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Publication numberUS2672640 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 23, 1954
Filing dateMay 23, 1945
Priority dateMay 23, 1945
Publication numberUS 2672640 A, US 2672640A, US-A-2672640, US2672640 A, US2672640A
InventorsRuben O Peterson, Fletcher C Miles
Original AssigneeOsborn Mfg Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Brush and method of making same
US 2672640 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

March 23, 1954 R. o. PETERSON ET AL 2,672,640


Fletcher C. Miles,

University Heights, and

Cleveland, Ohio, assignors to The Osborn Manufacturing Company, Cleveland, Ohio, a corporation of Ohio Application May 23, 1945, Serial No. 595,422

6 Claims. 1

The present improvements, relating to brush manufacture generally, have more particular regard to the manufacture of closely packed brushes of fine stranded or filamental material. However, as will appear, such improvements are not necessarily limited in their application to such or any particular type of brush, although the stranded material whereof the brush is made will require to be selected with a view to its adapt-- ability to the novel method of manufacture involved.

Heretofore in the manufacture of closely packed brushes of fine stranded or filamental material one or the other of two well known methods has been employed. One such method involves folding over the brush material, the doubled strands then being held by some mechanical means such as a staple, retaining wire, or the like, with or without the assistance of an auxiliary binder or adhesive. The other method involves the setting of the ends of such stranded or filamental brush material assembled into desired form in a suitable binder such as an adhesive or cement which will harden upon drying or upon being subjected to other appropriate treatment.

The use of the latter method has always involved certain unavoidable difficulties. The binder employed must necessarily adhere to the individual strands of the brush material and therefore wet them, at some stage of manufacture. However, particularly in the case of closely packed stranded material such binder is drawn up between the strands by capillarity so that if the binder is of such a nature that it will penetrate closely packed brush material there is a tendency for it to be drawn up far enough to render this method of manufacture unsatisfactory, particularly in the case of short-trimmed brushes, and in any event the brush material will be set in or retained by the binder to an uneven degree so that uniformity of product is difficult to attain. Also, the production of short-trimmed brushes in the past has involved the handling of short cuts of filamental material with attendant manufacturing dimculties which are avoided by use of our new method. When the strands or bristles are too short to be combed into parallel alignment it has been necessary to carefully cut, sort,and stack such short bristles by hand prior to insertion in the brush back. By our new I method we are enabled to manufacture brushes with closely compacted but very short bristles in a substantially continuous process.

Within recent years a number of synthetic plastics capable of being drawn in monofilament 2 form have been made available for use as brush material. Such synthetic fiber forming products include polymeric amides having a protein-like chemical structure known under the trade name nylon, vinyl resin fibers, vinylidene chloride fibers and various synthetic rubber-like plastics. From the foregoing and other compounds thus. available in stranded form for use as brush material, those characterized as thermoplastic may be utilized in the present improved method of brush manufacture. Such method is based on the discovery that by simply applying heat in the proper manner to the base of an assemled group or bundle of strands of such thermoplastic syn- I thetic filamental material the corresponding ends of the component strands are interfused and joined to form a secure bond for each such strand or filament. At the same time a more or less flexible base to which such strands or filaments are permanently attached is provided. A further important result is that the interfusion of such ends can be controlled so that the base thus formed is of uniform thickness (or thinness) throughout, with no consequential variation in the degree to which the component strands or filaments are bound together. In other words, the effect is entirely different from that where a binder such as referred to above is employed in that there is no excessive capillary action and in effect the resulting brush element is a unitary structure.

Our present improved method of making brushes is not limited to use to thermoplastic material such as described above for the stranded brush material, but may be utilized in the manufacture of dense brush-like structures capable of being circularized or similarly formed'where the brush material consists of fine wire strands.

The present invention further comprehends the method of mounting brush-like structures produced as aforesaid, particularly when in circular or similar form so as to maintain the free ends of the stranded brush material in close relationship one to the other as is desirable where the brush is to be utilized not merely as a brush in the ordinary sense but as a seal and/or loadbearing device. 7

To the accomplishment of the foregoing and related ends, said invention, then, consists of the steps and means hereinafter fully described and particularly pointed out in the claims.

