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Publication numberUS2670933 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 2, 1954
Filing dateFeb 24, 1950
Priority dateFeb 24, 1950
Publication numberUS 2670933 A, US 2670933A, US-A-2670933, US2670933 A, US2670933A
InventorsBay Thomas J
Original AssigneeBay Thomas J
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Engine cooling apparatus
US 2670933 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

March 2, 1954 Filed Feb. 24, 1950 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 WATER HEAT EXCH.



ATTORNEY 35 INVENTOR March 2, 1954 T. J. BAY 2,670,933

ENGINE COOLING APPARATUS Filed Feb. 24, 1950 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 FIG.3.


ATTORNEY March 2, 1954 T. J. BAY 2,670,933

ENGINE COOLING APPARATUS Fi-led Feb. 24, 1950 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 FIGA.


ATTORNEY Patented Mar. 2, 1954 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,670,933 ENGINE COOLING APPARATUS Thomas J. Bay, Iiyden, Wash. Application February 24, 1950, Serial No. 146,122 7 2 Claims. (oi. 257-2) (Granted under Title 3656K S. Code (1952),

see. l

The invention described herein may be made and used by or for the Government of the United States for governmental purposes without the payment to me of any royaltie thereon or therefor.

This application is a continuation in part of my copending application, Serial No. 775,512, filed September 22, 1947, .now Patent 2,498,637, issued February 28, 1950.

This invention relates to cooling systems for internal combustion engines and to apparatus for use in such systems, and particularly to systems of'the type disclosed in my Patent No. 2,365,166, granted December 19, 1944. The principal objects of the present invention are to provide apparatus for use in systems like those disclosed in that patent'and in this specification, and also to provide a system improved in certain respects over the earlier one.

. The system disclosed in Patent'Nd. 2,365,166 L constituted improvements in internal combustion engine cooling wherein the engine cooling water after having passed in heat exchange relation with a prime coolin medium is then passed in heat exchange relation with the lubricating oil One desirable possibility in such a system is to provide for the rapid elevation of temperature of both the water and the lubricating oil on starting the cold engine. This serves to minimize engine wear, render the installation more reliable in serviceand reduce expense of maintenance.

'1' While the system provided in the above mentioned prior patent has given good service and in many applications is very satisfactory, I have in the present instance devised animprovement on that system particularly valuable to prov-ide'for bringing the lubricating oil to proper operating temperature as rapidly as possible after starting a cold engine to provide for close control of lubricating oil temperature in cases where the engine design provides for relatively large rise in lubricating oil temperature during its circulation through the engine and to provide automatic maintenance of the cooling system in case of valve breakdown. I have further devised improved apparatus for use in the new system as wellas in the system previously disclosed.

With the object of clearly disclosing the invention, the accompanying drawings will be discussed in connection with the description as presenting preferred embodiments from which numerous departures may be made within the scope of the invention.

' Figure 1 is a representation of a complete system for controlling the temperatures of water and of lubricating oil for an internal combustion engine.

Figure 2 shows a heat exchanger with a preferred form of thermostatic valve incorporated in its structure.

Figure 3 shows a heat exchanger with a modifled form of valve.

Figure 4 shows a further form of heat exchanger involving sectional structure and a plurality of valves. I I In Figure l the major elements of the engine cooling system comprise the internal combustion engine I, water heat exchanger .2 and oil heat exchanger 3. The engine heat exchange medium leaves the water jacket by pipe 4 and returns through'pipe 5. The entire how or any portion of the circulatin lubricating oil is taken from any suitable point in the lubricating system at 6 and returned at 1.

