectional view through a carrier apparatus illustrating a modifled form of standoff piston actuating mechanism;
Fig. 12 is a sectional view taken upon the line l2l2 of Fig. 11;
Fig. 13 is a representative form of curve showing penetration of target material, plotted. in ordinate units, as a function of standoff plotted in similar units in abscissa in a standoff medium of air.
Our present invention is not directed to improvement of lined shaped charges as such, but rather to the most efiective use of any one of the forms of lined shaped charges which are well known in the art and that have long since entered the public domain, in and against targets that may be submerged in a gaseous and/or liquid fluid rendering them inaccessible, or relatively so. for manual placement of such charges.
For the purpose of disclosing our invention we have shown in Fig. 1 three typical forms of lined shaped charges as illustrated by the lined conical shaped charge indicated at ill, the lined hemispherical shaped charge indicated at 20, and the lined linear shaped charge indicated at 30, each fuzed by an electric detonator ll, 21 and 31, respectively. Although we have only shown three forms of lined shaped charges to obviate unnecessary disclosure of many forms of such shapes which are old in the art, we actually contemplate, under any given conditions where one shape form may be preferable to another, to use any of the shape forms shown in any or all of the following representative publications as well as others which are not here cited:
(1) Max von Foerster: Versuche mit compri mirter 'Schiessbaunwolle, Berlin, 1883, Mittler 8; Sohn, published in Van Nostrands Engineering Magazine, vol. 31, July-December 1884, pps. 113- 119 as translated by Lieut. John P. Wisser, U. S. Army, under the title Experiments with Compressed Gun Cotton.
(2) Gustav Bloem: United States Patent 342,-
423, filed January 20, 1886, and issued on May 25, a
(3) Charles E. Munroe: On Certain Phenomema Produced by the Detonation of Gun Cotton. Newport Natural History Society. Proceedings 1883-88, Report No. 6.
(4) Charles E. Munroe: The Application of Explosives. Popular Science Monthly, 1900, vol. 56, pps. 444-455.
(5) Egon Neumann: Neuartige I-Iohlktirper aus Brisanzstofien Zeitschrrift fiir das gesamte Schliessund Sprengstofi'wesen. May 15, 1914, vol. 9, pps. 183-187.
(6) Charles P. Watson: United States Patents 1,534,011 and 1,534,012, filed September 22, 1921, and August 27, 1923, respectively, and both issued on April. 14, 1925.
(7) M. Sucharewsky: Article appearing in the Russian Journal, Technicia i Snobschenie krasnoi Armii, 1925; 170, pps. 13-18 and 177, pps. 13-18.
(8) M. Sucharewsky: Article appearing in the Russian Journal, Woina i Technicia, 1926; 253 pps. 18-24.
(9) Leslie E. Simon: German Research in World War II, published by John Wiley .8; Sons, Inc., 1947, pps. 118-120.
(10) Leslie E. Simon: German Scientific Es tablishments PB Report 19849, published by Mapleton House. January 1947, line 2, p. 68.
(11) D. Lodati: Una Spiegazione del Comportomento esplosivo di blocchi cavi di tritolo compresso. Giornale d1 Cheniica Industriale ed. Applicata (1932), vol. XIV, No. 3, pps. 130-132.
As understood by those skilled in this art all shape forms shown or described in the above cited publications are for the purpose which is quite aptly stated by Bloem (cited as (2) above) Where in lines 38 to 40 of his patent he recites-By these constructions the concentration of the effect of the explosion in an axial direction of the exploder is increased.
The various forms of shapes disclosed in the above cited publications may be lined with suitable liners to take advantage of the relatively greater target penetrating ability of the jet of liner material formed by collapse of the liner through detonation of the lined shaped charge as compared to the jet formed by the products of detonation of the unlined shaped charge; such as, the advantage inherent in the lined shaped charge of Fig. 6 of Bloem (cited as (2) above), and as was recognized by Dr. Allerton S. Cushman in the last paragraph of page 2 of his ailidavit and Colonel George Montgomery in the paragraph entitled Results occurring on page 4 of his ai'fidavit, both of which were filed on August 29, 1923, and form part of the record of the application. for patent which eventuated into reference Patent 1,534,012 cited as (6) above, also as pointed out by R. W. Wood (see especially penultimate paragraph of p. 251 of a paper by R. W. Wood entitled Optical and Physical Effects of High Explosives published in Proceedings Royal Society, A vol. 157, pp. 249-253 (1936)), and recently hypothesized as to jet formation from liner (special case of the conical liner) collapse of the theory of hydrodynamics; see the article, Explosives with Lined Cavities by Birkhofi,'MacDougall, Pugh and Taylor published in the Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 19, No. 6, pp. 553-582, June 1948.
