US 2667926 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Feb. 2, 1954 T- E ALEXANDER 2,667,926
APPARATUS FOR CEMENTING WELLS Fel 2, 1954 T. E. ALEXANDER l 2,667,926
APPARATUS FOR CEMENTING WELLS A r TOR/vn:
T. E. ALEXANDER APPARATUS FOR CEMENTING WELLS Feb. 2, 1954 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed Aug. l2. 1948 77mm Q5 E. A/exona'er INVENTR. l
A from/ys Patented Feb. 2, 1954 UNITED fs'mres -APPARATUS'FDR CEMENTINGWELLS- ThomasEAlexanderQHoustonjTex.
ApplicationAugrustlZ, 1948, .SerialNo. 43,933
(Cl. "16S-"1) .12 'Glaims 1 'This invention relates to new and 'useful improvements in apparatus'for cementing Wells.
.As is well known, it has 4.heen'the practice for many years to cement Athe lowernen'dof thewell casing within the .well loore yhy pumping 'the cement vdownwardly .through the lower end of the casing, whereby .the cement may pass'upwardly aroundthe exterior of said casing. 1n more recent years,.to obviate the Well-known disadvantages incident to the passage of the .cement through the entire str-ing of casing vandthence upwardly around .thesexterior thereofto'the desired level or elevation within vthe Well bore, .mltiple stage cementinghas come .into general use. Multiple stagevcementing involvestthe .introduction of the cementitious materiallthrough lateral ports or openings inthe casingat/selecte'd or predetermined levels which eliminates .the necessity of ejectingvall cement thrOughIthelOWer end of the casing.
'Various methods and apparatus for vaccom vplishing stage or selectivelcementing are now in use and one of the most generally faccepted consists in irst cementing .thelowerportion o'fthe casing in the conventional manner, "that`is,by .pumping the cementoutwardly throughthelower end of the casing. The .casing is .then .subseeguently gun-perforated at the desired or. selected elevations after which .cement is discharged outwardly through the perforations. The cement- `ing .operation in this .instance requires `lthe vuse ,of lthe 4usual cement .retainer and if squeeze cementing is done, a/'lowerbridging .plug Ymust he employed. Also, the Vwellmust remainidle until the .cement Ahas .set,.ater which Vthaeement whichhas remained .in .thecasingmusthe drilled out. .lurthen :it .is usually .necessary `to 'employ a casing scraper tocleanthecement sheath'from the casing wall .and toremove the Aburrs yordinarily -leftlbythe gun perorator operation. A"fter the .cementing joh viscomplete-thelcasing.'islleit with .the perfor-ations t closed .only by .the cement .within suchperforations, and inmanyinstancesfthese .perforations develop leakage.
,Other .methods of rmultiple Y.stage .or wselective cementing arein vuse .but .these .involve :the use vof ,plugs .or Yother vodnstruetions .within Ithe borefof the .casingand arenot rtoo satisfactory.
It is one object of :the ,presentinvention to provide an .improved fwell .cementing Amethod ,for selectively cementing .a .well A,casing Vat predetermined or ydesired levels or Aelevations within .the wellhore, which method .overcomes the .disadvantages il '-erentin .the usual known .methods V.of stage. orfselective .cementingimportant object 'of the invention is `to provide an improve'dmethod Vof Vwell 'cementing wherein :cementing of "the well 4casing at `a 'predetermined 'selected `level or elevation Lin v"the well bore maybe accomplished,after'whichsubsequent well cementing `may `loe vrcarried putv at additional selected levels or "elevations .either above or below "the "point of initialcem'enting, whereby eiective 'cementing fof 'the casing at'all 'desired levels in vsaid iooremaybe completedin a substantially continuous procedure.
Anotherobject of the invention is'tojprovidean improved Well vcementing method wherebythe lower/portion ofthe wellcasing mayhezcernented in the conventional mannerby'dischargingthe "cern'entitious' materialV from thelower end'ofsaid casingfafter which stage""'cementing o'f fthe casing at various levels `or .elevations withinthewll bore *may be accomplished "by 'discharging the cementitious 'material `through lateral `jpio'its which are located at predetermined selected points in' the well casing.
