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Publication numberUS2670627 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 2, 1954
Filing dateFeb 27, 1953
Priority dateFeb 27, 1953
Publication numberUS 2670627 A, US 2670627A, US-A-2670627, US2670627 A, US2670627A
InventorsMyril C Shaw
Original AssigneeAsbestos Textile Inst
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Apparatus for testing the resistance of textile fabric to abrasion, flexing, and creasing
US 2670627 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

March 2, 1954 M 2,670,627

C. SHAW APPARATUS FOR TESTING THE RESISTANCE OF TEXTILE FABRIC T0 ABRASION, FLEXING AND CREASING 3 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Feb. 27, 195

INVENTOR.

M R/L C. SHA w Y WWW 4L, ATTORNEYS.

March 2. 1954 c. SHAW 2,670,627

APPARATUS FOR TESTING THE RESISTANCE OF TEXTILE FABRIC T0 ABRASION, FLEXING AND CREASING Filed Feb. 27, 1953 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 no In R INVENTOR. k v NYE/L C. SHA w.

{ M owl Z.) nrromvzrs- Patented Mar. 2, 1954 APPARATUS FOR'TESTING THE RESISTANCE OF TEXTILE FABRIC T'O ABRASION, FLEX- ING, AND CREASING Myril' 0. Shaw, Stilton, N. J., assignor to Asbestos Textile Institute, New Brunswick, N. J., an associati'on Application February 27, 1953, Serial No. 339,333

This invention relates to apparatus for testing resistance of textile fabric to abrasion, flexing and creasing. The invention has been found to be especially adapted for testing the wearability of .asbestos textiles and other fabrics of the heavier grades.

The relative wearability of a textile reflects the extent to which such cloths may resist loss in strength and structure as a result of: (1) abrasion induced by foreign materials constantly or intermittently acting upon the surface of the cloth, (2) the wear resulting from two faces of the same or similar cloths rubbing against each other, and (3) a flexing action wherein the cloth may be periodically subjected to a creasing or folding action.

In asbestos safety clothing, draperies, and similar applications, all or the above factors are infiuential and frequently the most significant in the ultimate destruction of such textiles.

This invention provides for the application of the destructive actions of abrasion, flexing and creasingsimultaneously and thereby provides a means of testing which simulates the service conditions encountered by fabric when used in clothing, draperies; etc. I

Further objects, features and advantages of the invention will more fully appear from the following description, taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which:

Fig. 1 is an end elevation of the machine as viewed from the drive end;

v Fig. 2 is a cross-sectional view taken along the line 22 of Fig. 1;

Fig. 3 is a fragmentary view on an enlarged scale showing further details of the means for holding the specimens being tested and of the 4 Claims. (Cl. 73159) means for securing the abrasive layer to the abrasive roll.

Fig. 4 is a perspective view showing further details of a typical clamping bar for securing the specimen to the carrying roll or cylinder.

Fig. 5 is a cross-sectional view taken at 55 of Fig. 1 showing further details of the journal mounting for the abrasive cylinder; and

Figs. 6, 7, 8 and 9 are schematic views showing successive positions of the test specimens during the operation of the machine.

In general the machine comprises (Fig. 1) two rolls such as the cylinders, designated in general as I and 2, rotatably journaled in end frames, designated in general as 3 and 4, in such manner that the surfaces of rotation of the rolls are parallel. The cylinder I serves to hold specimens or strips of material to be tested, designated in generalas S, and the cylinder 2 serves to hold and carry suitable abrasive material for abrading the material to be tested. The abrasive material is most conveniently provided in the form of sheets which are suitably secured around the periphery of cylinder 2 and in the present embodiment I have successfully used for this purpose No. 1 grade Carborundum cloth. In certain cases it may be desired to use as an abradenta strip of fabric of the same character as that being tested. Preferably the cylinder I is substantially larger that the cylinder 2 and in the embodiment of the invention which has been successfully operated and is herein disclosed the cylinder I is 6" in diameter and cylinder 2 is 2" in diameter.

