Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.


  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS2667999 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateFeb 2, 1954
Filing dateMar 5, 1952
Priority dateMar 5, 1952
Publication numberUS 2667999 A, US 2667999A, US-A-2667999, US2667999 A, US2667999A
InventorsMagalos Arthur C, Vore Herbert G
Original AssigneeAmerican Seal Kap Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Bottle capping machine
US 2667999 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Feb. 2, 1954 Filed March 5, 1952 H- G. VQRE ET AL BOTTLE CAPPING MACHINE 4 Sheet s-Sheet l Z'moentors 8g ART/70E C MAG/1.40s

1954 H. G. VORE ET AL BOTTLE CAPPING MACHINE 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed March 5, 1952 Bnvenfor HAT/Q5597 6: 1/0/25 Aer/7 w? C. MAG/M05 (Ittorneg Feb. 2, 1954 VORE AL 2,667,999

BOTTLE CAPPING MACHINE 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed March 5, 1952 Gttorneg 5 r o t H e v n 3 0 m /esaer. V0195 HEW/(JR CZ Ame/1405 Patentecl Feb. 2, 1954 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE BOTTLE CAPPING MACHINE Application March 5, 1952, Serial No. 274,914

'7 Claims. (01. 226-88.1)

This invention relates generally to machines for conditioning and dispensing preformed hood caps for milk bottles, and is a modification and improvement of the machines shown in the Goodwin et a1. Patent No. 2,325,163, dated July 27, 1943, and in the Mackin 'et al. Patent No. 2,563,654, dated August 7, 1951. The caps for which the machine is especially designed to condition and dispense comprise a. central depressed diaphragm adapted to seat on the internal ledge of a bottle, a raised U-shaped housing adapted to extend over the pouring rim of the bottle, and a flaring pleated outer skirt which is adapted to be contracted and sealed about the neck of a bottle. A narrow band of suitable adhesive by which the cap is sealed in place on a bottle is applied around the outside of the lower end of the skirt.

Conditioning and dispensing machines of this type are used in conjunction with standard filling and capping machines of the rotary type which generally comprise a constantly rotating filling turret and a capping turret which is rotatedin timed relation to the filling turret. The

filling turret comprises a table and a cylindrical container thereabove which rotate in unison. The table carries a plurality of stools, arranged in an annular row, which are raised and lowered as the table rotates. Directly above each stool is a filling valve which extends down from the underside of the container. Empty bottles are fed by a suitable conveyor and transfer means onto successive stools in vertical alignment with the valves thereabove. As the bottles are carried around by the stools the stools are elevated by suitable mechanism which raises the bottles up into engagement with th valves with the valve nozzle extending into the mouths of the bottles. The engagement of the bottles with the valves opens the valves allowing milk to flow from the container into the bottles. After the bottles are filled they are lowered and transferred by'suitable mechanism from the filling turret past a cap applying station and onto the capping tur ret. As the bottles pass the capping station conditioned caps are loosely applied over the mouths thereof. The capping turret comprises a plurality of capping heads which firmly clamp and hold the caps in position over and around the mouths and necks of the bottles until the caps are firmly sealed thereon,

The cap conditioning and dispensing machine of the present invention comprises generally a cap magazine for stacks of nested caps, a dispensing tube into which successive stacks of caps arefed from the magazine, a cap picker mechanism which withdraws successive caps from the dispensing tube and deposits them in a chute down which the caps roll to the cap applying stations. ohargeend of the dispensing tube for applying Means is provided around the disjets of preheated air to the adhesive rings around the cap skirts, which softens and renders the adhesive tacky and properly conditions the cap for application to the mouths of bottles. Means is also provided for continuously blowing heated air down the cap delivery chute in order to keep the adhesive bands in tacky condition as the caps roll down the chute to the cap applying station.

The principal object of the invention is to simplify and improve cap conditioning and dispensing machines of this character.

.Another object of the invention is to provide means for softening bands of adhesive of hood caps of the character described by a plurality of jets of hot air.