The liner material may be either metallic or non-metallic, some of the materials that have been found suitable as liner material both in this country and abroad are mentioned in the following publications for convenience of illustra- Aluminum or like material. Copper or Aluminum.
German Patent 419,514, Oct. 9, 1925..
William Payman and D. W. Woodhead: Explosion W avcs and Shock Waves, Part II, The Shock Wave and Explosion Products Sent Out by Blasting Dctonators, Published in Proc. Roy. Soc. AVol. 148 pp. 604-622 (1935).
Chas. P. Watson (cited as (6) above) Leslie E. Simon (cited as (9) above) Any material of sufficient strength.
Germans considered steel,
smtcred iron, copper, aluminum and zinc for World War II.
steel, aluminum, or a nonfcrrous metal backed by steel. Pressed sheet metal.
U. S. Patent 2,416,814, filed Nov. 15,
cadmium, 1043, and issued Feb. 18, 1947.
U. S. Patent 2,441,338, filed Aug. 19,
1942, issued May 11, 1948.
U. S. Patent 2,419,414, filed Oct. 3, 1941, and issued April 22, 1947. British Patent 577,531, accepted 1946 British Patuct 578,771, accepted 1946-- British Patent 578,995, accepted l946.
Various materials but preferably mild carbon steel.
Steel or other metal.
Metal, synthetic resin or other material.
From the data disclosed in the publications hereinabove cited it is quite apparent to anyone skilled in the art that optimum penetration performance of a particularly dimensioned and constituted lined shaped charge as functions of such parameters as shape of the charge cavity, angle 01 the apex of a conical or similar liner, if such specific form of liner is employed in the particular charge, specific material from which the liner is made, thickness of the liner material, specific explosive employed, volumetric and linear ratios of explosive as proportioned to corresponding ratios of the charge cavity, system of detonation and standoff will change with changes in certain changes in the parameters. It is quite obvious that selection of optimum parameters for optimum penetration performance in a specifically dimensioned and constituted charge will be by empirical methods. using the accumulation of data in the referenced publications as a guide which because of the comprehensiveness thereof greatly simplifies the empiric processes necessary in selecting the optimum parameters in a given case. In the book entitled Elements of Ammunition published by John Wiley 8; Sons, Inc., copyrighted 194.6, Major J. C. Ohart has on page 43 recapitulated optimum values of certain of Considering the charges It, 20, and 30 to be designed in accordance with the. conditions at hand, including the conditions of limitation upon spacing of the charge carrier 40 from the target T and with optimum parameters in accordance with the teachings of the cited publications, including the standoff parameter S shown in Fig. 1, within the internal dimensional limitation of the charge carrier as referred to, we chamber the charges in chamber 43 by mounting the charges within sleeves 46 having an internal configuration substantially conforming to the external configuration of the charge cases by means of flanges 47 which are fastened to the external cases of the charges and to the inner ends of the sleeves in any conventional'manner that will assure fluid tight seals and center the charges within the sleeves. The sleeves 46 are formed with integral flanges 48 upon the outer end portions thereof which may conveniently be used as a method of securing the sleeves within openings formed in the walls of the charge carrier 40 in fluid sealed relation in the manner illustrated in Fig. l. The sleeves 46 are of sufficient length and the charges are so mounted therein by the flanges 4'! so that when the sleeves with the charges therein are secured to the charge carrier #6 optimum standofi S may be realized under all or no limitations imposed upon spacing the charge carrier from the target in a terfere with formation of the jet by collapse of the liners or products of detonation of unlined charges, upon detonation thereof we provide what we term standoif pistons, one form of which is shown at H3 in Fig. l. The standoff piston 75 is formed with an outer surface which conforms to the charge carrier contour and is made of a material of suiiicient strength to su port any pressures to which the charge carrier may be subjected externally. The piston is reciprocably mounted within the sleeve 46 through the piston skirt H which may be provided with an appropriate coating of appropriate grease so as to form a fluid seal between the external surface thereof and the coasting internal surface of sleeve 45. As indicated at 12 in Fig. l standoff piston it may be retained in the retracted position shown by a detent releasable upon application of predetermined pressure internally of the piston which will permit outward movement of the piston. under such pressure. If there are no restrictions upon outward movement of the standoff piston detent '12 may be used to engage a suitable stop on the piston skirt to terminate further outward movement thereof under internal pressure when the iston has been outwardly projected by a distance indicated at S. Upon the other hand as shown in Fig. 4 if standoff piston iii can be outwardly projected only a limited amount because of confinement of the charge carrier by the target the detent '12 can be arranged to engage the inner end of piston skirt ii in the outwardly projected position of the piston and retain the piston in engagement of the target to maintain standoff distance S until charge it) is detonated.