The cylinders I and 2 are suitably driven in the same direction of rotation so that their surfaces move in opposite directions. The specimens are secured to cylinder I in such manner that when the cylinder is rotated the specimens assume an open loop formation. The cylinders I and 2 are so disposed that the peripheral surface of the cylinder I and the peripheral abrasive surface on the cylinder 2 are spaced apart a minimum predetermined distance in accordance with the material to be tested, and for this purpose provision is made to adjust such spacing. I have found for relatively thick asbestos fabric and the like material this distance should be three times the thickness of the material to be tested. In the preferred method of operation the loops of material to be tested are of such length that they extend outwardly from cylinder I a distance substantially greater than the diameter of cylinder 2 so that the forward face of the loop specimens Will be brought into engagement with the abrasive surface and due to the opposite direction of travel of said surface the loops will become partially wrapped about cylinder 2 andthereafter the loop will be progressively flattened and will be pulled through the limited space between rolls I and 2 to thereby positively crease the material.

Further details of the machine will now be'described with particular reference to Figs. 1 and 2. The end frames 3 and 4 are rigidly secured and extend upwardly from the base plate Iii and are held in parallel spaced apart relation by means of cross plates II and I2. The roll or abrasive cylinder 2 in the present embodiment comprises a shaft or axle member I3 whose outer ends are rotatably journaled in suitable bearings carried. byth respective bearing blocks It and i5 which are slidably mounted in the end plates 3 and 4. These blocks are constructed in a similar manner and therefore it will only be necessaryto describe the mounting of the block I4. The block I4 has a sliding fit within an opening provided in the end frame 3 and carries pressed therein the outer race of an anti-fraction bearing IS, the inner race of which receives the shaft end. The block I4 is yieldably held in a direction axially of the bearing by plates Il-Is disposed on opposite faces of the end frame 3 and held in position by means of screws, such as I9, and cooperating nuts, such as 28, a resilient member, such as spring 2|, being interposed between the head of the screw and adjacent plate so as to permit a slight movement of the bearing block Hi out of the plane of the end frame 3 for purposes to be hereinafter described. The shaft I3 carries a plurality of cylinder sections, such as the three sections 22 and the section 22b, which are presently made of steel and are clamped together by means of nuts 23 and 24 threadingly engaging the shaft l3. The cylinder sections jointly form the length of the cylinder. Each of the cylinder sections except one of the end sections, designated 22b, is provided with a radially extending recess or groove 25 (Fig. 3) for receiving the inwardly turned opposite ends of a strip of abrasive material A and a locking key 25 which serves to wedge the ends of the abrasive strip in the recess and hold the said strip tightly in position around the periphery of the roller section. The recesses 25 of the respective roller sections 22 are preferably staggered so as to avoid having the slight gap of the abrasive at this point continuous from one end of the roll to the other. This provision also permits securin to the respective cylinders strips having different abrasive characteristics when this is deemed desirable. The cylinder section designated 2% is provided with an ungrooved surface so that its periphery is continuous and this section thereby presents a smooth metallic surface for purposes of comparative testing. This section may be slightly larger than the other sections so that its uncovered diameter may be approximately the same as the cover or diameter of the remaining sections.

The journal blocks I4 and I are provided with inwardly extending lugs It. and I5 in vertical alignment with fixed lugs 3' and i carried by the respective end frames 3 and 4 and helical compression springs 21 and 28 interposed between the respectively cooperating pairs of lugs. These springs are sufficiently stiff so that the cylinder 2 will exert the desired pressure against the specimens bein tested during normal operation but will yield upon abnormal pressure, such, for example, as if a test specimen should break and be deformed into a thickness greater than the space provided between the rolls. The slightly yieldable mounting of the journal blocks I l and I5 will permit one end of the shaft is to be depressed more than the other when required.

Test specimen roll The roll I preferably comprises a cylindrical shell 30 (Fig. 2), which in the present embodiment is made from well seasoned hard wood but which may be made from suitable plastic material, carrying rigidly secured at its opposite extremities ends SI and 32 having rigidly formed therewith stub axles 33-34 rotatably mounted in suitable bearings 35-36 carried by journal blocks 31-38 mounted in the end frames 3 and 4 in such manner as to permit vertical movement butprevent horizontal movement axially of the cylinder I or horizontal movement in a transverse direction thereto. The journal blocks 3'! and 38 are held in the desired vertical position by means of screws 39 and 40 threadingly engaged in portions of the end frames 3 and 4 and provided with suitable means, such as the finger wheels 4i l2, by which theymay be adjusted so as to support the journal blocks in the desired adjusted position. The journal blocks are locked downwardly against the supporting screws 39 and 40 by suitable means, such as the set screws 43 and 4 2. By this means the axis of the cylinder I may be set in the predetermined fixed position to provide the desired space between the cylinders l and 2 and to maintain the cylinders in parallel relationship.