The annexed drawing and the following. description set forth in detail one method and one product exemplifying our invention, such disclosed procedure and product constituting, how-y manufacture may :be carried out, ;.such figure including a perspective view of a brush element as formed by such method;

Fig. 2 is a central longitudinal section through an apparatus adapted to be used in carrying-out the present method, several accessory parts being shown in addition to those appearing -1;

Fig. 3 is a side elevation of-a brush elementas produced by the present improved -method;;-

Fig. 4 is a transverse section of such element taken on the plane indicated by; lined-=4, Fig. 3;

Fig. 5 is a side elevation of such element similar to that of Fig. 3 but showing the element-with its base in flexed condition;

Fig.6 illustrates a plurality-0f elements-as as.- sembled. tov form .a sorcalled brush. strip;

Fig.7 is a'transverse section, of such brush strip. as. indicated bytheline. '|-'-1, Fig. 6

Fig.3 is a view similar to, Fig. 6 but showing-a different method. of assembling suchbrush elements on. a supporting base or brush. back;

Fig; 9 .isa central longitudinal section, similar to that iFig. 2,'through a modified form of apparatus, adapted tov be .used in carrying out the present method of. manufacturing brush-like structures;

Fig; 10 .isa .side elevation with parts broken away to show the interior construction of a circular brush-like. structure made in accordance with our improved method, adapted for use as a brush. seal for a bearing;-

Fig. 1l:is a transversesectionon. the line I l.-l l, Fig 10.:.

Fig. 12 is a centralaxial view. of a typical bearingcshowingrthe. manner in which .such brushlike. structure is applied thereto .asa seal; and.

Figs-=13 isa transverse sectional view of such bearing taken through said seal .as. indicated by the line-.l.3--l-3, Fig. 12.

Referringmto. Figs. '1 and 2, theindividual strands or filaments-u utilized. to form the present improved; brush element will be drawn closely compacted..parallel relation from theskeinsor reels in. which .filamental material. of .the. char.- acter previously described is regularly supplied by. .the ,manufacturer. Such; stranded: or filemental .materialnsually comes. in the form-of a multiple. strand, the number of. individual strands 0 :1; fi aments. com rised therein varyin with-the.

diameter,- i. e. fineness, of the individual strand.

The assemblebody- A "of strands dthus provided, is carried using such, supporting or guiding.

een iesmeybe necessary, to; a .pre sl onth der p i at;.. ustr ted, mF s. .1- and 2-; .As-

1BQL QWnL s c press. co p ises: simp y tw die-.lmemh rs. the firstofwhichis o' r. n tocab ysmov l w t n. a 5. 0. 514 in the-second: y /11 ov e; a 1. eul r;. e ning. hrou h wh ch e-a emb dbodim of s nd sles; w l b un ers and t at. t e; p rt c lar:

shape of such die opening 4 maybevaried dependipgti pqn theshdpe which it is desired, the

finish biiush element should take. By :alter nately raising and-lowering die member; 2 the. pressure onthe-strandedbodyA may be released;

to. permit Such body to be advancedany predetermined dis tance, desired .and then tightly cl m e rzw h at e i pe ina Assofliatfld yvith the forward face-of-the press.

thus composed of die members 2 and 3 is a shearing blade 5 and a heated member 6, each of which is mounted so as to be capable of movement across and in close fitting contact with such face. Since member 6 is heated, as indicated, its range of movement will desirably be such that it will normally lie clear of-zthe adjacent press member, as illustrated in Fig.2. Said member-6 may be conveniently heated by electrical resistance wires 1 suitably imbedded therein or in any other manner as may befound desirable.

Since the ends of the component strands or filtmentsi-of body: A.:as initially assembled will be difiicult of alignment, the operation is intiated byadvancing such=body A through di opening Q until all of-thecomponent strands or filaments project beyond-the forward face of the press. Thereupon die member 2 is moved downwardly so -as tightly to compress the portion of such body A liying within opening 4 and the shear blade or-kniief5 ismoyed-tosever the projectin ends of the, component; strands.