Standofi piston "iii is projected outwardly under fluid pressure from compartment 565 by means of conduits diagrammatically shown at Ti -3 in Fig. 1 provided with one-way valves M so as to retain pressure applied to the piston. Y
The conduits '53 enter the fluid pressure chamber formed by the interior of the piston Hi, sleeve 48, flange 4'! and that portion of the charge within the sleeve 46, by means of sections thereof which pass through flange 47. A fluid seal is established around the conduits E3, the end of piston skirt H and flange 41 by means of a conventional mechanical-grease packing 16 as in high pressure devices such as used in recoil and recuperator packings in the artillery art.
Standofi piston E! shown in Fig. l as used with the hemispherical lined charge 29 is a slightly modified form of standoif piston is in that the skirt i8 is fixed to sleeve 45 while the piston proper is of reduced size and carried by a bellows '19 secured to the piston skirt and piston in fluid sealed relation. This arrangement will facilitate obtaining a fluid seal between the piston skirt and sleeve.
The standofi piston as used with the linear charge 363 is similar in all essential respects to standoff piston 19 except that it is of rectangular shape to fit and cooperate with the rectangular configuration of sleeve #5 when used with a linear charge.
Although we have disclosed. separate pairs of conduits 23 extending from fluid chamber 44 to each charge we have only done so for purposes of conduits leading to the individual charge fluid pressure chambers would be provided with oneway valves actuable to admit fluid pressure to the charge fluid pressure chambers only.
We contemplate the use of chamber 54 in the charge carrier at for storage of any fluid under high pressure in either gaseous or condensed form or in using the chamber as a chamber in which fluids may be generated under high pressures by chemical processes, such as by reaction of appropriate chemical agents which are caused to react at the proper time, or by burning a gas generating cartridge. As illustrated we have shown a gas generating cartridge 8!, which may be of the general type shown in United States Patent 2,229,298 designed for application in cases such as this, located in chamber 46 and adapted to be ignited by the igniter 82 through power supply (it when the circuit from the power supply through the igniter is closed by the control receiver 56 as more particularly hereinafter pointed out. In the case where chamber id is charged with a compressed or condensed fluid, igniter 82 may be used to open a valve or initiate the vaporizing process so as to admit the fluid to conduits 13. Where two chemicals are to react to generate the pressure the igniter or detonator 82 may be utilized to rupture a diaphragm in chamber 54 which separates the chemical agents until the reaction is desired.
Upon occurrence of any of the events initiated to generate pressure in or release fluids under pressure from chamber M by energizing element 82 the pressurized fluids resulting will be admitted by conduits '53 into the charge fluid pressure chambers thereby forcing the standoff pistons outwardly to engage target T and fix standoff distance S at the optimum for which the charge was designed to perform with maximum average target penetration.
We have shown charges it), Eli and 353 all facing in the same direction, however, for a target having an arcuate or circular cross-section which is accuse to beattacked fromthe concave side it may be found expedientto stagger or space the charges circumferentially of the charge carrier. The charge carrier may be of any desired length for chambering any'number of charges it, '25 or Diametrically opposed to the charges ill, 29 and 30 hand opening cover plates 43' cover hand holes through which access to the interior of chamber 43 in the vicinity of the charges may beobtained by removing the cover plates. These cover'plate's'and hand holes may be sodim 1 sioned that the sleeve 46 can be interchanged with the cover plate 48.