The stub shaft 33 (Fig. 1) extends outwardly beyond the frame 3 and carries secured thereto a pulley 50 drivingly engaged by a belt 5! which is driven by a pulley 52 secured to the output shaft of a gear box 53 which is drivingly connected to an electric motor 54, which in the present embodiment serves as the motive means for driving the machine. The opposite stub shaft 34 (Fig. 2) extends outwardly beyond the frame 4 and carries secured thereto a sprocket wheel 35 in driving engagement with a chain '56 which in turn is in driving engagement with a sprocket wheel 51 secured to the corresponding outwardly extending end 58 of the axle I3 of cylinder 2. The chain 56 is somewhat longer than required to encompass the sprockets 55 and 51 and passes around an idler roller 59 which is journaled on an arm 60 whose lower end is pivotally supported in a shaft end 58 and whose outer end carries a weight 6i. This arrangement keeps the chain tight while at the same time permitting such movement of the roller I upwardly and downwardly as required to obtain the predetermined position of the axis of rotation. It will be seen from this that the rollers l and 2 are rotated in the same direction and therefore their peripheral surfaces move in opposite directions.

Fastening means for test specimens The cylindrical shell 30 of the roll I is provided with parallel axially extending grooves of such depth radially inwardly as to accommodate means for clamping the ends of test specimens below the surface of the cylinder. The device is adapted to support three specimens spaced equidistant around the periphery of the cylinder I and for this purpose three pairs of grooves are utilized. The pair of grooves illustrated in Fig. 3 being designated 62-63 and the grooves of each pair are spaced apart so as to hold the ends of the test specimen in circumferentially spaced apart relationship. As a means of securing the ends of the test specimens in these grooves clamp bars (Fig. 4), such as 64, are employed. These clamp bars are preferably cylindrical and are provided with a slot 65 extending therethrough. In the present embodiment these slots are about 2" long to accommodate specimen strips of this width and the over-all length of the bar is approximately 3. These bars are provided with holes extending therethrough spaced outwardly beyond the ends of the slots 65 for receiving screws, such as 66, whose heads are recessed below the surface of the bar. The ends of the strip of material to be tested are inserted in the slots 65 in the direction shown in Fig. 3 and thereafter the bars are secured in position by means of the screws 66 which serve to securely clamp the ends of the strip of material in position on the test specimen roll I. It will be seen with reference to Fig. 3 that the roll bars permit the 5. specimen loop to be folded oven-without damage to the material being tested: r

g In the present embodiment the machinev is adapted toaccommodate four series of test specimens each comprising three (i. e twelve in all) and. therefore each of the grooves is of sufficient length toaccommodate four of the clamp bars 64 in axial alignment.

