US 2671331 A
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March 9, 1954 Filed Sept. 10, 1951 M. B. JACKSON WASHING MACHINE 3 Sheets-Sheet l I NV ENTOR, Ma nscHBJock$on March 9, 1954 a. JACKSON WASHING MACHINE 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Sept. 10 1951 INVENT R, Maunszll BJacKson ATT R N BY.-
March 9, 1954 v M. B. JACKSON WASHING MACHINE 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed Sept. 10 1951 VIII/110232 INVENTQ MQ On BeH- B.Jac kson ATTORNEY.
Patented Mar. 9, 1954 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 3 Claims.
The invention relates to improvements in washing machines as described in the present specification and shown in the accompanying drawings that form a part of the same.
One of the main objects of the invention is to provide a washing machine wherein the operations of washing, rinsing and semi-drying ready for hanging out, are carried out successively without having to remove the articles from the machine and without attention other than manipulation of a simple control device between the respective operations.
Another important object of the invention is to provide a machine in which the mechanical action is such that throughout the washing operation the articles being washed are alternately pressed by Water pressure against the resistance of a recticular member to force the cleansing liquid through the articles, and are then spread apart.
A further object of the invention is to provide a washing machine entirely independent of electricity, so as to preclude any of the dangers attendant upon the use of electricity with a machine with which water is associated.
A still further object of the invention is to provide a washing machine which can be operated by water under ordinary household pressure, thus making its use practical wherever water is available.
With the above and other objects in view the invention consists in the novel features of construction, arrangements and combinations of parts set out in the present specification and more particularly pointed out in the claims for novelty following.
In describing the invention reference will be made to the accompanying drawings, in which:
Figure 1 is a vertical section of the machine on the centre line.
Figure 2 is an enlarged fragmentary plan detail, partly in horizontal section, showing the hydraulic control valve in one of its positions.
Figure 3 is a view similar to Figure 2, with the valve in another position.
Figure 4 is an enlarged detail of certain parts shown in Figure 1.
Figure 5 is an enlarged detail of other parts shown in Figure 1.
Figure 6 is a horizontal section taken on the line 6-6 of Figure 1.
Figure '7 shows diagrammatically the various working positions of the parts shown in Figure 6.
Figure 8 is a partial vertical section taken on the line 88 of Figure 6.
Figures 9 and 10 show diagrammatically the washing action of the machine as compared with the usual type of washing machine.
Figure 11 is an enlarged detail of one of the parts.
Like numerals of reference indicate corresponding parts in the various figures.
Referring now to the drawings, I is a tub shaped like a hollow cylinder closed at the bottom by an integral plate medially and upwardly offset. Fastened to this plate, as by spot welding, is a flanged spindle 2. This spindle is carried by and is free to rotate in bearings and 4 which in turn are carried in a central pillar part of a main frame 5 supported on any suitable stand (not shown).
Oppositely positioned and fastened to the tub E, as by spot welding, are guides E5, 5 (see Figs. 1 and 9). The guides comprising each pair are spaced horizontally to form vertical grooves in which the free ends of the horizontal components of a reticular member 1 may be slid vertically but by which they are restrained from sideways motion. The member I thus forms a moveable partition in the tub making the section thereof two equal lunate sectors. Articles to be washed in the machine should be fairly evenly divided between these sectors.
Fastened to the reticular member 7 near the bottom thereof is a strainer 8. This strainer is like a broad hoop with a centralizing and stiffening flange 9 formed on the top of it. It is pierced with numerous holes I8 and is fastened to .the reticular member I only and may be lifted freely out of the tub with the reticular member for cleaning. Though the machine is self cleaning in general this provision is made in case of heavy grease or stains.
A cover I I suitably shaped to engage the wall of the tub provides a removable closure for the washing chamber.