Figs. 5, 6, '7 and 8 show modifications oi the standoii piston which we have shown at i l in Figs. 1 and 4. In the modification of Fig. 5 we have provided the standoff piston with an outwardly projecting boss iii of circular cross section and suihcient internal diameter to avci interference with jet formation. Sleeve dd is formed with a radially inward extending flange S2 which'engages the boss 91 in fluid sealed sliding relation to prevent fluids under pressure external to charge carrier is from entering the space inwardly of flange greater differential pressure between the inner and "outer surfaces of piston 85 is facilitated because of the reduced piston area subject to external pressure. Flange 52 also serves as a stop for the piston when it has been forced out- 1 I wardly to establish the proper standoff distance S. The piston may be secured in its standoff position by a detent such as the detent 52 shown in Fig. 1.
The modification shown in Fig. 6 is similar in substantially an aspects to the modification shown in Fig. 5 except that the boss Q3 is joined to the standofi piston skirt 56 by a trumpet shaped wall 95 in order to provide greater space for formation of the jet which under certain conditions of design'of' charge wil be desirable.
Fig. "7-is aperspective of a piston similar to the form shown in Fig. -5 for a linear'cha'rge of the type shown at 3B.
As shown in Fig. :8 the standoff piston 96 is very similar to the piston-9!! of Fig. 5 with the addition of a sleeve 91 integrally or otherwise secured thereto in a fluid sealed relation. Agas generating cartridge '93 similar in performance characteristics to cartridge 8! is fixedto flange ll' and ignitable by the igniter 9 in thesarne manneran'd through the same control as that employed :for igniter 82 of Fig. v1. Ignitionof cartridge 98 generates gas which drives the standoff piston as outwardly to standoff position where itmay be retained by a detent such as the detent 12 shown in Fig. l. A'suitable fuse Hie ignitable by the cartridge 98 will in turn, and after a time delay sufiicient for cartridge 98 to generate sufficient fluid pressure to drive piston 95 to-standoff position, detonate charge H32 so that formation of the jet will be subsequent to and after piston 96 has moved to standoif position where it cannot adversely affect jet formation.
In the modification-disclosed in Fig. 9 the standoff piston 182 is mounted directly upon charge 13 and normally held in retracted position by springs 1'94 interposed between abutments I 05 upon the charge case and piston. The charge )3 is secured to sleeve 55 through'the interthreaded relation between the sleeve and base H16 of thecharge. A fluid sealed relation isestablis-hed between the piston and sleeve in' any conventional manner. In the case of charge l 03 the conical .liner- 1 0.1 is truncated and loosely receives By this construction -i an end portion-of the small tubular element 198 which has the base end secured to charge base in any manner that will leave a gap between the base end thereof and the inside surface of Hit. A generating cart W8 .is suitably affixed within standoff on It? and ignitable by an electrical igniter lid through the leads iii which pass throug suitable passages in the charge-case as shown. Ignition of the gas cartridge H39 rill also ignite fuse H2 which after a predetermined time delay will detonate the charge. Mov t ofstandoif piston m2 and detonation ofthe char e will be in the same time relation as that explained in connection with the modification of Fig. 8. As in the .othermo'diflcations shown thepiston Hi2 may be held in position by means such as the detent 2 shown in Fig. 1. If preferred the annular chamber between the sleeve and charge case and extending from abutment ice on the piston to we of the charge may be used as the fluid pressure chamber in which case gas gen-- erating cartridge we would be located in this chamber and fuse -l I2 extended from the base of the charge to the igniter in this chamber for cartridge lit.
As shown in Fig. 10 thecharge l is provided with a-cap H6 of such dimensions that when it engages the target T the standoif distance for the charge will be optimum. Provision is made for slidably mounting the-charge is sleeve 46 in fluid sealed relation by the ringlll on thecap lit and ring 6 ill mounted on the chargecase. The charge may he releasably retained in the sleeve it chamberedin charge carrier 48 by any suitable detent, such as the detent 72 of Fig. 1. The charge maybe projected outwardly through admission. of fluid-under pressure by conduits '13 into the fluid pressure chamber I [9 formed by the base end of thecharge, ring i8 and plate I20 secured to the inner end'of sleeve 65 in fluid sealed relation. Control of pressure is by the same means as those heretofore described for Figs. 1, .4, 5 and 6. The detentmay also function to limit outwardprojection of the charge in those cases where this safeguardis necessary.