Other and more limited objects of the invention will be apparent from the following specification and the accompanying drawings forming a part thereof wherein:

Fig. 1 is a plan view showing our new and improved cap conditioning and dispensing machine associated with a standard filling and capping machine of the rotary type;

Fig. 2 is an enlarged vertical longitudinal fragmentary section taken substantially on the line 2-2 of Fig. 1;

Fig. 3 is a transverse vertical section taken on the line 3-3 of Fig. 2;

Fig. 4 is a fragmentary vertical section taken on the line 4-4 of Fig. 3;

Fig. 5 is a further enlarged fragmentary horizontal section taken on the lines 5-5 of Figs. 3 and 6.

Fig. 6 is a fragmentary vertical section taken on the line 66 of Fig. 5;

Fig. 7 is an enlarged side elevation partially in section of two nested caps;

Fig. 8 is a plan view of the caps as shown in Fig. 7

Fig. 9 is a side elevation of the upper end of a bottle showing a cap secured thereon;

Fig. 10 is an enlarged fragmentary section through the tubular heater ring; and

Fig. 11 is a horizontal section taken on the line Illl of Fig. 10.

Referring now to the drawing by reference characters the numeral I indicates generally our improved cap conditioning and dispensing machine which is shown, in Fig. 1, operatively associated with a standard rotary filling and capping machine having a bottle filling turret 2 and a capping turret 3. The filling turret comprises generally a rotating table 4 having a plurality of bottle supporting and elevating stools 5 arranged in an annular row thereon, and a cylindrical milk dispensing container 6 which is mounted above the table 4 and rotates in unison therewith. The capping turret comprises generally a plurality of bottle supporting and. elevat- 3 ing stools l, which are arranged to be moved in a circular path, and a plurality of capping heads 8 disposed above the stools in alignment therewith and arranged to move in unison with the stools '5.

Empty bottles are fed by a suitable conveyor Ill to a star wheel I l which transfers the bottlesfrom the conveyor l onto the stools 5. As the bottles are carried around on the stools E- theyare ele vated into engagement with valves projecting down from the underside of the milk container 6 through which they are filled with mill: from the container 6. After the bottles have'been filled they are lowered and transferred by a star wheel 12 from the stools onto the stools l beneath the capping heads 8. As the filled bottles are being transferred from the stools 5 to the stools 1, they pass a cap applying station l3 where properly conditioned hood caps It are loosely applied to the mouths thereof; In the capping turret 3'the bottles are carried around in a circular path upon the stools l, and as they are. being carried around they are elevated into the capping heads 8 which firmly clamp and hold the caps I4 over and around the mouths and necks of the bottlesuntil the caps are securely sealed thereon. After the caps have been secured in place thebottles 9 are transferred by astarwheel whack-ontothe conveyor Iii. I

Each cap l4 comprised a central depressed diaphragm portion I6, a raised U-shapedpouringrim housing IT, a depending flaring skirt 18-; and a plug disc I?! seated within the pouring rim housing I? over the diaphragm IS. The skirt [8 is formed with a plurality of pleats 29 and has a narrow band 2| of suitable adhesive applied to the outside thereof at the lower end thereof. In capping the capping heads 8 clamp the pleated skirts l8 tightly around and against the bottles and hold them until the adhesive 2! sets and hardens after which the adhesive firmly seals the caps in place. The bands2 l" of adhesive-are normally dry and hard and must be heated-until they become soft andtacky-before the caps can beapplied to bottles.

The cap conditioning and dispensing mechanism is all mounted upon a table 22 which is secured to a suitable base 23. The mechanism comprises generally a magazine-24; a dispensing tube 25, a cap picker mechanism 25, cap conditioning means 21 anda cap chute 28' which terminates at the cap applying station I31. The magazine 24 consists of a plurality of. storage tubes 29 in which stack of nested caps are-placed; The storage tubes 29 are successively brought into register with the dispensing tube 25 into which the caps slide from the storage tubes 29. The caps are held within the dispensing tube25 by an annulus 30 which engages the depending. flar= ing skirt l8 of the lowermost cap and holds the caps in position for successive withdrawal from. the dispensing tube by the picker mechanism. The picker mechanism zfi'includes a reciprocal suction head 3| which successively" withdraws successive caps from the lower end of: the dispensing tube 25 and deposits them in the chute 28, after which the caps roll down the chute 28 to the capping station it. The cap conditioning means includes an endless tubular heater ring 32 through which the caps passas they are with-- drawnfrom the dispensingtube'25. The ring 32 is disposed adj acent'the discharge end-of the tube 25 and has a multiplicity of angularly disposednozzles. 33 through which jets of heated air are projected against the adhesive-1y coated exposed portions of the cap skirts as the caps approach and are withdrawn from the end of the tube 25. These jets of hot air heat'and render'thebands 2| of adhesive soft and tacky in condition for sealing a cap upon a bottle.