Both heat exchangers are represented as being of the type in which two fluids are passed in heat exchange relation with each other but without mixture of the two fluids. In order to convey this idea the two fluids are shown as passing through separate coils within the exchangers. Thus in exchanger 2 the primary cooling medium passes through coil 8, and the engine'jacketwater through coil 9, and in the oil heat exchanger 3 water passes through coil Ill while the lubricating oil flows in coil I l. I

The various elements of the piping represented for conveying the several fluids involve a section I3 to the water heat exchanger, a section 14 between the two-heat exchangers, a portion Hi from valve l!- -to valve l9, and a section l6 constituting a by-pass around the oil heat exchanger to pipe 5. Valves-ll and l9are thermostatically controlled valves hereinafter fully described. In the case of valve ll the control element [8 is in thermal relationship with the water leaving the engine, while the thermostatic element 29 of valve [9,

though the valv controls water circulation, is in thermal relation with, and controlled by the temperature of the oil leaving heat exchanger 3.

Figure 1 is diagrammatic in nature and does not, save in a general manner, indicate the construction of the various elements.

- While it appears that external pipes and valves are employed, this is not necessarily true, as will appear later from description of my newly devised heat exchanger. The description will proceed by setting forth the system as applied to a marine engine installation wherein sea water constitutes the prime heat exchanger medium flowing in coil 8, but it is to be noted that the heat exchanger 2 might be of any type capable of cooling the fluid passing in coil 9. Since the present system issmodified particularlyttorimprovedpere formanceirirnconnectiomwith rapidly hringing:the engine to an efficient operating temperature, this operation will be first described and is as follows; a

On starting of the engine, cold water under the influence of the engine water pumpzfiowslinthe; direction of the arrows at pipes 4 andj. Thewater is forced to flow through pipe IFsihce the valve I! is closed to flow there, throughtby -oper ation of its thermostatic element It. For purposes of this diagrammatic presentation, val'vel'F is indicated as of a type allowing 011.8?01 both of two directions, flow being allowed through. l3 and i5 when the water at is has reached a predetermined. elevated temperature and through l5 only at lower temperatures. Valve lilisof, the type whichl have in.inyprevious patentspecification described as. av three-way valve... Its .operationisto dir ct fluidfiow in..cne-or theother of two directions in this case to pipes 2! or Iii-clependinguponthe temperature of. theoi-l affecting the. element 2B; When. the. thermostat- 20 is. at a low temperature, action of valve is i'sto. send all the. water. through pipeli. and thusthrough coil Ill ofheat exchanger 3. Thereforeunder starting. conditionsthe course. of the engine. jacket water. will. be. in. sequence. through. pipes. 4, l5, valve I9, pipe 2!, coil Illand'pipe. hackle-the engine jacket. completely by-passed', as is'.evident,.andf thus the enginewater, subjectlonly to a minimumamount of heat radiation, will. have its temperature. raised rapidly bytheheat suppliedlby the engine. Fur.- ther all the. engine. water flowsthroughheat exchanger 3'; Since in practically allinternal' combustion engines a greatdeal more. heat passes. into the cooling water than passes into. the. lubricate ing. oil, it will be seen that the. heat exchange relationship between. the rapidly heating water and the oil in exchanger? will serve to increase the temperature of. the cold oil rapidly, whiclLis one ofthe mainobject's of the system. When .the oil? is. at-properoperating. temperature, valve. t9

will act to. control the amount. of, water. passing.

through. I 0. fitomthe engine. When-fulloperating conditions. have been reached all. thecooledwater from heat. exchanger 2. will. pass through. heat exchanger 3, while part of the water willlby-pass both. heat. exchangers and return tdthe; engine. Incase thecil is ,cooled to too. low: atemperature, valve. 1 a will open. partialhc. allowingtsomez of; the hotwater. from. valve. iii to pass. through-pipe 2]. to. the oil. heat exchanger. 3. In. this manner: a very close control. of thealubricating-oil tempera. tureispossible. Ehisis of especial benefit: in-rCDn"? nection with. engines .usinga: small quantity oi oil which. may have to absorb a great. deal of heat athigh power. operation of the engine.