Next...heat edmember, .6 is moved acrosszsuch; forward face; ofthediemembers and, the exposed.-

end of. the strandsia comprised in the portionof body A thus held compressed indie. openingx ki The temperature at;which;;memb er 6 :is main. tained willpf course; very; with the particular. synthetic plastic;compound-whereof strands. I f rme utsucntemnerature will be sunrciently high so that as a result of the movement of member; 6, as just described, across the exposed end of the assembled, body Ofi strands: thelatter;

will be rendered sufiic-iently plastic .to interiuse and form a thin layer ofthematenial tOqWhiCh each individual strand; composing; the body: is in-i tegrally joined.. The effect is very much like a searing action exceptgthat; the; composition. is .un--

changed; the ends; of, thev brush .materialbeing As shown-,in;Fig, 2, .theheating member 6 is of. u s a alzmass,:containing a number.- of heating elements: 1,, whereby; it may be maintained at, a proper temperature sufiiciently high thus to interfuse, such endsof thestrands without dam:-v age thereto during rapid, travel .1 thereacross.

Thermoplastic,-materials are damaged. ifysube;

jected to-v too high temperatures; The. massoi such heatingmemberfiis sufiicient to provide; a substantial heat -reservoir,with consequent insigenificant lowering of the temperature of such. member during the fusing-operations The nextstep in theoperation. willbe to. raise pressmember 2 so; as-to relieve, the pressure on the body of brush-material; held in ,dieopening4.

Thereupon such body is advanced; so as to: prio jectbeyond. theiorward face of. the'press-a dis,-,

tance equaLto that which it is desired the strands.

b which enter into the finished brush element B shouldhave. Thebody ofv brush material is now again clampedjni-th press by. downward movement of; die memberdg following-whichrshearblade 5 is actuated-tocutoff .theprojectingQQrtion, of the body, thus. producing thebrushselement .3 as illustrated 4 in; Fig. 1 wherein. the .com-

ponent-strandsb are individuallynnitaizily and firmly attachedto the base-Z -whichis shown; as, a thin, sheet like base having appreciable ithick- 6. 5

The sequence of operations just described may thereupon be repeated indefinitely until the stranded body A derived from a particular source (group of skeins or reels) is exhausted. Since the action of the heating member 6 is practically instantaneous, the sequence of operations may be repeated quite rapidly to form and sever from the stranded body A successive brush elements B.

As indicated, the interiusion of the ends of the component strands b of such brush element can be very accurately controlled so as to provide a base b of uniform thickness or thinness. Where the brush element, and thus its base, is of rectangular form, as illustrated in Fig. 1 (see also Figs. 3 and 4), the thickness of said base will desirably be such as to render the same relatively rigid transversely of the element but flexible longitudinally of the latter. In other words, the element may be readily given a curvilinear form in its longitudinal direction, as illustrated in Fig. 5. On the other hand, as illustrated in Figs. 6 and 7, such element is equally adaptable for assembly in a channel base C of the type used in the manufacture of so-called brush strip which as at present made usually consists of a metal channel within which stranded brush material doubled about a retaining wire is held by compressing the side walls of the channel inwardly. Due to its condition of relative inflexibility transversely of the fusion produced base I) the present improved brush elements B may be directly seated in such channel C and upon similarly bending in the side walls 0 the element will be securely attached to the channel base C, as best shown in Fig. 7. Accordingly, by closely juxtaposing a series of elements B in such a channel base C, as shown in Fig. 6, a brush strip of indefinite length may be produced, and since the elements B are flexible in a longitudinal line the resulting brush strip may be similarly bent, if required, to fit a curvilinear support.

Brush elements B are of course likewise adapted for direct attachment by adhesion of their bases b to any desired supporting base or back,

as illustrated in Fig. 3, where a series of such elements is shown attached by means of a layer of cement d to a block D which may consist of wood, metal or any other suitable material. Inasmuch as the bases 17 of the brush elements B constitute an integument for the corresponding ends of the component strands of brush material in such element, the cement or other adhesive thus used to attach the elements to support D will not penetrate between the filaments or even come in contact therewith. Accordingly, none of the hereinbefore mentioned difiiculty attending the use of a cement or like binder is involved.

It should be pointed out that if desired the brush elements where assembled in a channel C to form a brush strip as illustrated in Figs. 6 and 7 may similarly have their bases cemented to the strip as an additional means of securing the elements to the latter.