The suction head 31 is secured to the end of a plunger 36- which is slidably mounted in a housing 31. The plunger 36 and the suction head 3| are reciprocated by a piston rod 38 which is attachedto a piston 39 in a cylinder 48 which is mounted upon the table 22 within a removable cover M. The piston 39 is actuated by fluid pressure which controlled by a four-way valve 42, which is connected to opposite ends of the cylinder 49 by the pipes 13 and 44 and is vented to the atmosphere by a vent pipe 85. The valve 42 is also connected to a suctionpump it by a-suction pipe 41, and is actuated by a solenoid? which: is connected by the'leads 49, through a battery 50, to a bottle actuated switch 5I' which. is pro-- vided with an arm 52 which. is adaptedto be ac tuated by successive bottles as they are carried? around on thestools 5. While the solenoid is shown as actuated from a battery it is to be understood that an alternating currentqsalenoid: which is connected'to an outside supply lineimay be used. The suction pump 46 is also-connected to the suction head 3! by the suction pipe 5 3 and: a bore 54 in-the plunger 35. The suction in the head 3 l is controlled by suitable valve mechanism (not shown) in a sleeve 55, in the housing 31; through which the plunger its-slides.

In operation when suction is applied to the: pipe 43 the piston 39 is drawn to the forward end of the cylinder 40 and the plunger 36 is advanced to bring the suctionhead 31' into-engagement with the lowermost cap I4 in'the dis pensin tube 25 at which time suction is ap plied to the suction head 3' I by the valve mech-- anism in the sleeve 55. The solenoid valve I2 is spring biased in such a direction that when the solenoid is de-energized suction is applied to the pipe 43- and the pipe is vented to the atmosphere through the vent 45; Hence the pi's-' ton 3F, plunger 36' and'suction head 31 are normally maintained in their advanced position. When a bottle, in advancing around thefilling' turret 2, engages the arm 52 and closes the switch 5-! the solenoid 48 is energized; thereby reversing the position of the four-way valve" 42; admitting suction to the pipe 44 and venting" the pipe 43 to the atmosphere. This causes the piston 39; plunger 36 and suction head 31 to be retracted. As the plunger 36' is: retracted suction is retained in the head 31 until it is over the upper end of the chute 28; at which time" the suction head is vented to the atmospherev through thebore 54 and vent 5B in the plunger 36. During this movement the lowermost. cap. in the discharge tube 25 is withdrawn from; the. stack of nested caps therein, and when the suetion in the head 3| is broken the cap is dropped into the chute 28. The-cap then. rolls down" the chute 28 to the cap applying station 13' from which it is withdrawn by the bottle,v which effects its withdrawal from the stack as. it passes the cap applying station. The switch 5! is. so positioned with respect to the cap applying station: l3 that the time ittakes fora cap to=be withdrawn from the stack and travel to the cap ap: plying station 13 is substantially the same. as: it takes for a bottle to' travelfrom. the switch- 5l to the-cap applying station l3, whereby each-- bottle eitects the release of its own cap;

The mechanism for supplying and heating air and discharging jets thereofaround and agaiust,

the bands 2| of adhesive on the caps I4 as they are withdrawn from the discharge tube 25 in order to properly condition the caps for application to bottles will now be described in detail. The annulus 39 by which the caps I4 are retained in the tube 25 until they are withdrawn by the picker mechanism 26 is mounted in front of the tube 25 in axially alignment therewith by outwardly extending arms 69 which are integral with annulus 39 and are secured by bolts 6I to the upwardly extending legs 62 of a U-shaped bracket 63 which is bolted to the table 22 as indicated at 64. The annulus 30 is semicylindrical in cross section and is mounted with the concave surface thereof facing the discharge tube 25. The discharge end of the tube 25 is flared outwardly, as shown at 65 to engage the outer edge 66 of the annulus 30. The flaring skirt I8 of the lowermost cap of the stack of caps in the tube 25 engages the inner edge 61 of the annulus 39 and keeps the caps from falling out of the tube 25. As the lowermost cap in the tube 25 is withdrawn the skirt thereof is slightly contracted in passing the edge 61. After the lowermost cap has been withdrawn the stack of caps slides down the tube 25 by gravity until the skirt of the next succeeding cap engages the edge 61.