Operation With the machine constructed and arranged as above described the cylinders will beadiusted so that the space between the circumference of the cylinder l and the abrasive circumference of the cylinder 2 will be substantiallyequal to three times the thickness of the strips of material S. I have found that this is a satisfactory distance to accommodate the double thickness of the collapsed loops of material and the crease at the outer edge of the collapsed loops and serves to give the degree of abrasion, flexing and. creasing desired. With the specimen loops secured in the position above described the operation is as follows, referring more particularly to Figs. 6-9, inclusive. In the position shown in Fig. 6 the specimens SI, S2 and S3 due to the manner in which they are mounted and the rotation ofthe carrying cylinder assume open loop formations as indicated. In the position shown in Fig. '7, some 30 later in the cycle of operation, specimens S2 and S3 are still in fully flexed positions, due to centrifugal force, while specimen SI is making positive contact with the abrasive medium on cylinder 2 and is being wrapped around the abrasive surface on cylinder 2. Little or no abrasion is effected at this point but as the cycle advances specimen SI is tightly wrapped around the abrasive cylinder, as shown in Fig. 8, and is being abraded through the action of the abrading surface moving in the opposite direction to the path of travel of the specimen. As specimen I further advances to the position shown in Fig. 9 it is subjected to the final abrasive action and creasing prior to emergence with subsequent flexing and opening, as shown by the specimen S2 in Fig. 2, and thereafter the foregoing steps are repeated during each revolution of the cylinder. It will thus be seen that the material being tested first slaps against the abrading surface, is then dragged over this surface and creased and upon emerging from between the rolls flexes out into an open loop preparatory to a repetition of the same treatment. This continues for the duration of the test. I have obtained entirely satisfactory results, for example, by the use of a machine in which the cylinder I rotates at 100 R. P. M. and the cylinder 2 at 50 R. P. M. This means that the above described cycle takes place at the rate of 100 C. P. M. for the duration of the test. As above indicated, the present embodiment accommodates twelve specimens, nine of which will come in contact with an abrasive covering on the correspondingthree cylinder sections and the remaining three specimens which come in contact with the smooth section 221) of the roll are reserved and represent the unabraded specimens which are utilized in the final evaluation.

According to the preferred procedure, three of the specimens working against the abrasive material and preferably comprised in one of the circumferential zones are run for one-half hour and then removed for measurement. Three additional specimens in another one of the circumferential zones are run for a total of one hour 6 and thenxremovedland the. three remaining test specimens subjected 'to 'abrasion are run to the point of destruction or until-a total lapsed time of 180. mi-mxtes has beenxconsumed. The three specimens whicharcmounted to work over the smoothsurface. of the: cylinder. wherein-no or little abrasion-is evidenced; are run for the full minutes and serve to indicate the flexural strength of the; specimens in this group.

Having thus described my invention with particularitywith reference-to the. preferred apparainis',andv having referred to some of thepossible modifications thereof, it willbeobviousto those skilled in the art, after understanding my invention, that other changes and modifications maybe made without departing from the. spirit and scope of my invention, and I aim in the appended claims to cover such changes and'modifications as are within the scope of the invention.

What I claim is:

1. In a machine of the character described, the combination of a first rotatably mounted roll provided with a plurality of pairs of axially extending substantially parallel grooves, the grooves of each pair being spaced apart and the pairs being spaced apart circumferentially, means for securing within said grooves below the circumference of said roll respectively opposite ends of strips of material to be tested with the ends of each of said strips disposed in respective pairs of said grooves, whereby said strips may assume an open loop formation upon rotation of said first roll, a second rotatably mounted roll providing a surface of rotation substantially parallel to and in closely spaced relation to the surface of rotation of said first roll for carrying an abrasive surface against which said material is pressed, and means for rotating said rolls in the same direction.

2. In a machine of the character described, the combination of a first rotatably mounted roll provided with a plurality of pairs of axially extending substantially parallel grooves, the grooves of each pair being spaced apart and the pairs being spaced apart circumferentially, means for securing within said grooves below the circumference of said roll respectively opposite ends of strips of material to be tested with the ends of each of said strips disposed in respective pairs of said grooves, whereby said strips may assume an open loop formation upon rotation of said first roll, a second rotatably mounted roll providing a surface of rotation substantially parallel to the surface of rotation of said first roll for carrying an abrasive surface against which said materialis pressed, and means for rotating said rolls in the same direction, said rolls being adjustably mounted to thereby provide for a predetermined spacing in accordance with the material being operated upon.

3. In a machine of the character described, the combination of a first rotatably mounted roll provided with a plurality of pairs of axially extending substantially parallel grooves, the grooves of each pair being spaced apart and the pairs being spaced apart circumferentially, means for securing within said grooves below the circumference of said roll. respectively opposite ends of strips of material to be tested with the ends of each of said strips disposed in respective pairs of said grooves, whereby said strips may assume an open loop formation upon rotation of said first roll, said strip securing means including a plurality of clamping means disposed in longitudinal alignment in each groove for securing a like plurality of corresponding ends of specimens in each groove, whereby said roll may accommodate a number of specimens equal to the product of the number of said pairs of grooves and the number of said clamping means, a second rotatably mounted roll providing a surface of rotation substantially'parallel to the surface of rotation of said first roll for carrying an abrasive surface against which said material is pressed, and means for rotating said rolls in the same direction, said rolls being adjustably mounted to thereby provide for a predetermined spacing in accordance withthe material being operated upon.

4. In a machine of the character described, the combination of a first rotatably mounted roll provided with a plurality of pairs of axially extending substantially parallel grooves, the grooves of each pair being spaced apart and the pairs being spaced apart circumferentially, clamp bars of a diameter less than the depth of said grooves for securing within said grooves below the circumference of said roll respectively opposite ends of strips of material to be tested with the ends of each of said strips disposed in respective pairs of said grooves, whereby said strips may assume an open loop formation upon rotation of said first roll, a second rotatably mounted roll provided with an abrasive surface of rotation substantially parallel to the surface of rotation of said first roll and in such predetermined spaced relation thereto that said material is pressed against said abrasive surface by said first roll, and means for rotating said rolls in the sam direction.

MYRIL C. SHAW.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 2,010,049 Abbott Aug. 6, 1935 2,482,381 Stevens Sept. 20, 1949 2,519,556 Fish Aug. 22, 1950 2,561,133 Petkewicz July 17, 1951 2,590,839 Clapham Apr. 1, 1952

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2010049 *Jan 13, 1931Aug 6, 1935Us Rubber CoTesting apparatus for tires
US2482381 *Mar 17, 1945Sep 20, 1949Ford Motor CoMethod of testing bearings
US2519556 *Jun 5, 1948Aug 22, 1950Fish Robert LAbrasion testing machine
US2561133 *Apr 1, 1947Jul 17, 1951Orr Felt & Blanket CompanyWear tester
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3043134 *Oct 8, 1959Jul 10, 1962Haynes Jr James ECoated fabric flexing device
US5703303 *Dec 19, 1996Dec 30, 1997Lear CorporationMethod and system for wear testing a seat by simulating human seating activity and robotic human body simulator for use therein
US5753834 *Jul 23, 1997May 19, 1998Lear CorporationMethod and system for wear testing a seat by simulating human seating activity and robotic human body simulator for use therein
US6131436 *Mar 1, 1999Oct 17, 2000Lear CorporationMethod and system for wear testing a seat by simulating human seating activity and robotic human body simulator for use therein
US7013705 *Feb 7, 2003Mar 21, 2006Innowep GmbhMethod and device for determination of the wear resistance of a surface
US7100419Dec 4, 2002Sep 5, 2006Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.Method for simulating a dynamic force response and method of calibration
US7467537Nov 4, 2005Dec 23, 2008Bsn Medical, Inc.Seam abrasion testing device and method of use
US7552646Jun 30, 2009Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America, Inc.Methods and apparatus for wrinkle resistance testing
US8225638 *Oct 22, 2007Jul 24, 2012Honeywell International, Inc.Methods to determine the durability and wear-resistance of soft armor
US20050081599 *Feb 7, 2003Apr 21, 2005Andreas WortmannMethod and device for determination of the wear resistance of a surface
US20070119245 *Nov 4, 2005May 31, 2007Bsn-JobstSeam abrasion testing device and method of use
US20090183563 *Jul 23, 2009Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America, Inc.Methods and apparatus for wrinkle resistance testing
US20120167662 *Jul 5, 2012Ardiff Henry GMethods to determine the durability and wear-resistance of soft armor
CN102854131A *Aug 31, 2012Jan 2, 2013宁波纺织仪器厂Tester for fabric wrinkle resilience
CN102854131BAug 31, 2012Aug 13, 2014宁波纺织仪器厂Tester for fabric wrinkle resilience
DE102007031865A1Jul 5, 2007Jan 8, 2009Sitech Sitztechnik GmbhSeat i.e. vehicle seat, wear testing and/or soiling behavior testing method for use during seating of human on seat, involves assigning different seat-specific characteristics to seat for standardizable wear and/or soiling testing of seat
Classifications
U.S. Classification73/159, 73/809, 73/812, 73/7
International ClassificationG01N3/56, G01N3/32, G01N33/36, G01N3/02, G01N3/00
Cooperative ClassificationG01N3/32, G01N33/36, G01N2203/0278, G01N3/56
European ClassificationG01N3/32, G01N3/56