Centrally of the main frame 5 is machined an annular recess 52 (Figures 1 and 4) constituting the operating cylinder of an hydraulic clutch. In this recess I2 is mounted, and free to slide vertically therein, the male part of the clutch (Figure 5) consisting of a hollow cylindrical body I3 having two oppositely disposed slots I4, I4 machined in the bottom thereof, and a flanged top 55 formed on the end of the body remote from the slots.
In holes bored in the walls of the recess I2 are fixed two pins It, IS which register with the respective slots It in the body I3 when the body is in working position in the recess I2. These pins permit the body to move vertically in the recess but prevent rotation therein.
A plurality of vanes H are secured to the bottom of the tub near the edge thereof in evenly spaced relationship around the bottom. They are positioned and curved in such a manner and direction that a jet of water applied thereagainst in the direction of the arrow in Figure 6 will cause rotation of the tub counter-clockwise.
Made integral of the central pillar of the main frame is a casing $8 for a distributing valve. This casing is in the form of a projection or lug on the central pillar. It is concentrically bored with two diameters of holes to receive the rotating part of the valve consisting of a. plug I9. This plug is cruciform in section, is pierced with relief or waste holes 2| and 22, and has loosely fastened on the top an operating lever 33 (Figures 1 and 4). A'concentrically bored top 23 fastened to the casing, as by cap screws, provides a closure for the casing and a bearing for the upper stem 29 of the plug IS). The bearing for the lower stem is made integral to the casing.
The casing has in it three holes 23, 24 and 25. The hole 23 is tapped to be connected to a source of water under pressure from a main supply pipe 26. The hole 24 is tapped to be connected in series to a nipple 42, a T 43, a nipple 44 and an elbow 45 (Figures 6 and 8). Into this elbow 45 is screwed a pipe 21 which crosses under the frame 5, turns up inside the wall of said frame and ends in an orifice 28. i
This combination of piping from the inside of the casing Hi to the orifice 28 will hereinafter be referred to as the orifice feed line.
Hydraulically connected to this orifice feed line by the nipple 46, elbow 48 and nipple 41 is the casing 49 for a latch mechanism consisting of a plunger 50 having integrally formed on it a sear and a stem 52. A coil spring 53 normally keeps the plunger down, as shown in full lines in Figure 8, and pressure from the orifice feed line coming up through a hole in a diaphragm 56 when the tub is being rotated raises the plunger overcoming the spring 53.
39 is a machined extension on the bottom of the casing l8. This extension serves as a bearing about which a lever 38 may be manually swung through an angle of about 9 degrees, as shown in Figures 6 and '7. The lever carries a padded post orstop 31 against which the lever 30 swings as urged by the spring 3|.
32 is a curved member pivoted on a pin 33, the pin being attached to the bottom of the tub I and revolving with it. On one end of the member 32 is formed a weight 34 and on the other end is formed a sear 35. A slot 36 made in the weight 34 co-operates with a pin 4| fastened to the bottom of the tub to limit the rocking motion of the The R. P. M. necessary to cause the weight to assume this last mentioned outward movement is dependent on the stiffness of the spring 49 which is adjustable in this respect by an adjusting screw 60.. The more the screw 69 is turned up the greater this R. P. M. will be. The effect of this variation in R. P. M. will be explained hereinafter.
' 62 is a centrifugally openable closure which is held shut by a. spring 63 as shown in full lines in Figure 1 until a predetermined R. P. M. is reached when it flies open as shown in dotted lines in the same figure.
The technique of washing is:
Assuming the disposition of the parts to be as shown in Figures 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8, that is- The lever 38 and the stop 31 are in their extreme right position (Figure 6), the lever 30 is resting against the stop 31 being urged thereto by the spring 3|, the plug l9 being as shown in Figure 2 thereby providing a free passage for water from the supply pipe 26 into the casing l8 wherein it will pass over and under the plug and out of the piping system herein known as the orifice feed line to issue from the orifice 28 in the direction of the arrow and impinging the vanes ll 4 begin to turn the tub and contents thereof in a counter-clockwise direction.