Figure 2 indicates. a heat exchanger containing the essential. elements for constituting. the. water heat exchanger 2 showninthe. diagramof Figure 1. This-heat. exchanger. comprises a cylindrical shell 2-5, water chestsifi-and 21 at either end. of theshell anda tube. assembly comprising. headersor tube sheets 30.. and 31. andtubesSZ. Inletill. and: outlet. 29. are, provided for the. fluid which will flow. exteriorly or". thatubes. 3.2, in. the. case here. described. said fluid beingsea water. In.-

addition to the heat exchanger tubes, thereis pro.=

The. water heat.- exchanger 21 is vided a by-pass tube 33 also secured in the tube sheets 39 and 3!. Water inlet 34 is provided in the Water chest 26 and an outlet 35 in water chest As in integral portion of the inlet 34, there is an extension constituting a valve body 31 having openings at in its sides. A valve closure 38, operated by a' thermostatic element: 3.9, serves to controlsfiow through-the openingsgML-and, indirectly, through the by-pass tube 33. As will be apparent from the drawing, valve closure 38,

when in its extended position, will uncover openi'ngsdll. When in its retracted position the closure 38 willeut off communication from the inlet 3'4 to the water chest 26. At intermediate positiensthe water-flow will be divided. Communication from inlet 34 through tube 33 is allowed at alltimesz' Thermostat element 39 is assumed to expand when the incoming water is hot and contract when it is cold, it being contemplated that suitable adjustments may be provided in known manner... The element-may be of. any. oitha-bel- 10WS, bimetallicpr. other type;

As applied in the. systemaccording. toFigurel, thespace within-theshell. 2.5. correspondsto. coil 8. The assembly of tubes 32 corresponds to coil 9,. the. thermostat valve to valve. [1,. tube 3.32110 by-pass-pipe l5, and element; 39 to element l8f.

In operationsea water. will.circulatethrough. the shell around the tubes. Uponst'artingthe engine, cold water from the. engihewillienter. inlet 34;. from pipe l of Figure 1, and pass directly. through valve housing 37'; valve. 38, andby-pass tube 335,.the downstreamend" of. which 15-6.0111.- nected to tube 35 of Figure. I. Since. the water. is col'd,.thermostat 39" is contractedandiportsl 411 in: valve housing}? are closedby valve. 38 so all. the water comingfrom the engine mustpass into; tube it of Figure l" which. conveys it to threeway thermostatic valve I'9of Figure 1'. Sincethe lubricating oil circulating through tube T from the. oil heat. exchanger 3 is also cold. when the engine isstarted; the thermostat bulb. Zllin thermal contact with the cold oil in pipe T causes three-way valve l9 todivert the entire quantity ofwater entering it from tube. 15 to tube 2|, allowingnone of it to passjnto tube Iii. Thustlie flow of jacket water when the cold engine is: first started'is as followszthrough pipe 4' to. valveSB; to by-pass tube 33,.to tube. l5,',throug h-valve 1.9. to pipe 2.! through the. jacket. water CiICllil'j'jOf the. oil heat exchanger 3,.andback, to the engine. through tube 5.

Since the. cooling tubes. of. the water. heat; ex changer are. being. by-pas'sed, the heat. absorbed by the jacket water. in the. engineis notbeing C1155 sipated and the jacket. water rapidly increases toward the. desired operating. range. When. it reaches: the. desired. temperature the. thermostat 39.. expands. gradually opening ports. 4W; intvalve housing, 3.7. and permitting sufficient. jacket. watch flow throughthe cooling. tubes: 32v for. cooling; as: necessary to: maintain a constant temperature of. the: jacket water passing from. theengine through. tube 4;. This cooled. water is. discharged from tubes. 32. into water chest 27,. and thence: outoi the water heat exchanger: through outlet; 35 and: into tube M. of Figure 1.

It will be noted. that" jacket water. isnot. ad-- mitted. to cooling tubes. 32.: until. its. temperature, leaving the engineshas been elevatedtonperatin range. Prior tog-this.timaalltheheat absorbed. by. the;- jacket. water: flowing through. the engin is. available for heating; the. lubricating.- oil; in. oiLheat-exchanger. 3-. In this way the.-;.lubricat ingoil is. rapidly heated to.- the: desired. operatin range. When the lubricatingoll approaches the desired temperature; thermostat bulb actuates three-way valve i9 and causes a division of flow'of jacket water at this point, i. e., part of the hot jacket water is permitted to'circulate directly back to the engine through pipe 5 and the remainder continues to flow through pipes 2| and M to the oil heat exchanger. Since the lubricating oil is heated more slowly than the jacket water when the engine is started, by the time'hot jacket water is permitted by valve l9 to flow through pipe 2|, cooled jacket water from the jacket water heat exchanger is flowing through pipe [4 into which tube 2| discharges, and under this intermediate condition a mixture of hot and cooled jacket water flows into the oil heat exchanger.

We may now consider the conditions obtaining when the engine has been operating for some time and temperature conditions have stabilized. Valve I! is now dividing the flow of jacket water so as to maintain a constant temperature of the jacket water leaving the engine. Valve I9 is dividing the flow of hot jacket Water, entering it from tube [5, between tubes 2| and i6. Just sufficient fiow of hot water is permitted through tube 2| to dilute the cooled water coming from the water heat exchanger as necessary to keep the lubricating oil, flowing to the engine from the oil heat exchanger through pipe I, at the desired operating temperature. The balance of the hot jacket water flowing into valve [9 from tube l5 passes through tube It and combines with the jacket water issuing from the oil heat Thus, by proper initial exchanger in pipe 5. adjustment of thermostatic valves l1 and IS. the temperature of the jacket water leaving the engine and the temperature of the lubricating oil entering the engine are both automatically maintained within the desired operating range, and at the same time the temperature of the jacket water entering the engine can be reheated to a temperature approaching or even higher than the temperature of the lubricating oil entering the engine.

Figure 3 illustrates a heat exchanger and valve of a modified design. All parts are similar to those in Figure 2 and identical reference characters are used, except for the valve closure which is referred to as 48 since it is diiferent from the valve closure 38. The action of this valve is somewhat different from that of Figure 2 in that positive cut-01f occurs in both positions. This form of valve is capable of closing communication with by-pass tube 33. In operation of this device, cold water entering inlet 34 will pass through openings 29 and by-pass 33. When the water has warmed sufliciently action of the element 39 will uncover openings allowing an increasing portion of the water to pass through tubes 32, water chest 2?, and outlet 35. When the valve is entirely extended, no water is by-passed by reason of the seating of the spherical face on seat 56. A further difference is that by-pass 33 discharges into water chest 21, rather than having a separate outlet.

Figure 4 represents a modified type of heat exchanger for use either with an oil or water system, and comprising a plurality of thermostat controlled valves. Reference characters are applied to the same elements involved in the construction of Figure 3. Major differences involved comprise dividing the tube assemblies by providing a plurality of Icy-pass tubes 33 with their associated thermostat valves. Action of the valves will be identical with that heretofore .described. Provision of the plurality of valves.en-.- tails a number of advantages, prominent among which are use of standard sizes of valves for various sizes of heat exchanger, and possibility of satisfactory operation, even though one or more of the valves should fail. It is contemplated that the valves will be so constructed that upon failure they will act to open communication with the tubes 32 in order to utilize the full heat ex-' change capacity of the system. This may be accomplished by constructing thermostat valves 39 so as to contain fluid at sub-atmospheric pressure. In case of a leak in the bellows wall of the thermostat air enters and expands the chamber thereby closing the short circuiting bypass 33 and insuring maintenance of the fullcool ing action of tubes 32. v

The valves may be of the type shown in Figure 2. I

In the heat exchangers described above, the by-pass is as shown in order to secure the advantages of integral construction of the valve. Negligible heat exchange will occur due to the relatively small surfaces exposed.

It is believed that advantages not specifically referred to will be obvious, as will modifications not departing from the scope of the appended claims.

I claim:

1. Heat-exchange apparatus comprising a casing having inlet and outlet openings, header plates disposed in said casing for forming inlet and outlet chambers, heat-exchange tubes carried by said headers in communication with both chambers, a by-pass tube having one end in communication with said inlet chamber and the other end projecting outwardly through said casing, and valve mechanism for distributing influent between said exchange and said by-pass tubes, said mechanism including a tubular valve housing projecting from said inlet opening to said by-pass tube, an open-ended sleeve valve slidably mounted in said housing, and heat-responsive means actuated by the temperature of said infiuent for slidably moving said sleeve valve, said valve housing being provided with a port permitting fiow outwardly from the housing into said inlet chamber, and said heat-responsive means operating to move said sleeve valve to close said port upon low temperature influent conditions and to gradually open the port in response to increasing temperature gradients, whereby distribution of said influent between said by-pass and said heat-exchange tubes is automatically and infinitely variable, the openend sleeve valve at all times permitting a, portion of said influent to by-pass said heat-exchange tubes for delivery in a relatively unmodified temperature condition at a desired location.

2. Heat-exchange apparatus comprising 3, casing, header plates disposed in said casing for forming inlet and outlet chambers with the easing end walls, heat-exchange tubes carried between said headers in communication with both chambers, a by-pass tube having one end in communication with said inlet chamber and the other end projecting outwardly through said casing, and valve mechanism for distributing influent between said exchanger and said by-pass tubes, said mechanism including a tubular valve housing disposed about the inlet chamber opening of said by-pass tub and projecting from said disposition outwardly through said inlet chamber casing walls, an infiuent conduit com Z witmsaidi tubular hmising. QUIE ifiB-Qf nasmg: wail; PBIIL' X-ZdLSIBBVG': valve: shay abm mounted; in: saizh musing within: said: inlet ehamben; said hausingzbeingformerchwith a ort permittin flaw outwardly fmm it; inm=sa-idiin- 1.81; chamhfin; amtl hBEt'rIZESQDBSiVB: means; dis-= Qasad: in:. said: housingzbetweenz said: influent con d'iuit; ami said; pant; for; actuating said. valve; said mat-responsive means; being; adapted: to; mom: saiddvalveto closmsaid nomugonlow tempera 31mm infiuent conditions; and to:- gmduallyopen said: port. in: responsg to increasing temperature gyadien=i1s-,-. whereby; the distribution; of said; influent. between said byi-pass. and; heat-exchange times1 is automaticallyand infinitelyvaniablaiha ogenrend sleeve- V&1Vfi--,a-tall! times permitting a. pant-ion: of. said, infiuent :tnz by-p assrsaidi heatrexchanges tubes for delivery in:anizelaiiiviely unmodir fled temperature canditionhat-i a; desirecL location.


& v R (mad: im thee filesoit this: patesii:

UNITED S'zT-ATESPATENTS" Number Gountry- Data,

232309" GIeakBriba'itr 1925 310:157 Great Britain Apr.- 25; 1 925

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U.S. Classification165/297, 188/264.00D, 165/292, 165/41, 165/51, 236/34.5, 165/140
International ClassificationF01M5/00, F28F27/02, F01P7/16, F28F27/00, F28D7/00, F01P3/20, F28D7/16, F01P7/14
Cooperative ClassificationF01M5/007, F01P2060/04, F01P2025/50, F01P2007/168, F01P7/165, F01P2025/32, F28D7/1669, F01P2025/40, F28F27/02, F01P3/20
European ClassificationF01P7/16D, F28F27/02, F28D7/16F6, F01M5/00D1, F01P3/20