Figs. 11 and 12 show modified forms of actuating the standoff pistons which can be of the form-of standoff pistonfiii. In-this form of the invention the standoff pistons 9E3 are each provided with one or more arms 20 projecting through suitable apertures therefor in the plate EEi securedto the-innerendof sleevefi and as shown bell cranks 122 are also mounted .upon plate -.l2l' ith the lower arms of eachthereof operably connected to a corresponding arm 1 25]. One or more longitudinally"disposed rods are reciprocably mounted in chamber ll-3 andoperablyconnected to'the cooperating arms of bell cranks L22, as -.indicated, in such manner that downward movement of the rods from the normal upper positionthereof will through hell cranks l22force standoif pistons so to standofiposition. A cylinder bearing member i24- is affixed-within chamber t3 and provided-with a piston 125 which also attached in any convenient manner to rods $23. Asshown the rods when in their normal upper position, in which they are biased by springs 12$,position the piston within the-cylinder' of member i2 5 in the upper portion of the cylinder. A gas generating cartridge l2? similar to cartridge 8! is positioned in the cylinder above the-piston and ignited by an igniter I28 under :a control system and in a mannersimi-lar to the ignition control utilized and fully explained in connection with cartridge 8|. When piston I25 has been driven to its lowermost position by generation of fluid under pressure by cartridge IZ'I to force standoff pistons 90 outward from the charge carrier 69 to standoff position it may be retained in this lowermost position by the retractable detent I29 engaging a collar I30 fixed on rod I23.
When we use the radio receiver 50 as a control we then use a modulated radio frequency transmitter I3I comprising a radio frequency oscillator 532, a modulator I33 and a selective audio frequency oscillator I34 actuating the modulator I33. The oscillator I34 is arranged so that any particular audio frequency may be selected or any particular sequence of audio frequencies may be selected at will to cause the modulator I33 to modulate the carrier frequency oscillator. For the purpose of illustration, there is shown a well known radiation system of a dipole antenna I32a and parabolic reflector I321). It being understood that any type of radiation system may be employed depending upon the media through which the carrier must pass and the choice radio frequency necessitated thereby. The modulated carrier containing a single or a multiple of audio frequencies excites the antenna of the receiver 5a which feeds the detector I35, the output of which is amplified by the amplifier I36 having a reed vibrator unit I37 in its output circuit. The amplified audio frequency components of the carrier cause the vibrator unit reeds, not shown, having the same period as that of the above mentioned audio frequency components to vibrate and close the circuits of the relays I38, I39, Hit and MI as desired. The relays are energized by a battery I3Ia of the power supply 68. When the relay or relays are actuated by the reed vibrator in accordance with selected audio frequencies, the contacts of the relays close a circuit or circuits, as shown in Fig. 3, comprising a battery I II, contained in the power supply Bll for the detector and audio amplifier, in series with the paralleled 'igniters or detonators 82, II, 2I and 3i of the gas generating cartridge and shaped charges, respectively, to fire said ignitors or detonators individually, simultaneously or in a predetermined sequence.
The method of employing our apparatus will be apparent to those skilled in the art from the above description and hence requires no detailed description but certain observations should be noted to fully appreciate the advantages inherent in our invention as follows:
1. It is to be noted that the elements or barriers or standoff pistons III, 86, 90 etc., cap H6 of Fig. 10, expandible, extensible or distensible member 'I'I' of Fig. 1 and any similar devices within the scope of the appended claims are all designed for any particular charge to accomplish, when projected or extended to operable position relative to the charge carrier, spacing of the charge at optimum standoif distance S from the target for most effective use of the charge. In addition to accomplishing standofi spacing S these elements, sometimes collectively referred to as means in the claims, also form a gaseous space of substantially uniform density in which the jet may form and pass to impinge upon the target thereby practically providing the ideal media for jet action independently of the media in which the target may be located. This provision of the invention makes it possible to attain results comparable to static test results in atmosphere. v
' The pistons, barriers or similar elements will be made of any suitable material adapted to withstand the pressures which will be encountered and may be either metallic or non-metallic as after use, replacement will be necessary for subsequent use of the charge carrier. A particular advantage in this arrangement exists in the fact that the jet wil1 impinge upon the portion of the piston, cap or similar element which bears upon the target thus forming any objec tionable burring upon the portion of the piston or similar element impinged by the jet andnot on the target proper.