The weight 34 on the curved member 32 will at this low R. P. M. be urged by the spring 40 in against the pin 4|, and the path of the point of the sear (the arc A-A in Figure 6) will clear the end of the lever 30.
The hydraulic brake operating cylinder |2 being vented through the relief holes 2 I, 22 and 25, the flanged top of the body will be as shown in full lines in Figure 1 and the brake will not be offering any resistance to rotation.
Since there is pressure in the orifice feed line there will also be pressure in the casing 49 under the plunger 50, and this pressure will raise the plunger up into the position shown in dotted lines in Figure 8, as hereinbefore explained, and the sear 5| will be showing above the top of the casing 49.
The pressure of the jet from the orifice 28 against the vanes will continue to increase the R. P. M. of the tub until the point is reached when centrifugal force acting on the weight 34 pulls the curved member 32 round about the pivot 33against the push of the spring until stopped by the outer end of the slot 36 contacting the pin 4| (Figure 7). When this occurs the path of the sear 35 (the arc BB in Figure 6) will engage the free end of the lever 30 and overswing it to the right into an indeterminate position such as that shown dotted in Figure 7 and identified by the letter E.
The lever 30 being loosely carried on the plug IS the free end of the lever will during this overswinging operation pass up the slope of the sear 5| and drop down behind the point of it. The sear 35 will disengage the lever 36 and the spring 3| will bring the lever back against the point of the sear 5|. This position of the lever is shown in full lines in Figure '7.
With the lever 30 in this position the plug I9 will be as shown in Figure 3, the orifice feed lines will be vented through the relief holes 2| and 22 and the pressure therein will drop to zero. The water in the casing 49 under the plunger 50 will begin to leak out at a rate depending on the diameter of the hole in the diaphragm 56 and the strength of the spring 53, and the sear 5| will begin to drop. An appreciable time will however elapse between the moment the lever 30 came to rest against the sear 5| and the moment the sear drops completely below the top of the casing releasing the lever to be returned to its starting position as shown in Figure 6, when the cycle will re-commence.
During this period when the plug I9 is being held as shown in Figure 3 the water under pressure in the casing I8 has a free passage through the relief hole 25 into the operating cylinder |2 of the hydraulic brake forcing the body |3 and the flanged top l5 up until the parts assume the positions shown in dotted lines in Figure 1 and bringing the tub to an abrupt stop. The lever 30 is now released to return to its starting position and rotation of the tub re-commences.
This alternate starting-always in the same direction of rotation-and abruptly stopping constitutes the washing cycle.
The vigor of the washing depends greatly on the R. P. M. of the tub when brought to a stop, and as hereinbefore stated this depends on the amount of adjustment of the spring 4|) so when such articles as are delicate in structure and not normally very dirty when washed, for example lingerie, are in the tub the spring 40 should be weakened by turning the adjusting screw 69 back when the washing action will be a gentle surge which will not harm the most delicate articles. When sturdy, very soiled articles are in the tub the adjusting screw should be turned up. This washing speed, however, must never be great enough to open the centrifugal closure 62.
The technique of damp drying is:
The lever 33 is pushed over to the left, through about 9 degrees, as shown in Figure 7, carrying the padded stop 3'! with it. Now when in the course of the washing cycle the lever 36 is released from the sear 5i and is returned by the spring 3i against the stop 3? it will lie out of reach of the sear 35 even when the sear is at its inmost position, as shown in Figure 7. Thus the braking or stopping portion of the washing cycle is inhibited but the rotating portion-the impinging oi the vanes-is continued resulting in an increase of R. P. M. over that required for washing and the acceleration will continue until the R. P. M. becomes great enough to open the centrifugal closure 69. When this happens the fluid in. the tub will be ejected by centrifugal force and the clothes dried.
The effect and the advantages of this starting and stopping cycle in one direction of motion is illustrated in Figures 9 and 10 and may be explained as follows.