The tubular ring 32 is disposed behind the annulus 30 within the semicylindrical section thereof in front of the flaring end 65 of the dispensing tube as shown in Figs. 2, 5 and 6. The ring is held in position by bolts I and II which extend forwardly from posts I2 and I3, respectively, which extend upwardly from the base of the bracket 63. The post I3 has a vertical passageway I4 therein, the upper end of which is connected to the rear end of an axial bore I5 in the bolt II and the lower end of which is connected to a pipe I6. The forward end of the bore I5 communicates with the inside of the tubular ring 32 through an aperture 11 in the wall thereof. The nozzles 33 in the ring 32 are arranged in two slightly spaced parallel annular rows. The nozzles of the innermost row are disposed at such an angle to the plane of the ring that they project jets of heated air a substantial distance along the stack of caps in the tube 25 as indicated by the arrows A in Figs. 5 and 11, to preheat the bands 2| of thermoplastic adhesive on the cap skirts, and the nozzles of the outermost row are arranged at a lesser angle to the plane of the ring to project jets of heated air a lesser distance along the stack of caps in the tube 25 as indicated by the arrows B in Figs. 5 and 11, and to complete the heating and softening of the adhesive bands 2|. The nozzles of both rows are further disposed at such angles to the radius of the ring that the jets of air therefrom impinge on the band of thermoplastic adhesive on the cap skirts and into the folds or pleats 29 therein as indicated by the arrows C in Figs. 6 and 10, in order to thoroughly heat and soften the entire bands of adhesive. By positioning the air inlet TI to the ring 32 to one side of and a short distance below the uppermost section of the ring 32 as shown in Figs. 6 and a better distribution of heat around the cap skirts is obtained due to the fact that hot air naturally gravitates upwardly and that the highest pressure within the ring 32 is at the inlet 11. The angular arrangement of the nozzles 33 and the position of the air inlet 11 into the tubular ring 32 are more clearly shownin Figs. 10 and 11.

The air supplied to the tubular ring 32 for application to the cap is heated to the desired temperature by a heater .80 which is disposed below the cap delivery chute 28 and is mounted upon a platform 8I carried by a bracket 82 which extends down from the underside of the table 22. The heater comprises a rectangular elongated inner chamber 83 and an outer elongated U-shaped chamber 84. The inner chamber 83 is defined by the bottom wall 85, the side walls 86, the top wall 81 and the end walls 88 and 89. The outer chamber 84, which is disposed about the bottom and the sides of the inner chamber, is defined by the bottom wall 90, the side walls 9I, and the top wall 81 and the two end walls 88 and 89 which are common to both chambers. The top wall 81 of the heater has a plurality of heat dissipating fins 92 formed integrally therewith and extending upwardly therefrom. The heater is enclosed within a removable sheet metal casing 93 which provides a third chamber 94 which surrounds the bottom side and top of the heater. outwardly projecting horizontal ribs 95 which extend from end wall to end wall of the heater divide the chamber 94 into upper and lower sections 96 and 91, which are connected by a duct 98 in the end wall 89. The platform 8I has an enlarged open ing 99 therethrough into the lower section 91 of the chamber 94. The open end I95 of the upper section 96 of the chamber 94 registers with a plurality of louvers I96 in the bottom wall I9! of the chute 28. An exhaust fan I98, which is driven by a suitable motor I09, is mounted in an opening III] in a transverse partition III which extends across the upper section 96 of the chamber 94 between the fins 92 and the duct 98. A pair of electric heating elements H2, to which current is supplied by the leads I I3 are mounted by suitable means within the inner chamber 93. The pipe 16 through which heated air is supplied under pressure to the tubular heating ring 32 is connected to a T-fitting I I4 which in turn is connected to an outlet port I I5 through the end wall 89 of the heater. A three-way valve H9, which is interposed in the pipe I6, may be set to direct air straight through the pipe I9 to the ring 32 or through a branch pipe I I! into the upper section 96 of the chamber 94 behind the partition I I I for a purpose hereinafter explained.

As shown herein the chute 28 is composed of two telescoping sections I29 and I 2I which are clamped in adjusted position by suitable clamping means I22. The upper end of the chute is suitably secured to the table 22 and the lower end thereof is supported by a rod I23 extending downwardly and outwardly from the table 22 under the chute.

In operation the exhaust side of the suction pump 46 is utilized to force air under pressure into the outer U-shaped chamber 94 of the heater 80 through a pipe I25, and an inlet port I29 in the end wall 89 of the heater. The air is preheated in the outer chamber 84 and then passes into the inner chamber 83 through inlet ports I 2? in the side walls 86 adjacent the end wall 98 just below the top Wall 81. The air is heated to the desired temperature as it flows through the chamber 83 around the heating elements II 2 and is then forced through the outlet port I I5 and pipe 16 to the heater ring 32 from which it is projected through the nozzles 33 against the skirts of the caps being withdrawn from the dispensing tube 25. The desired temperature of the air leaving the chamber 83 is maintained by a thermally responsive switch I30 which controls the energize.-


tion oftheuheatlng elements H2 1 A temperature tothe cap applying-station i3 itisiessentialthat the bands 21. or adhesive thereon, which. were heated and softened as-thecapswerebeing withdrawn from the dispensing tubadc not cooland harden. To this end a secondary current: of. heated air is forced into the chute 28 throughthe louvres its by the fan I08. This: secondary current of air is drawn through the opening same the lower section 97 of the chamber 94 around the heater 3G and thence through the duct 93 into the upper section 96 ofthe chamber: 84 behind the partition HI by the exhaust fan I38. This air is. then driven bythefan W8- through the upper section 95 aroundand-past' the Trust? and out through. the louvers I58 into the chute- 28. As the secondary air floWsaround'and-past the outer walls so and ti of the heater'andthe fins 92 it is heated thereby. The secondary current of air serves the two-fold purpose of heating the chute 28 and cooling the outer surface of the heater which keeps the machine as a whole from being unduly heated.

In first starting operation it is necessary to quickly preheat the chute 28. To. do this the valve H6 is set tov direct the highly heated air from the chamber 83 through the branch pipe i i 7' into the upper section 96' ofthe chamber 94 behind the partition I l l where it mixes with a current of secondary air. The combined currents of air are then driven bythe fan $08 into the chute 28.

From the foregoing it will be apparent to those skilled in this art that We have provided a very simple and efficient machine for accomplishing the objects of the invention.

It is to be understood that we'are not limited to the specific construction shown and described herein as various modifications may be made therein within the scope of the appended claims.

What is claimed is:

1. A machine for conditioning and dispensing preformed hood caps having a pleated skirt with a band of thermoplastic adhesive therearound for application to bottles, said machine comprising, a magazine including a dispensing tube for holding a stack of nested caps, a chute through which caps are delivered to the capapplying station of a bottle filling and capping machine, a cap picker mechanism by which caps are successively withdrawn from said dispensing tube and deposited in said chute, heating means comprising a plurality of air nozzles spaced'around the discharge end of said dispensing tube to project a plurality of jets of hot air against the cap skirts of the leading caps in said. dispensing tubeand means for supplying, heated air-under pressure to said nozzles to render the bands of adhesive on'the cap skirts soft and tacky.

2. A machine as definedin claim 1 in which said heating means comprisesa tubular ring having a plurality of nozzles arranged in an annular row and through which ring caps are withdrawn from said dispensing tube by said' icker mechamsm.

3. A machine as defined'in claim in which said nozzles are disposed at an angle to the radius of said ring suited to project jets of air inwardly in a direction to impinge on the band of adhesive on said cap skirts and into the skirt fold.

4. A machine as defined in claim 1 in which said heating means comprises a tubular ring having a plurality of nozzle arranged in two spaced'parallel annular rows and through which rin caps-are withdrawn from said dispensing tube by said picker mechanism, the nozzles in one or saidrows being disposed at an angle to the planeof said ring to project jets of air a substantial-distance into said dispensing tube along the stack of caps in said tube, and the nozzles in the other of said rows being disposed at a lesser angleto the plane of said ring to project jets of air a lesser distance-into said dispensing tube along said stack of caps.

5. A: machine as defined in claim 1 in'which means to force a current of hot air into said chute isprovided.

6. A machine for conditioning and dispensing reformed hood capshaving apleated skirt with ing a stack of nested'caps, a chute through which caps are deliveredlto the cap applying station of a bottle filling and capping machine, a cap picker mechanism by which caps are successively withdrawn from said dispensing tube and deposited in said chute, heating means adjacent the dis charge end of said dispensing tube operative to project a plurality'of jets of -hot air against cap skirts as caps are withdrawn from said'dispensing tube to render the bands of adhesive on the cap skirts soft and tacky, an air heater having walls defining an inner chamber, heating elements in said inner chamber, a conduit extending between said inner chamber and said heating means, and means for forcing air through said inner chamber and said'conduitinto said heating 'means, a casing which defines upper and lower outer chambers about. said air heater, an air inlet into said lower outer chamber, a duct between said lower outer chamber and said upper outer chamber, an air outlet from said'upper outer chamber into said chute, an exhaust fan mounted in said upper chamber, said fan being operative to draw air through said inlet int'osai'cl zscrercnccs Giied the file this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,857,075 Wright et a1. May 3, 1932 2,047,846 Wright et al July 14, 1936 2,177,999 Madden Oct. 31, 1939 2,325,050 Goodwin et al July 2'7, 1943 2,325,163 Goodwin et al July 27, 1943 2,457,758 Vore Dec. 28, 1943 2,516,278 Vore July 25, 1950 2,551,476 Vantlander May 1, 1951 2,563,654 Mackin et a1. Aug. '7, 1951

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1857075 *Nov 2, 1925May 3, 1932Oswego Falls CorpHood capping container
US2047846 *Jul 30, 1931Jul 14, 1936Oswego Falls CorpHood capping container
US2177990 *Aug 13, 1937Oct 31, 1939Oswego Falls CorpContainer closure applying machine
US2325050 *Aug 26, 1941Jul 27, 1943American Seal Kap CorpCap feed and heating apparatus
US2325163 *Jun 23, 1941Jul 27, 1943American Seal Kap CorpCapping machine
US2457758 *Oct 30, 1944Dec 28, 1948American Seal Kap CorpCapping machine for feeding caps through a high-frequency heating coil
US2516278 *Nov 9, 1944Jul 25, 1950American Seal Kap CorpCapping machine
US2551476 *Mar 31, 1949May 1, 1951American Seal Kap CorpTransfer means for thermoplastic caps, having means to heat said caps during transfer
US2563651 *Oct 10, 1946Aug 7, 1951Hurst Gilchrist LApparatus for unloading cargo through a hatchway
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3326542 *Aug 20, 1964Jun 20, 1967Pacific Scientific CoHeat treating furnace
US4473935 *Jun 11, 1982Oct 2, 1984Sony CorporationMethod for supplying parts to an automatic assembling machine
US8935902Jul 2, 2010Jan 20, 2015Sidel ParticipationsGuide track for caps
CN102482067A *Jul 2, 2010May 30, 2012西德尔合作公司Guide track for caps
CN102482067BJul 2, 2010Aug 21, 2013西德尔合作公司Guide track for caps
WO2011004102A1 *Jul 2, 2010Jan 13, 2011Sidel ParticipationsGuide track for caps
U.S. Classification432/62, 414/795.6, 432/152, 221/150.00A, 53/141, 432/231, 432/226, 414/797.8, 432/10, 312/43, 432/153, 221/211, 221/278
International ClassificationB67B3/00, B67B5/00, B67B3/062, B67C7/00
Cooperative ClassificationB67B5/00, B67C2007/0066, B67B3/062
European ClassificationB67B3/062, B67B5/00