.A Murther lobject rof -'the invention 'is 'tojpro- 'vide' animproved 'stage oem'enting 'method which zincludes the steps of 'opening lateral "portsinthe Well casing at a selected level .by means 'df the uid'pressure'withinthe tubing or drillpipe'ex- "tendingiwithin the casin'g,maintaining vsaidliports in an open position by means 'of said `tubing or drill pipe, `then pumping 'a cementitiousfma- 'terialthrough the open ports intoJ the "area :ex-
teriorly of the casing, 'and finally closing said portsafter'theeementing operation is complte,
whereby ta Vpositive 'shut-.off vof said ports 'after cementing is had.
A particular object 'of the .invention 'is to `provide an improved apparatus :for carrying out the well cementin'g method including .a 'cementing collar connected in the well casing andha'ving a"valve`d discharge jport .therein which Yport :is .normally closed, together with an actuating "tool adapted `to co-"act vwith .the .valved port "to selectively open :and close J said port; 'the actuat- :ing tool being at all .times controllable'initsiop- Aor weight, and also whereinactual openingand closing .of the valve is .accomplished .bymanipulating'the .tubingror drill stemltowhichithe actuating'toolis connected, .wherebyoperation oflthe struction which will allow said tool to pass said` valves without actuating the same, whereby the tool may be moved through the valves and may be selectively operated at any level to permit true selective stage cementing to be accomplished.
Other and further objects of this invention will appear from the following description.
In the accompanying drawings which form a part of the instant specication and are to be read in conjunction therewith and wherein like reference numerals are used to indicate like parts in the various views: v
Figure 1 is a View, partly in section and partly in elevation of a well cementing apparatus for carrying out the improved method,
Figure 2 is a similar view illustrating the parts in a position with the cementing discharge ports y in an open position,
Figure 3 is an enlarged, transverse, vertical sectional View of the cementing collar and actuating tool and illustrating the valve in a position closing kthe discharge ports,
Figure 4 is a similar view with the actuating tool engaged and maintaining the valve in a position with the discharge ports open, Y
Figure 5 is a horizontal cross-sectional view taken on the line 5-5 of Figure 4,
Y Figure 6 is an enlarged horizontal cross-sectional view, taken on the line V6---5 of Figure 4,
Figure 7 is a view similar to Figure 1 and illustrating a modified form of apparatus which may be employed to carry out a stage cementing operation,
Figure 8 is a view similar to Figure 3 of a modied form of construction showing the valve in a position closing the discharge ports, and
Figure 9 is a view similar to Figure 8 illustrating the valve of this form in an open position.
Inthe drawings, the letter A designates a cementing or staging collar which is constructed of an elongate sleeve portion II) having a coupling collar I I secured to its upperend.v Thev collar II is internally screw threaded and is adapted to be connected to the well casing C. The internal diameter of the coupling II is less than the bore IDA of the sleeve IIJ, whereby the lower end of the collar forms an internal annular shoulder I2 within the upper portion of the sleeve; this lower end of the collar is preferably bevelled or inclined. The lower end of the sleeve IQ has a coupling collar I 3 threaded thereon and this collar is internally screw-threaded, whereby it may be connected with the casing C. An internal annular shoulder I4 is formed within the coupling collar I3 and above this shoulder, said collar is extended as indicated at I5. It will be Vapparent that the cementing or staging collar A may be connected within the well casing C at any desired point therein.
Intermediate its ends, the sleeve I is provided with a plurality of discharge ports I which extend radially through the wall thereof. These rports are normally closed by a Sleeve, Vall/Q which is slidable within the bore IIlA of the sleeve I0. The valve I'I is formed with an elongate depending annular skirt I8 which extends downwardly within the bore of the extension I5 of the coupling I3. A coiled spring I9 surrounds the annular skirt I8 of the valve I'I and is confined between the upper edge of the extension I5 and the under side of the'valve. The spring I9 constantly exerts its pressure to urge the sleeve valve I1 upwardly, whereby said valve covers the discharge ports l5. Suitable packing rings 2Q are provided on the valve sleeve, being mounted within annular grooves 2l formed in the external surface of the valve and said rings engage the wall of the bore IDA to eiciently seal or close the ports I6.
The cementing or staging collar A having the discharge port I6 therein is connected in the well casing C at the desired lever or elevation therein. It is apparent that the valve sleeve, being in close proximity to the wall of the bore iA, does not unduly restrict the iiow passage through the casing. The upward movement of the sleeve valve Il is limited by an internal annular shoulder 22 which is formed in the bore IGA or" the collar and which is spaced Aabove the discharge ports I 6. When it is desired to open the discharge ports I6 in order to direct cement ou+ wardly through said ports into the area exteriorally of the casing, an actuating tool B is arranged to be lowered through the well casing by means of either the well tubing T or the drill stem. The actuating tool B is illustrated as connected to the lower end of the tubing but as noted, it may be connected to the lower end of the drill pipe or other conductor through which the cement is to be introduced.
The actuating tool B comprises an outer tubular body 23 having a coupling 24 threaded into its upper end, which coupling is formed with internal threads in the upper portion of its bore, whereby the tubing T may be connectedl therewith. The tubular body has an axial bore 23A extending entirely therethrough and nearer the upper portion of this bore an internal annular shoulder 25 is formed. A larger internal annular shoulder 26 is spaced beneath the shoulder 25 rand a third internal annular shoulder 2l is also formed within the bore 23A nearer the lower end thereof. Radially disposed discharge openings or ports 2B are provided in the wall of the tubular body and are disposed between the shoulders 26 and 21.
Mounted in the lower portion of the tubular body 23 of the actuating tool B are a pair of actuating members or dogs 29. Each member has its upper portion pivotally mounted on a transverse shaft 30 which is secured within the body and which extends across the bore thereof. Thus, the actuating members or dogs 29 are mounted to swing on the shaft 30 and are adapted to be moved outwardly through elongate slots SI which are formed in the wall of the tubular body 23. When in a retracted position, the outer portion 32 of each member is disposed within the connes of the body 23; however, upon outward swinging of the members or dogs, their outer portions 32 move outwardly through the slots 3 I, as is clearly shown in Figures 2 and 4.
For actuating or swinging the pivoted members 29, each member is formed with an integral ear 33 adjacent its upper end, and these ears are adapted to be connected by links 34 with the lower end of a tubular plunger or piston 35. It is noted that the links 34 are pivotally connected to the. plunger, aswell as to-the members. 29. It` will be apparent that upwardv movement, of the plunger which is mounted within thev bore 23A. of thev tubular body' 2.3 will function to move-the members 29 to a retracted position.. Similarly, downward movement oi the plunger or piston will impart. a swinging movement to the members. 29v to move their outer portions 32. outwardly through the respective slots 3l. The plunger or piston 35 is slidable within the bore 23A of. the tubular body 2:3 and extends upwardly therein. An external shoulder 35 is formed en the plunger nearer its. upper end, and a. coil spring 3l is confined between this shoulder and. the internalI Shoulder 26 within the. bore oi. the housing 23. 'I'he spring 3l constantly urges the plunger 35' t0- ward araised position, whereby the pivoted members 29. are norm-ally urged toward their retracted or inward position. Suitable piston rings 33 Iand 39 are mounted on the pLlunger at the upper and lower portions thereofY and serve to seal the space between said. plunger and the bore 23A of the tubular housing 23.
The plunger or piston 35 is formed with an axial bore 'Ail extending entirely therethrough and the lower portion of this bore is reduced at to form an internal annular valve seat Q2. A ball valve t3 is adapted to engage the seat 42. to close the lower end of the plunger bore and upward displacement of the ball is limited by a transverse pin @3a. Above the valve seat 42, the plunger is formed with radially extending discharge ports M and these ports are adapted to register with the discharge ports 28 in the tubular housing 23 when the plunger is in its lowered position. When the plunger is in a raised position, as shown in Figure 3, the ports Ml are in a plane above the ports 2S whereby a flow through such ports cannot occur. However, upon lowering of. the plunger and registration of the ports 4B with the ports 2d, a flow from the interior of the bore of the plunger may occur outwardly through the ports and into the bore of the cementing or staging coll-ar A. In some instances, as will be hereinafter described, the ports :te and 23 may remain in partial registration when the plunger is in a raised or upper position.
In the operation of the device, the cementing or staging collar A is connected in the well casing at the proper level or elevation. At this time the spring I9 is holding the sleeve valvel il inits raised position closing the disch-arge ports I6. When it is desired to cement through the ports I6, the actuating tool B is connected to the lower end of the tubing or drill pipe T and is lowered within the well casing. During such lowering, the coil spring 37 is holding the plunger or piston 35 in its raised or elevated position, in which position the pivoted members or dogs-29 are retracted, whereby their outer ends are within the connes or the exterior of the tubular body 23.'. Also, with the plunger or piston 35 in its raised position, the lateral ports lid. which extend therethrough are out of registration with the ports. 2B in the tubular body. It is obvious that with the actuating members or dogs 2S in a retractediposition, the actuating tool may be moved freely within the well casing and through the cementing collar A. It is notedthat severalof the collars A may be connected inY the' casing' at thepitedetermined or selected levels or elevations where a cementing operation maybe performed.
The actuating tool B is lowered to a point slightly above the particular cementing collar at which the cementing is to be' carried out,.and'. at this time, the pumps at the surface are started to with the bore NA. of said collar.`
. or dogsz'gythe actuating tool Bis, moved' down.-
wardl'y-so astoenter the cementi'ng collar A, and asv soon as the dogs move. below the internal shoulder I Z within. the upper portion. ofthe col'- lar A, said dogs expand outwardly into contact A continued downward movement. ofthe tool will engage the inclined edges 32A ofthe outer portions 320i the members 2'9 with the upper end of the sleeve valve. T. By imposing the weight of the tubing or drill stem T upon the valve sleeve I T' through the actuatingmembers, the valve. sleeve ismoved downwardly against the tension ofthe spring I9 and sumcient weight is imposed to completely uncover the lateral discharge ports Hi,v as shown in Figure 4.
The cement to. be introduced is then pumped downwardly through the tubingl or drill stem and ii'owsthrough the ports 44: and 28 which are in registration with each other then downwardly through the bore NIA ofthe. cementing collar A and inally outwardly throughthe discharge ports 56. It. is noted that ordinarily the space between the drill pipe T' and the well casing C is packed off at the well head' andl thecement is therefore caused to flow outwardly through the discharge ports I6'.` The. casing string' below the ports l5 is filled with'. drilling fluid,` such as drilling mud, which is non-compressible. andl therefore the cement. pumped downwardly, through the tubing or. drill stem willfbe directed outwardly through the discharge ports.
During the cementing` operation the. weight of the tubing, or drill string is maintained on the valve sleeve H to assure that the discharge ports IE remain open. After sufli'cient cement has been introduced, the tubing T is. lifted to remove its weight from the tubular valve sleeve Il', whereby the. spring i9` below saidvalvemay immediately move the sameupwardl'y to again close the discharge ports. IST. The pressure within the tubing andplunger 35 is relieved andthe actuating tool B is lifted upwardly. The outer portions-32 of the actuating members havev their upper ends inclined or bevelled as indicated at 32B and as the tool B moves upwardly within the collar A, these inclined upper edges ofthe. members 29 strike. the internal inclined shoulder l2 within the upper end of the bore ofthe collar A. With the pump pressure within the plunger relieved, the engagement of the. actuating members 2S with the internal shoulder IZv causes a retraction of said members, which retraction is, of course, assisted by the coil. spring which. is urging the plunger or piston upwardly. As. a matterv of fact, the spring3l may be made. of. suflicient strength to move the. plunger to its upper position wheneverthe internal pressure. within the tubing and plunger is relieved.` This returnsthe partsiof the actuating tool B. to; the-positionshown-.in Figure 3, whereby-'the actuating. men-therev 2.9* are returned` 7 to a retracted position within the tubular body. At the same time the upward movement of the plunger moves the ports 44 out of registration with the ports 28 in the tubular body. The actuating tool may then be freely moved upwardly or downwardly through the well casing.
Following the cementing operation through the discharge ports I6, it is desirable before removing the actuating tool B to clean out said tool, as well as to clean out any cement which may remain within the tubing or drill pipe. This may be done by pumping uid downwardly through the casing C and permitting it to circulate upwardly through the actuating tool and thence to the surface through the tubing T. Of course, if desired the circulation may be downwardly through the tool and upwardly through the well casing. This circulation of uid will clean all of the cement from the tool B and from the drill pipe so that the actuating tool is in condition for another cementing operation opposite one of the other cementing ,collars A which may be connected in the well casing. Since the actuating tool may readily pass through the cementing collar A when the actuating members 29 are in their retracted position, it is apparent that said tool may co-act with a cementing collar either above or below the first cementing collar through which a cementing operation was performed.
It is pointed out that the actuatingtool B may be utilized to test the closure of the sleeve valve I'I following a cementing operation. After the cement has been introduced, the actuating tool may be lifted a slight distance so as to permit the sleeve valve I 'I to close. A pressure may then be imported to the ball 43 within the lower end of the plunger to move the plunger downwardly and bring the ports 44 into registration with the ports 28 in the tubular body. At such time the actuating members or dogs 29 would be urged toward the wall of the bore of the well casing. The fluid pressure would be applied through the registered ports 44 and 28 into the interior of the well casing C and also within the bore of the cementing collar A. If the sleeve valve I'I had not moved upwardly to close the ports I6 this would allow circulation downwardly through the tool and upwardly through the annulus to the surface; this circulation can generally be observed to indicate that the ports are open. In the event that the sleeve valve had not completely closed the ports, the
tool B could again be lowered and a jarring action imparted to the sleeve I'I through the expanded actuating members or dogs until said sleeve is Y jarred loose, and its spring I9 returns it to its upper or closing position.
As has been explained, any desired number of cementing collars A may be connected in the well casing and the construction of said collars is such that the bore of the well casing string is substantially unobstructed. Therefore, if desired, it is possible to perform a conventional cementing operation prior to the stage cementing through the various collars. This would be accomplished by introducing the cement, in conjunction with a cementing plug or plugs, through the well casing prior to the time that the actuating tool and tubing B is lowered. In this manner, a conventional cementing operation adjacent the lower end of the well casing may be accomplished. Following this, the actuating tool B connected to the lower end of the tubing is run into the well casing and is utilized to co-act with the selected cementing collar A to carry out a stage cementing operation. It is obvious that seal oi this annular space.
there is no limit to the number of stage cementing operations which may be carried out, and also the particular order in which the various levels are cemented is entirely at the option of the operator.
In the form of the invention shown in Figures 1 6, it has been presumed that the annular space between the well casing and the tubing or drill string T is shut in at the well head and that a suiicient fluid column is present within this annular space to assure the ejection of the cement outwardly through the discharge ports I6. However, in some instances, there may be no fluid load present in the annulus or the conditions might be such that it is necessary to protect the casing string above the cementing apparatus from excessive pressure which may be applied through the tubing string; also, in some cases there may not be a pack-off around the tubing string at the surface and in these various instances, it is desirable to provide a suitable packer. In the case of the form shown in Figures l-6, an ordinary anchor packer P could be connected in the tubing string and properly set to As is well known, a hook wall packer is expanded by the weight of the tubing and therefore, after the sleeve valve Il has been opened and the weight of the tubing imposed upon said sleeve valve, further imposition of weight by the tubing would function to expand the packer and pack 01T the annulus.
Instead of the usual type of packer connected in the tubing string for packing oii the annular space between the tubing and casing, the modied form of the invention. illustrated in Figures 8 and 9, could be employed. This form of the invention comprises an elongate cementing collar A having a coupling IIA at its upper end with a coupling I3A at its lower end, whereby the collar may be connected in the well casing C. Intermediate its ends, the collar is formed with discharge ports ISA which are adapted to be closed by a sleeve valve I'IA. The sleeve valve IiA is inverted as compared to the sleeve valve of the first formed in that it moves downwardly to close the ports ISA and upwardly to open said ports. A coil spring IQA normally urges the valve IIA to a closed position. The sleeve valve is formed with an upwardly extending annular skirt ISA which is connected to a metallic sleeve 5G, the upper end of which connes an annular elastic packing collar 5I. The upper end of the packing collar is confined by a depending annular extension I IB which is formed on the upper coupling. It will be evident that when the sleeve valve IIA is moved upwardly to uncover the ports IBA, an upward movement is also imparted to the retaining sleeve 50 connected therewith, whereby a pressure or force is applied to the lower end of the packing element 5I to distort said member inwardly.
The actuating tool B' of this form of the invention includes a tubular body 23 which has pivoted actuating members or dogs 29A mounted in its lower end. Said dogs are similar to the dogs 29 of the iirst form and are adapted to move outwardly through slots 3IA which are formed in the lower portion of the body 23'. The dogs or members 29A are actuated by connecting links 34A which are in turn connected to an actuating rod 52. The rod 52 extends axially upwardly through the tubular body and has its upper portion extending through an axial bore 53 provided in the lower end of a piston 5s. The extreme upper end of the rod 52 has nuts 55 accises threaded Vthereon while anenlargedflange ii is yformed on the rod below ythe piston. :The piston is normally urged upwardly by means of a -coil spring v.SLwhich has its-upp'erendengaging lateral varms i'8 Vformedl on the vlower Jend-of the piston, with its lower vrportion resting upon an internal shoulder Een provided within the bore of the tubular vlowly '2 S". y
A Jcoupling "24A 'which is vt'llreader'l into 'the upper :end of the vtubular loody "23' vand which makes the connection between said bo-dy tand tubing or drill pipe T isformed 'an annular skirt portion "59 I"havin-g "a 4cyliiuier Sil formed integral with its lower end. v"inclined ports i extend through 4the 'bottom 'of the 'skirt 59 and surround the vcylinder "60. AThe cylinder -is also provided 'with' radially directed openings 'G2 which are adapted to be opened'and closed by the movement Vor" 'the piston "54 within its cylinder.
In `the operation of this form of 'the invention, the actuating .tool B'is lowered through the well vcasing to apoint below'the cementing collar A vwith which itis arranged to vco-a'ct. This collar will, of course, vbe at a selected or predetermined leve'l which is the level `at which the cernenting is to be done. During the lowering movement, there is vno prr-:ssure within the tubing string and the coil spring "51 ispmaintaining the piston in its raised position withthe expanding or actuating dogs 29A in a retracted position. lAfter the 'tool iB has moved into position below the sleeve vvalve IlA, .a pressure is Yapplied within the tubing or drill .stringT'whereby'the pistonlilcl is moved downwardly within its cylinder mi.
Through .the engagement of thelower end o'f'the vpiston with the venlargement "5% 'on 'the actuating rod '52, said rod .is 'moved 'downwardly whereby the dogs 29A are expanded. "The 'tubing is then lifted upwardly to raisethe actuating'tool softhat the dogs 29A engagebeneath the .sleeve valve HA and move said sleeve :valve upwardly to uncover the discharge ports '.liA. Further vupward movement of the 'tubing and actuating toolB ,applies a force to the packing member 1.5L whereby said packing member is distorted into sealingengagement with .the external surface of the tubular vhousin'g o'f 'the actuating ltool. This obviously seals off the annular space Vbetween vthe well casing C andthe tubing l or drill string T. The cement is thenpumped downwardly ,through the tubing and passes through the inclined .ports .El as well as through the radial ports 'L52 .into ,the interior of the housing "237. From this point, the cement flows outwardly through the slots 3 l Aand through the/.lower end .of the'housing Q23 and then outwardly through ,the vdischarge ports IEA. As in the first form, the'lower portionof the casing string is Yfilled with Vthe drilling vfluid which is non-compressible which ,assures .that the cement willpass outwardly through the ports H3A. `it is .pointed 4out that in this form of the invention the sleeve valve I'IA is .maintained in its `open position uncovering the discharge ports A by maintaining the tubing in tension, rather than 'by imposing Weight on Vsaid sleeve as in the first form. So long as the tubing is heldin tension, the sleeve valve HA is in its open position and the packing member 5l .'r'emains in its distorted for packing position.
After the -oement'ing :operation 'is complete, it is only necessary to lower 4the actuating tool B and to relieve theinternalpressure within the tubing whereby the coil spring 51 'may lmise A'the piston .5e rand .retract thev actuating members or dogs 23A. in the irst form, the :tubingfand it e drill/string #may befutili-zed-to circulatea washing fluid `whereby the actuating tool may 'be Sthor- A'oughlycleansed and any cementremaining within the lwell cas-ing mayuemoved.
With -respect to the 'formel1-own in 'Figures S8 and Vj9 -wherein the upward pull on the tubing or drill pipe maintains the valve anf'open position, it is fpeill'te-outlthat the dogs 2da A'their links fil-la rmay be connected -to the transverse -lshaft '311 within the 4tubular hotly 123 `of the -aictuating 'tool iB shown fin 'Figures -l-G. In `other lwords, the Aparticular typefo'f lplunger rshown iin the ii-rst form may be'employed with 'the rs'econd form -cf the invention.
In ftlie ifirst form 'the invention, -the Iports 2% vand lm have been described as closed when the 'plunger .225.'- 'is in its raised position and 'this means that 'the tubing or -drill l'string must 4rbe pulled y'wet vafter ya'ctua'ti-on of 'the `tool. it 'may desirable-in fsomefinstances 'to :limit the moveydischarge through A-t'l'ie ports 2i? :and lill. 1t is 'apparent that `such yan arrangement would allow the inner `string of Atubing to libe pulled :upwardly with any Aflu-id. therein escaping 4through the slightly registered ports '28 and 1294.
Also, with respect to the form `shown in .Figures l--6, fthe ball valve ma lcould b'e completely eliminated and `only a restricted passage pro- A`'vided in place-oi the restricted portion lil fof fthe axial bore in the plunger. It will be apparent that the provision Iof a small passage in the lower -end of -the plunger would ser-veas adr-ain 'opening when the string is pulled, but would not materially interfere with downward movement of lthe plunger upon application 4of the Vfluid 'pressure. If such :port is used, the outlet ports 23 and '4 would be completely out vvof registration with the plunger in a raised position.
If thep'orts 28 and-44 remain slightly in registration upon "cornplete Vupward movement 'of the plunger, the lower end of the bore lil ofthe plunger may be completely closed since the `slightly registered -portswould provide 'the drainage'outletsupon removal ofthe string.
For many reasons, it is sometimes desiraiele to protect the 'formation or well casing string below the cementing collar from the pressure which may be lexerted duringv the cementi'ng'operation through one of the lcementin'g collars. 'In"ligure'7, Aaimodied form of the -Vinventionis shown which will seal on" the annular Aspace between the actuating tool B and the'wellcasing below the discharge ports :'IE. In this instance, an elongate 'tail pipe `4t3 is connected to "the lower end ofthe vtubularhousingll and extends ldownwardly therefrom. AThe lower portion vof the 'cementing collar A is modified tto irl-cunt an annular elastic :packingmember et therein, :and the bore of this packer is adapted 'to engage the exterior' of'thetail'pipe'B.
The operation of this form lis obvious lsinre Vas the actuating tool B is lowered into position -to -co-act with the sleeve `valve il, .the elongate haveibeenopenedfas abovedescribedand cement 1.1 is pumped downwardly, thearea below the packer 64 is protected againstthepressure Vofsaid cement. It is apparent that they use of the lower packer B4 may be applied to either Yform of the selected points around a well casing but it is apparent that the invention may be useful in discharging plastics, acids or other materials within a well bore at desired elevations therein.
Having described the invention, I claim:
Y 1. Awell cementing apparatus including, a ceinenting collar adapted to be connected within a well casing and having a discharge port in its wall, a tubular valve slidably mounted within the bore of the collar and normally in a position closing said discharge port, axial sliding movement of the valve moving the same to a position opening said port, a yconductor adapted to be lowered to extend axially within the casing, an actuating tool connected to the conductor, normally retracted valve-engaging means pivotally mounted upon the actuating tool, said valve-engaging means when moved into an expanded position being engageable with the tubular valve whereby subsequent movementof the actuating tool will impart sliding movement to the valve to control opening and closing of thedischarge port, and movable means connected with the valve-engaging means for imparting movement to said valveengaging means from a normally retracted to an expanded position, whereby the tubular valve is engaged by said valve-engaging means and subsequent axial movement of the conductor on which the actuating tool is mounted will operate said valve.
2. A well cementing apparatus as set forth in claim 1, wherein the means for imparting movement to the valve-engaging means is a pressureactuated member within the actuating tool and also wherein said tool is in communication with the bore of the conductor whereby fluid pressure may be applied to the member through said conductor.
3. A well cementing apparatus including, a cementing collar adapted to be connected within a well casing and having a discharge port therein, a tubular valve slidable within the collar and normally closing the discharge port, a conductor adapted to be lowered to extend axially within the casing, an actuating tool connected to the conductor, normally retracted valve-engaging means pivotally mounted within the actuating tool, said valve-engaging means when moved into an expanded position being engageable with the tubular valve whereby subsequent axial movement of the actuating tool will impart sliding movement to the valve to control opening and closing of said discharge port, pressure responsive means movable within the actauting tool and connected with the valve-engaging means, operation of said pressure responsive means moving said actuating means into expanded position, subsequent lowering of the conductor engaging the actuating means with the tubular valve to open said discharge port, the weight of the conductor functioning to maintain the port open.
4. A well cementing apparatus as set forth in claim 1, together with means for packing oi the annular space between the well casing and the conductor at a point above the discharge port.
5. A well cementing apparatus as set forthin 12 claim 1, together with means for packing off the annular space between the well casing and the conductor at a point below the discharge port.
6. A well cementing apparatus including, a cementing collar adapted to be connected within a well casing and having a discharge port in its wall, a tubular valve movable axially within the bore of the collar and normally in a position closing said discharge port, axial movement of the valve moving said valve to a position opening said port, a conductor adapted to be lowered to extend axially within the casing, an actuating tool connected to the conductor and including a pressureoperated piston therein, normally retracted valveengaging means mounted on the actuating tool, a pivoted linkage connection between the valveengaging means and the piston whereby movement of the piston will move the valve-engaging means to expanded or retracted position, said valve-engaging means when moved into expanded position being engageable with the tubular valve to connect the actuating tool and conductor with the valve, whereby subsequent manipulation of the conductor will control the axial movement of the valve to thereby control opening and closing of the discharge port.