In Figure 9 the tub has just been abruptly stopped from rotation counter-clockwise. When this stopping occurred the suds in the tub of course did not stop immediately but flushed the clothes forward against the now stationary reticular member I and compacted them into the left half of the upper sector, and the right half of the lower sector. This compacting is diagrammatically shown by the thickening of the ends of the hatching lines indicating the clothes; where the ends are thickened there is compacting, and where the ends are thin there is disper- S1011.
Thus the portions of the clothes marked A in this Figure 9 have had a considerable part of their suds squeezed out of them, while the portions marked B have been dispersed and supersaturated.
Continuing the one direction of rotation cycle, the tub now re-commences to rotate counterclockwise and speeds up until the hereinbefore mentioned critical R. P. M. is reached.
In doing this speeding up the reticular memher-which presents a minimum of resistance to the water in the tub-strikes the dispersed portions of the clothes marked B thrusting them before it and compacting them, and at the same time drawing sharply away from the portions marked A, which were compacted against it, and dispersing them. Thus in this speeding up of the reticular member part of the cycle those portions which were compacted have been dispersed and those which were dispersed have been compacted.
The brake now goes on bringing the tub and contents to an abrupt stop and the cycle re-commences, and it is plain that there have been in the course of the cycle two pairs of dispersions and compactings of the clothes.
The condition of compacting on speeding up is diagrammatically shown in Figure 10, the tub and contents are now rotating at the critical R. P. M. immediately preceding stopping.
Now consider what would be the effect of reversing the direction of rotation each time the tub was started from rest.
Assuming as before the tub to have been just stopped from rotation counter-clockwise. That is that conditions are as shown in Figure 9. And assume that rotation is being resumed but this time in a clockwise direction. The reticular member in speeding up would not as before strike dispersed clothes compacting them but would find already compacted clothes pressed against it and there would be no pair of dispersions and compactings on bringing the tub up to speed, though of course the pair of dispersions and compactings on stopping the tub would still obtain.
This argument may perhaps be put more clearly this way:
Any starting and stopping washing cycle will give a dispersing and stopping once per cycle but, if the starting is always in the same direction of rotation there will be two dispersings and stoppings instead of one.
While I have herein shown and described a preferred arrangement, it will be readily understood that changes and modifications therein may be found desirable or essential in meeting the various exigencies of use, and I desire to be understood as reserving the right to make any and all such changes or modifications as may be found desirable or essential in so far as the same may fall within the spirit and scope of the invention as expressed in the accompanying claims when broadly construed.
What I claim is:
1. A washing machine including a unidirectionally rotatable receptacle adapted to contain washing fluid and articles to be washed therein, a friction brake adapted to bring the said unidirectional rotation to an abrupt stop, and automatic means for periodically applying the said friction brake whereby the washing of the articles in the machine may be accomplished.
2. A washing machine including, a unidirectionally rotatable receptacle adapted to contain washing fluid and articles to be washed therein, a friction brake adapted to bring the said unidirectional rotation to an abrupt stop, and adjustable automatic means for periodically applying the said friction brake whereby the washing of the articles in the maching may be accomplished.
3. A washing and semi-drying machine, including a receptacle adapted to contain washing fluid and articles to be washed and semi-dried therein normally unidirectionally rotated at a high turning speed whereby the receptacle may be emptied of the said washing fluid and the articles therein be semi-dried, and a friction brake adapted to be periodically applied to the turning receptacle whereby the high unidirectional turning speed of the receptacle may be intermittently checked and the Washing of the articles therein accomplished.
MAUNSELL B. JACKSON.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,580,778 Coverstone Apr. 13, 1926 1,611,895 Dienner Dec. 28, 1926 1,688,031 Altorfer Oct. 16, 1928 1,869,510 Saunders Aug. 2, 1932 2,273,566 Faber Feb. 17, 1942 2,344,253 Kirby Mar. 14, 1944 2,444,018 Deloghia June 22, 1948 2,592,596 Pengelly Apr. 15, 1952