While in Fig. 8 an aligned series of brush elements B is shown as attached by the cementitious layer d to the supporting base or back D, it will be obvious that such elements may be similarly attached in spaced relation both longitudinally and transversely of the back. Furthermore, by making the elements of appropriate form and size, e. g. in the form of round bundles instead of the rectangular shape illustrated, the eifect of individual bristle tufts may be obtained by attaching elements of this type in spaced relation, as described, onto the supporting base or back.

. The modified method of manufacture illustrated in Fig. 9 involves the use of a press I comprising two die members 2 and 3, the same as illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2, and the body A of strandedv or filamental material will be advanced through such press in the same manner as before so that successive sections of the closely compresed material may be cut off by shearing blade 5. However, instead of utilizing a heated member 6, which upon movement, across the exposed ends of such sheared body held between press members 2 and 3 will render such ends sufficiently plastic to interfuse and form a thin layer of the material to which each individual strand composing the body is integrally joined, a member I!) is mounted for similar movement. "This member, as diagrammatically illustrated in Fig. 9, comprises a chamber adapted to contain a body of the plastic material in fiuid condition, and, extending from the lower end of such heated chamber, a nozzle ll mountedso as to be capable of movement across and in close fitting contact with the forward face of the press. ,The transverse extent of the opening in said nozzle will be slightly greater than that of the assembled body A of strands held in the press and thematerial in the nozzle will be maintained at the desired temperature by means of electrical resistance wires i2 imbedded in the nozzle, or other suitable means.

Movement of the nozzle is correlated with that of the shearing blade 5 so that following the severing of the projecting section of stranded body A the opening in the nozziewill be causedto pass across the exposed ends of the body held in the press. The temperature of the material in the nozzle will be sufficiently high so that as a result of the movement just described the exposed ends of such assembly body will be rendered sufficiently plastic to interfuse and form a thin layer of the material to which each individual strand composing the body is integrally joined, just as before. The base layer thus-produced will also include of course some of the heated fluid material supplied through the nozzle, but the result will be the production of a brush element substantially as illustrated in Figs. 3, 4 and 5, when the body A of filamental brush material is next advanced and the projecting portion thereof sheared off, except that the base I) of such element may be made of somewhat greater thickness due to intrusion of such molten plastic from such nozzle.

As previously indicated, while our improved method of brush manufacture is particularly adapted for use in making brush elements as described from filamental material composed of plastic fibers, such method is also adapted to the manufacture of the elements in question from fine metal filaments or strands. Particularly where the element is to be made from the latter, the modified construction of apparatus illustrated in Fig. 9 will be desirably employed. In such case the molten material supplied from chamber ll through nozzle i2. to the cut-off ends of the body of stranded material held in the press will be molten metal, preferably the same as that of which the strands are composed or one having a comparable temperature of fusion so that the ends of the strands thus held in the press will be interfused to provide. a thin base capable of flexure in its longitudinal direction.

A series of brush elements B thus produced is shown in Fig. 10 as arranged in a circular channel-form base C which differs from the base (3 7 of -the construction illustratedin-Figsns and '7 in that the side walls 0 thereof extend a sub-: 'stantial distance beyond the base b ot thetbrush. element and are bent inwardly toward the median plane-came latten- As a resulttheouteriace of the brushelement-or assembled-series of such elements may be laterally compacted to such degree-as may be round desirable ion-the use to. which the elements in i such asselnbled vtorrn. are to beput, or, conversely, as illustrated in Fig. 12, suchouter-face may be allowed to spread so that the outerwidth or the member is greater than that-ofthe-base. I

Onesuchuse, -viz.-as-a brush seal for a bearing, is illustrated in Figs 12 and 13. As there shown; the-circular base C is-press fitted orotherwise closely held withinthe-journal J of thebearing adjaeentthe bali race-R which terms the bearing proper for the-shaft S rotatably'supported in such journah The laterally compacted outer-face of the-filamentous brush material heldinbase' C will closelyandyet yield-ingly contact with the cylindrical surface of i the shaft and provide a most effective-forniofsealagainst the entrance of dust or evenobiectionable gases into thebearing proper erany mechanism lying beyond such bearing. When the-brush element is conformed and secured to the innenp'eriphery of an annular support asthus shown in- Figs. 12 and 13 with the strands extending generally radially inwardly there-lea resultant-spreading-of the already compact material at the brush face, laterally con-lined and supported-- by ltheuradially inwardly flaring side members 0'. Onthe other hand, when the brush element-is circularizedas shown in Fig, 10 1 or similarly deformed to conform to a convex mounting. there-is-naturally a resultant lessening of the density or -the brush face since such face lies at -theouter periphery;- The side walls 0' of the-i-channel formhbase C may accordingly be inclined-toward one another as shown inhFig. 11 to compact such brushface, the latter-now being narrower than' any other portion of the stranded body.

We areaware thatithasheretofore been proposed, asin Patent No'. 885,032 to De Ferranti; to usela filamentous element'on the order of a brush as a sealior packing inzeonjunctionwith a bear- However.,-so.far as we are aware no som mercial use has ever been made ofsucha sealbecauseof the failure to provide a construction of bnushiadasptedto this particular kind oi service. This it is believed-is due to-failure to a preciate; the fact that forming a brush convexly', as

by'circularizing the. base thereof-about the err-- ternahsurface of a cylinder,- causes the-free ends ofithe filamentstc separate and form ur'idesi-rable spacing and passageways through: the seal In the present construction, .in the first place, not only is the circularizingpt the brush elements greatly facilitated byitheir unique construction, but the objectionable feature just referred-td-is" eliminated by laterally compressing the body of filamentous material in' 'such a manner that' the free ends remain in close proximitm one to--an-- other,--af-tervthey have been: formed to there quiredshape.

Furthermore, by introducing between the strands of filamentous material ofa membersuch as illustrated in Figs. 1-0;11v and i2; a resilient,

rubberelik'e material," such member maybeadapted for useas-a resilient-load-bearin'g'and abrasionresisting devices To -transfor ni the member to this: user-after being' forr-ned the; circular shape illustrated,- it' i will be placed'-- in a iiiold along with-the requisite quantity ofi'ubbe'rlike material-in fluid or plastie-condition-andthen the latter- I will be cured in the usual manner: I

From the foregoing it will be seen that the present improved construction of brush'eleine'nt not only lends-itself to rapid and economical manu facture, but is ad aptedfor use in a variety of ways-in the constr'iiction oibrushesof different types, Thus the brush strip; as illustrated-in Figs6 and 7, may beused to form-eithera flat; circular-or cylindrical brush by attaching the channel base C-to a suitable support. Furthermora-the component element B; where designed for use in the making of suchbrush strip=,- may be made considerably longer than illustrated Toy-assembling a correspondingly-larger body A or the stranded or filamentousmaterial and spreading the sameout fiatwise-to fill a-oorrespondii-i'gly- Wider diespace 4 iii-thepress composed-of die members-2 and-3'. It should be stated that the herein --described short-trimmed form of brush elementcompcsed (if-relatively fine filamentous material, in addition to the above described use inbearingseals; has been-found to serve with a high degree of satisfaction-as a seal around operiable windows L and-doors conveyances and buildings; A brush suitable iorsuch use -is cur rently in demand for sealing purposes in aircraft gun turrets where the gunner must be protected fremthe high velocity stream of very cold" air that-wouldotherwise interfere with his efficiency. Rubber sealshave beentound entirely unsuitable forthis-purp'ose and in this -and-other-fields a brush element-suchas described,-particularly where mounted ina suitable channel base to form a brush strip, presents-marked advantages Similarly' there may be other fields Of-use for thepresent improved-brush element where its func tion is not precisely that of a brush-in-the ordinary'sense ofthet'erni.

While in the foregoing description thestranded or filamental brush material is" composed-either of thermoplastic c'on'opound on tne oreer of those specifically identified, or of: wirestrands, it'is also possible to utilize thepresentinipreved method for fabricating bru'shes-out oi other-inaterials such as natural fibers or metal-strands by first applying to the latter a oo'atuig of such thermoplastic:materiall i such coatingmay then lee-fused and the individual strands unitedto the resulting: integumcntalbas'e in the sari re manner as where the strands are composed wholly of thermoplastic material.

Itwill'be' understood'lthat: the term thermo-- plastic materiahas used hereinis intended to apply equally totsynth'etic fiber forming productssuch asdesc-ribed as Well asthevarious metals which-area available inistranded form and. suitable for useiru brushes Other-modes of applying the p'rinoipleof our inyen-tionamay beemploye'd -instead of the one explained; change being .made'i as regards the product and method herein disclosed',= pziovid'ed theistep' or steps stated by any of-the followihg claimsor the" equivalent of-sueh stated step or steps be employed.-

We thereforeparticularly point out and dis-- tinctly -clairnasour invention:-

1. =In a method of making brush elements and the likeiro-nr strands coziiposed atle'ast in part of thermoplastic material; thesteps which comprise retainin'g a body=oi s'uchshamans-- posed in substantially parallel relationship in de' e sired cross sectional shape'with aligned ends-cit posed -afid then interfusin'g S1101! 'endSWith' add?- tion of further molten material to form a thin, flexible sheet base for such element wherewith the individual strands are united.

2. The combination with a brush element comprising a closely compacted body of thermoplastic stranded material, the component strands thereof being joined by fusion at their base ends to form a thin flexible sheet; of a concave support for said element to which such flexible sheet is conformed, and means laterally confining and supporting said stranded material with the latter forming a brush face of greater width than the width of said body of thermoplastic stranded material where joined to said sheet.

3. As a new article of manufacture, a narrow elongated channelform support and an elongated flexible, deformable brush element clamped therein by the sides of such chanel, said brush element comprising a body of stranded thermoplastic material joined by fusion at the base ends of such strands into a narrow sheet of sufficient transverse inflexibility relative to the compressibility of said body of strands to be thus securely laterally clamped by such channel sides and of suificient longitudinal flexibility to readily conform to circularization and like deformation of said channelform support.

4. In a method of making brush elements from strands composed at least in part of a thermoplastic material, the steps which comprise laterally compressing a body of such strands disposed in substantially parallel relationship in a die, such strands being drawn from a continuous source of supply of indefinite length, passing a substantial body of molten thermoplastic material across the assembled ends of such strands under pressure in contact therewith, thereby momentarily fusing the end portions thereof and also intruding such molten material to form a thin, quickly solidifying film of such thermoplastic material including such fused ends, thereby forming a unitary thin flexible sheet base, releasing such pressure, advancing such body of strands a predetermined distance beyond such die, again compressing such body of strands, severing such body between such die and such 10 integral unitary base portion to produce a brush element, and thereafter repeating such cycle.

5. The combination with a brush element comprising a closely compacted body of thermoplastic stranded material, the component strands thereof being joined by fusion at their base ends to a thin flexible sheet; of an annular support for said element to the inner periphery of which such flexible sheet is conformed and secured with such strands extending generally radially inwardly therefrom, and radially inwardly flaring supporting means laterally confining and supporting such stranded material, the brush face of such element being of correspondingly greater width than the base portion thereof.

6. In a method of moving brush elements from strands composed at least in part of a thermoplastic material, the steps Which comprise compressing a body of such strands disposed in substantially parallel relationship in desired crosssectional shape in a corresponding die opening, shearing off the portion of such body projecting beyond such opening, and then interfusing short but appreciable lengths of the end portions of such strands held thus compressed in such die by heating the same by intrusion of additional molten thermoplastic material to form a thin, flexible, sheet base for such element wherewith the individual strands are united.


References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 764,898 Mumford July 12, 1904 1,037,830 McMillan Sept. 3, 1912 1,118,156 Schoepe Nov. 24, 1914 2,100,138 Heldt Nov. 23, 1937 2,171,591 Minich Sept. 5, 1939 2,303,800 Swann Dec. 1, 1942 2,310,186 Abrams Feb. 2, 1943 2,329,222 Schlegel Sept. 14, 1943 2,341,823 Smith Feb. 15, 1944 2,438,156 Dodge Mar. 23, 1948

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Referenced by
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US2794201 *Aug 26, 1953Jun 4, 1957Louis F KutikBrush
US2878048 *Mar 18, 1954Mar 17, 1959Osborn Mfg CoBrush seal and the like
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US20080128995 *Dec 4, 2006Jun 5, 2008General ElectricBrush sealing with potting compound for rotary mechanisms
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U.S. Classification15/160, 300/21, 15/207.2, 264/261, 15/193, 425/805, 264/243, 15/159.1
International ClassificationF16J15/32, A46B3/00
Cooperative ClassificationY10S425/805, F16J15/3288, A46B3/00
European ClassificationA46B3/00, F16J15/32G2