7. A well cementing apparatus including, an elongate cementing collar adapted to be connected within a well casing and having a discharge port in its wall, a sleeve valve slidable within the collar and normally in a position closing the discharge port, a Vconductor adapted to be lowered to extend axially within the well casing, an actuating tool connected to the conductor and lowered therewith, retractable actuating means mounted in the actuating tool and normally in a retracted position so as to be wholly within the connes of said tool, whereby said tool may be moved freely through the collar and sleeve valve therein, and expanding linkage connected with the actuating means, a movable pressure-responsive member within the tool connected to the linkage to operate said linkage and expand the actuating means, whereby subsequent manipulation of the conductor will cause said expanded actuating means to engage the sleeve valve to control opening and closing of the discharge port.
8. A well cementingv apparatus as set forth in claim 7, together with means on the actuating tool adapted upon downward movement of the tool relative to the expanded actuating means to engage the expanded actuating means to thereby set up a connection between the tool and the actuating means, whereby a downward force on the tool by imposing the weight of the conductor thereon will be transferred through the expanded actuating means directly to the sleeve valve so that the weight of said conductor will maintain the sleeve valve in a position uncovering the discharge port.
9. A well cementing apparatus as set forth in claim 7, together with means on the actuating tool adapted upon upward movement of the tool relative to the expanded actuating means to engage the expanded actuating means to set up a connection between the tool and the actuating means, whereby an upward force on the tool occasioned by an upward pull on the conductor will be transferred through the expanded actuating means directly to the sleeve valve so that an upward tension on the conductor will maintain the sleeve valve in a position uncovering the discharge port.
10. A well cementing apparatus including, a cementing collar adapted to begconnected within a well casing and having a discharge port therein, a tubular valve slidable within the collar and normally closing the discharge port, a conductor adapted to be lowered to extend axially within the casing, an actuating tool connected to the conductor, actuating means mounted in the tool for movement from an inward retracted position to a radially outward expanded position, said actuating means when moved to an expanded position being engageable with the tubular valve so that subsequent upward movement of the actuating means relative to the cementing collar will engage the Valve to move said valve and control opening and closing of the discharge port, a pressure-responsive member movable within the actuating tool and operable by a pressure fluid pumped downwardly through the conductor, a connection between the pressure-responsive ,member and the actuating means whereby operation of the pressure-re :ponsive member by the application of pressure thereto causes a movement of the actuating means into expanded position, subsequent upward lifting of the conductor and tool functioning to engage said expanded actuating means with the tubular valve to move said valve and open the discharge port, and means on the actuating tool engageable with the expanded actuating means for transferring an upward force from the conductor directly through the actuating means to the valve, whereby a pulling tension on the conductor will maintain the valve in a position holding the discharge port open.
11. A well cementing apparatus including, a cementing collar adapted to be connected within a well casing and having a discharge port in its wall, a tubular valve slidably mounted within the bore of the collar and normally in a position closing said discharge port, axial sliding movement of the valve moving the same to a position opening said port, a conductor adapted to be lowered to extend axially within the casing, an actuating tool connected to the conductor, normally retracted valve-engaging means for movement from an inward retracted position to a radially outward expanded position mounted upon the actuating tool, said valve-engaging means when moved into an expanded position being engageable with the tubular valve whereby subsequent movement of the actuating tool will impart sliding movement to the valve to control opening and closing of the discharge port, and movable means connected with the valve-engaging means for imparting movement to said valveengaging means from a normally retracted to an expanded position, whereby the tubular valve is engaged by said valve-engaging means and subsequent axial movement of the conductor on which the actuating tool is mounted will operate said valve.
12. A well cementing apparatus as set forth in claim 11, wherein the means for imparting movement to the valve-engaging means is a pressure-actuated member within the actuating tool and also wherein said tool is in communication with the bore of the conductor whereby fluid pressure may be applied to the member through said conductor.
THOMAS E. ALEXANDER.
References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 2,187,480 Baker Jan. 16, 1940 2,187,483 Baker Jan. 16, 1940 2,223,442 Crowell Dec. 3, 1940 2,344,120 Baker Mar. 14, 1944 2,380,022 Burt n, July 10, 1945 2,384,675 Hammer Sept. 11, 1945 2,431,751 Hayward Dec. 2, 1947 2,526,695 Schlumberger Oct. 24, 1950