These elements if desired, may be made of frangible material such as glass or plastic so that after being projected and upon withdrawal of the charge carrier from the target area, they may be broken by any obstacle encountered in removing the charge carrier thus obviating any danger of blocking withdrawal of the charge carrier from the target area.
2. That the standoff attained by this invention is applicable to either lined or unlined shaped charges which are herein generically referred to simply as shaped charges, linear or otherwise.
3. That where the charge carrier is provided with opposed standoff pistons that such pistons may in the case of a target relatively closely surrounding or partially surrounding the charge carrier be used to perform a third function of en gaging the target and relatively fixing the charge carrier with respect thereto. Obviously the charges used in this case would be designed to have optimum standofis to fit the circumstances. On the other hand if the charge carrier was provided with standoff pistons all facing in the same direction and used against a confining target of this type the standoff pistons could relatively secure the carrier to the target by directly engaging the target and forcing the charge carrier to engage the opposed surface of the target. In this latter case the charges would or could be designed to employ a greater standoff thus permitting use of larger charges.
In either of the above cases the surfaces of the standoff pistons or equivalent elements engageable with the target can be serrated to effect a more secure engagement with the target.
4. That the illustrated methods of actuating the standoff pistons will suggest numerous other systems, fiuid pressure, mechanical and electro-. mechanical all of which employ conventional equipment that are within the purview of this invention.
5. That the interference record in Interference No. 52,570 decided by the Examiner of Interferences January 13, 1928, and affirmed on appeal March 11, 1929, which involved Patent No. 1,534,011 reference (6) above should be carefully considered with respect to shaped hollow charges with respect to charge performance and design noting particular the effect of the shape dcharge and effects produced thereby in exhibit PP of this interference.
For convenience in handling the charge carrier a handling cable I56 is attached thereto as shown in Fig. 1 which may be controlled by any conventional mechanism for such purpose from the control station used for controlling opera-' tion of the apparatus.
For those interested in the use of liquid explosives particularly suited for use with lined shaped charges we make reference to canceled Fig. 15 and the canceled description appertaining thereto as found in the file wrapper of U. S.
ass sts l ttered 2,402,552 to N'evil Monroe napkins, "as
central axis along which the jet is propogated by detonation of the charge. In the case of charges l and 26, this axis is coincident with the axis of symmetry of the charge, while in the case of charge as, the axis is in the plane of Figure 1 perpendicular to the end surface of piston 89 and midway between the ends of the cavity.
Having now described our invention in present preferred forms, we claim:
1. A charge carrier adapted for use in a fluid medium comprising in combination, a tubular member forming a charge carrying compartment, a sleeve flxed with member and opening through an aperture in the wall thereof, means for mounting a shaped explosive charge within the sleeve in fluid tight relation thereto, a standoff piston slidably mounted in the sleeve in fluid tight relation therewith to a position outwardly of said member to form a pressure chamber with said mounting means, whereby fluids under pressure in said fluid pressure chamber may move the piston outwardly from the charge, and means carried by said tubular member for supplying fluids under pressure to said chamber.
2. A charge carrier adapted for use in a fluid medium comprising in combination, a tubular member providing a charge carrying compartment, a sleeve extending into the charge carrying compartment in fluid sealed relation to the tubular member, means for mounting a shaped charge in the sleeve in fluid sealed relation thereto and in a position whereby the directed force efiect thereof upon detonation will be outwardly of the sleeve, a flange integral with the outer end of the sleeve in fluid sealed relation and extendinginwardly toward the axis of the sleeve to provide an opening of desired configuration, a standoff piston mounted in the sleeve between said flange and a charge mounted aioresaid in fluid sealed relation to the sleeve and coacting with the charge to form a fluid pressure chamber, said piston being formed with a boss of substantially the same configuration as said flange opening, said boss moving through said opening upon outward movement of the piston, means forming a fluid seal between the boss and opening, and means for supplying fluid under pressure to said fluid pressure chamber.
3. A charge carrier adapted for use in a fluid medium comprising in combination, a tubular member sealed at both ends to provide a charge carrying compartment, a sleeve extending into the charge carrying compartment in fluid sealed relation to the tubular member, means for mounting a shaped charge in the sleeve in fluid sealed relation thereto and in a position whereby the directed force effect thereof upon detonation will be outwardly of the sleeve, an element provided with an extensible portion secured in the sleeve in fluid sealed relation to the sleeve outwardly of the charge mounted aforesaid to prevent fluids external to the tubular member from gaining access to a mounted charge, and means operable to extend said extensible portion to provide a gaseous passage from the sleeve to the target for the jet formed upon detonation of the charge.
4. A charge carrier comprising in combination a tubular -member having both ends thereof closed in fluid sealed relation to provide a charge carrying chamber, a sleeve extending into'said chamber secured to the tubular member in fluid sealed relation, means for mounting a shaped charge in said sleeve in a position whereby the directed force effect thereof upon detonation of the charge will be outwardly of the sleeve, a standoiT piston movably mounted in the sleeve in fluid sealed relation thereto outwardly of a charge mounted aforesaid and forming a barrier to passage of fluids externally of the tubular member to the charge, a linkage connected to the piston biased to hold the piston in normally retracted position relative to the tubular member, and means for actuating the linkage to project the piston outwardly relative to the sleeve.
5. A shaped charge unit comprising a trainee shaped explosive charge carried by said frame, said frame being adapted to be positioned ad jacent a target with the cavity of said charge facing the same, abutment means forming with said charge a gas-tight chamber and including a part movably mounted on said frame from a first position within the confines thereof, to a second position with one end externally of said frame forwardly of and adjacent said charge to contact the target and space the charge a predetermined stand-off distance therefrom and provide a, gas-filled path between charge and target, remotely controlled means operable to positively move said abutment means from first to second position and means to hold said abutment means in second position when moved thereto.
6. In a shaped charge unit, a casing adapted to be positioned adjacent the surface of a target, a shaped explosive charge fixed within said casing in position to face the target, abutment means associated with said casing and movable relatively thereto from a retracted position to an extended position forwardly of said charge, and remotely controlled power means operable to positively move said abutment means into and to hold the same in extended position, said abutment means when in extended position engaging the target and spacing said charge a predetermined stand-ofi distance therefrom.
'7. In a shaped charge explosive unit, a casing having an aperture in its wall, a shaped explosive charge mounted in said casing with its cavity facing said aperture, abutment means within said casing movable through said opening and formmg with said charge an expansible gas-tight chamber, and means carried within said casing for introducing a gas under pressure into said chamber to project said abutment into contact with the target.
8. In a shaped charge explosive unit, a casing having an aperture in the wall thereof, a shaped explosive charge mounted in said casing with its cavity facing and directed into said opening, means fitting said opening and forming with the cavity end of said charge a sealed expansible chamber, said means including an abutment extendable from said casing in response to pressure within said chamber to contact the target space said charge therefrom and provide a gaseous path only between charge and target, a seccond sealed chamber in said casing, a conduit connectin said chambers, and means in said second chamber to effect increased pressure therein.
9. A shaped charge explosive unit as recited in claim 8, said last named means comprising a sec- '0nd explosive charge, and remotelycontrolled means for second explosive charge. s
10. A shaped charge unit as recited in claim 8. said last-named means comprising a'second explosive charge, and remotely controlled means operable to initiate said second explosive charge and said shaped explosive charge in sequence in the order mentioned.
11. In a shaped charge explosive unit, a casing adapted to be positioned adjacent a target with an aperture in the wall thereof facing the target, a shaped explosive charge fixed in said casing with its cavity facing and directed toward said aperture, a piston slidably mounted in said aperture in fluid-tight relation therewith and forming with the cavity end of said charge, an expansible pressure-tight chamber, means for pressurizing said chamber to move said piston into engagement with the target and to initiate said charge, in timed sequence.
12. In a shaped charge explosive unit, a casing adapted to be positioned with ari aperture in the wall thereof facing a target, a shaped explosive charge mounted in said casing with its cavity facing said aperture, abutment means carried by said initiating said and remotely controlled' 1s casing within said aperture and forming'with said charge, a gas-tight 'expansible chamber whereby in response to rise of pressure within said cham ber; a portion of said abutment means at leastis projected exteriorly of the casing to engage the target and space said charge a predetermined distance therefrom, power means carried by said casing to pressurize said chamber, and means controllable remotely from said casing to energize said power means. Y I r l.
JOSEPH H; CHURCH. GREGORY J. KESSENICH. v
References Cited in thefile of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS