US 2672831 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 23, 1954 c, I ET AL 2,672.83]
MULT IPLE SHINGLE STRUCTURE 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Nov. 19, 1952 INVENTORS CMZJE M ATTORNEYS March 23, 1954 c. J. FINK ET AL MULTIPLE SHINGLE STRUCTURE 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Nov. 19, 1952 Patented Mar. 23, 1954 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE MULTIPLE SHINGLE STRUCTURE New York Application November 19, 1952, Serial No. 321,424
This invention relates to a multiple shingle structure and more particularly to a panel unit having a horizontal length spanning two or more studs or rafters and including a row of individual tapered wooden shingles.
While the need of such a multiple shingle structure or panel unit having a surface composed of separate or indivdual shingles, particularly standard tapered wooden shingles, is ob vlous, up to the present time there has been no satisfactory solution to the problem of providing such a unit which can be applied under all conditons encountered in shingling and in which each individual shingle is reliably secured by a plurality of metal fasteners to the framework of the building.
With buildings having wooden sheathing, multiple wooden shingle units have been satisfactorily applied by nailng each shingle of the panel unit to the sheathing. However, this being a field operation the soundness of the shingling was dependent on the care of the carpenter and even then, with a most conscientious carpenter, if the units were prime coated, a shingle could remain unnailed because of the paint concealing its line of divsion with an adjacent shingle.
With the advent of gypsum panels as sheathing, such nailing of each shingle to the sheathing was impossible because such panels, composed of paper covered gypsum, would not serve as an anchorage for shingle nails driven therein. Accordingly such shingle units were unsatisfactory for gypsum panel sheathed structures.
Other solutions have been proposed but have disadvantages in point of cost, weight, dependence on adhesives, too critical fits or dependence on care in application.
The principal object of the present invention is to provide such a multiple shingle unit or structure having individual shingles, which insures a tightly shingled side wall or roof with each individual shingle reliably secured by metal fasteners to the framework.
Another object is to insure such a tightly shingled side wall or roof regardless of the care exercised by the carpenters at the site. While conceivably the nailing of a whole unit of the present invention could be overlooked, such omission would at once make itself known and require little effort to remedy.
Another most important object is to provide such a unit which can be applied on any structure having wooden studs or rafters, regardless of whether such studs or rafters carry wooden sheathing or substitute sheathing such as ply- 2 wood or gypsum sheathing, old siding of any type or, for that matter, regardless of whether the studs or rafters carry any sheathing or siding at all.
Another aim is to provide such a multiple shingle unit which can be applied with a minimum of effort, it being merely necessary to drive one nail through each unit into each stud. This results in rapid shingling of large areas.
Another purpose is to provide such a multiple wooden shingle unit in which a broken shingle can be readily removed, replaced and the replaced shingle firmly secured and which replacement can be as the structure is being shingled or after the shingled structure has been in service for years.
Another aim is to provide such multiple shingle units which are self-alining so that the attention and effort of the carpenters can be devoted to nailing the units rather than to checking their alinement.
Another object is to provide such a multiple shingle unit which includes a so-called vapor barrier, that is, a sheet of moisture repellant felt or paper and which sheets are substantially coextensive with the surface of the shingles so that the entire shingled structure is provided with such vapor barrier.
Another important object is to provide such multiple shingle units which are light in weight and easy to handle.
Another object is to provide such a multiple shingle unit which is tight against wind passage.
Another purpose is to provide such a multiple shingle unit which can be produced in any type or style of shingling and in particular in which the butts of the several shingles are spaced from the faces of the next lower course to provide pronounced shadow lines in the shingling.
Another important object is to provide such a multiple shingle unit which conforms to present building codes.
Another most important object is to provide such a multiple shingle unit which is low in cost even when made with materials of lasting quality, such as stainless steel nails and staples.
Another important object is to provide such a unit which is adapted for sale with a prime coating with the builder selecting the color of the final coat.
Another object is to provide such a multiple shingle unit in which there is no interference with the application of such final coat of paint and in which such final coat of paint augments the tightness and long lasting qualities of the shingling.
Another aim is to provide such a multiple shingle unit which is readily adaptable to special conditions of fit often encountered in shingiing.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following description and drawings hr which:
Fig. 1 is a fragmentary side elevational view of the wall of a frame building having its studs shingled with multiple shingle unitaor structures embodying the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a perspective view of one of the. multiple shingle units or structures shown: in Fig. l and viewed from the front or exposure-side there-- of.
Fig. 3 is a view similar to Fig. 2 but viewed from the reverse or rear side thereof.
Fig. 4 is an enlarged fragmentary sideelevational view of the exposure face of the multiple shingle unit and. showing the manner in which exposed staples are preferably applied. so as. not to retain paint. applied. to the shingled, surface.
Fig. 5 is an enlarged fragmentary, perspective, phantom view of the abutting ends of two multiple shingle units embodying the present invention and showing the manner in which they aline themselves as they are erected.
Fig. 6 is an enlarged vertical section through the wall shown in Fig. 1 and taken generally on line 6-4, Fig. 1.
Fig. 7 is a fragmentary horizontal sectional view taken generally on line 1-4, Fig. 6.
Each shingle unit or structure-oi the present invention includes a row ill of shingles H with the t I length of the row preferably being equal to the spacing of the studs l3 of the supporting structure. shown as. a wall M. the length of the row of shingles being, equal to the spacing of, say, three studs or 4- feet. Before the shingle units are applied to the wall structure M, the studs (.3: would normally be sheathed with a sheathing l5. Such sheathing I5 is commonly in the form of paper faced panels of gypsum, the paper facings being indicated at l6, I1 and the gypsum core at ID. The multiple shingle units of the present invention can be applied to any type of sheathing or siding, new or old, and can alsobe applied directly to the bare studs l3. However, in. view of the common. use of gypsum panel sheathing and in view of the special problems. involved in shingling a structure so sheathed with gypsum sheathing, such gypsum. sheathing has been illustreted.
The row I ll of shingles H of each. multiple shingle structure of the present invention is backed. by a strip IQ of sheet material which in addition to contributing to holding the shingles H together as a unit also forms a vapor barrier under the shingled surface. For this dual purpose the backing sheet [9 is preferably in the form of a separate preformed fiber strip of paper or felt of substantial thickness, say, in the orderof M; of an inch and extends along andeontacts orcovers substantially the entire rear face of each shingle II as well as of the row of shingles, although preferably terminating at its upper and lower edges short of the tip and butt ends of the row In of shingles. It is important to render this strip moisture repellant which can be done by incorporating tar or any other suitable material therein. This backing sheet I 9 is preferably equal in length of the length of the row ll! of shingles of each unit but is preferably offset lengthwise of the row so that one end, indicated at 2e, pro- 4 jects beyond the row ID of shingles while at the other end of the unit the row of shingles pro- Jects beyond the backing sheet I9, as indicated at2l.
In combination with the moisture repellent paper or felt backing sheet IS, the principal feature of the hiventiortresides inanarrow strip 2%, preferably of wood, along the rear fme of the backing sheet l9 parallel with and adjacent to but spaced from the butt ends of the shingles ll of the row 2.. This strip is preferably in the form of a narrow strip being, say, nominally 1% inches wide; and inch thick. This strip is prefenabler made of wood so that nails and staples can. not only be driven through the strip but also so shingle nails can be driven into the strip to become. anchored therein in replacing a broken shingle. While wood is, of course, preferred other materials capable of so receiving and preferably anchoring nails and having the requisite strength and rigidity could be used.
For the purpose of rendering the multiple shingle units of the present. invention self-alining when applied to the supporting structure ll, one
- end of each of the wooden strips 22 is provided with a V-shaped projection or point 24 while its opposite end is provided. with. a complementary V-shaped notch 25. The distance from the extremity of the projection 24 to the bottom 01' the v-shaped notch 25 at the opposite end of each wooden strip 22. is approximately equal to the length of the row 10 of shingles and accordingly the overall length of each strip. 22 is of. a length greater than the. row Illof shingles to the extent of the depth of the V-shaped notch 25 as measured lengthwise of the wooden strip 22.
As shown in the drawings the degree of offset of the row 10 of shingles with reference. to the backing sheetv I5 is equal. to the. excess in the overall length of the wooden strip 22 over either. the row in of shinglesior its banking sheet andthe pointed end 24. of this wooden strip. 22 is arranged in register with the projecting end H of the row of shingles while the oppositenotched end 25 of the wooden strip 22 is arranged in register with. the projection 20 of the backing sheet l9, as best shown in Figs. 2; 3 and 5.
The butt end of each. shingle H is secured both to the backing. sheet I! and the wooden strip 22 by two or more. staples 26 which, as shown .in Figs. 4 and.6 preferably haves. cross part 28erranged against. the exposure face. of each shingle H near each. butt and corner. thereof and with its legs 29. driven completely through. the shingle H, the backing sheet I! and the wooden strip 22.. with the ends of these. legs clinched over, as indicated at 30 against the rear face of the, wooden strip 22. These staples are preferably made of a substantially non-rusting metal such as hot zinc dipped steel, stainless steel. Monel metal, aluminum or the like, and their cross. parts 28 are preferably disposed. at an oblique. angle with reference to the row lit of shingles. so that these cross parts do not have any tendency to retain paint ifthe shingles are painted after being applied to the structure I4.
The tip end of each shingle I l is secured to the backing sheet why at least one staple 3|. These staples are concealed when shingling is completed and hence they can be driven through from either the front or the rear side of the shingle structure or unit and preferably have their legs clinched in the same manner as with the staples 26. These staples 3| are also preferably made of a substantially non-rusting metal.
In applying the multiple shingle units of the present invention it will be assumed that the structure Hi to be shingled is in the form of the wall having studs l3 on standard 16 inch centers and that these studs are sheathed with paper covered panels E5 of gypsum, such gypsum sheathing being characterized by their inability to anchor shingle or other types of nails.
In starting the bottom course of shingles, one of the multiple shingle units is placed in position to span the assumed four studs [3. This unit is then nailed to each stud 13 against which the unit has been placed by. say, a seven or eight penny finishing nail 32. Accordingly each multlple shingle structure is secured to each of the assumed four studs I3 and is therefore secured by four nails 32. Each of these nails 32 is preferably made of a substantially non-rusting metal and an important feature is that each nail 32 passes through the butt end of the shingle H along a line marked by the exposed or cross parts 28 of the line of staples 26; the tarred felt or paper backing panel IS; the wooden strip 22; the assumed gypsum panel sheathing l5; and anchors in the corresponding stud l3.
After the first unit has been nailed in position the next multiple shingle unit is placed with the projection or notch 24 or 25 in mating relation with the notch or projection 25, 24 of the nailed unit and is placed against the sheathing 15. This automatically alines the shingle unit being positioned horizontally with the shingle unit previously nailed and hence facilitates horizontal alinement of the first course of shingles on the structure M although care must also be taken, 51
of course, to see that the initial row of shingles is properly horizontally alined.
After the first course of shingle units have been so nailed to the studs l3 the second course of shingle units is applied. In starting this second course of shingle units the first multiple shingle unit to be applied is preferably arranged in breakjoint relation with the multiple shingle unit over which it is placed, the purpose of this being to avoid a vertical line of shingle joints along particular studs IS. The first multiple shingle unit of the second course of shingles is arranged so that its wooden strip 22 is disposed against the front face of the first course of shingles adjacent to but spaced from the tip ends of this first course of shingles. While the degree of overlap of the courses is optional, for a particu-. lar shingle size this overlap is usually fixed and the row of staples 3| are preferably spaced from the tips of the shingles I i such distance to serve as a gage in applying the next succeeding higher course of shingles. Thus, as shown in Fig. l, the row of staples 3| can be arranged to register with the upper edge of the wooden strip 22 of the next higher course of shingle units and thereby insure that this next higher course of shingle units is arranged parallel with the first course.
The first unit of the second course of shingles is then nailed to the studs 13 in the same manner as with the first course of shingles. It will be noted, however, that each nail 32 of this second course of shingle units passes through the butt end of a corresponding shingle H of this second course along a line marked by the exposed parts 28 of the row of staples 26; its tarred felt. backing sheet l9; its wooden strip 22; the tapered end of a corresponding shingle II of the next lower or first course; the tarred felt backing sheet I! of this next lower or first course;
the assumed gypsum panel sheathing l5; and anchors in the corresponding stud 13.
The second unit of the second course is applied in the same manner as the second unit of the first course, the pointed or notched end 24, 25 of the wooden strip 22 of the unit being applied being fitted in the notched or pointed end 25, 24 of the first or nailed unit of the second course and this second unit being secured by the nails 32 in the same manner as with this first unit. The units are so applied, course upon course, until the shingling of the structure I4 is completed.
If any special fitting conditions are encountered it will be seen that the multiple shingle structure can be sawed to suit any particular condition so encountered. It will also be seen that if in any such fitting, or in the nailing, any shingle i I should be broken it can readily be removed and replaced with another shingle. Thus the broken shingle can be split so as to free it from its staples 26, 3|; these staples can be removed or hammered down; a new shingle can be cut to the width of the removed shingle; and this new shingle can be fitted in the position of the removed shingle and secured by shingle nails (not shown) to the wooden strip 22. This replacement of broken shingles can be done after the shingling has been in service for many years and facilitates keeping the shingling in tight and serviceable condition.
It will particularly be noted that each shingle II is securely fastened to its wooden strip 22 by two or more staples 26 as a factory operation thereby to insure the reliable securement of each individual shingle. Since each wooden strip 22 is also secured to each stud H by a large nail 32, it will be seen that each shingle III is reliably secured to the studding. It will also be particularly noted that this securement of each shingle H to the studs I3 is wholly independent of the type of sheathing l5 which also obviously could be old siding or, for that matter, could be nonexistent with the multiple shingle structures of p the present invention secured to the studs l3 without any sheathing.
It will further be noted that the wooden strips 22 act as barriers against wind or rain being driven up under the shingles and that the interfitted pointed and notched ends 24, 25 of these wooden strips 22 further inhibit rain being driven up past the ends of these wooden strips. It will be also observed that these wooden strips 22 serve to space the butt ends of the shingles Ill from the exposed faces of the next lower course of shingles so as to provide a pronounced shadow line in the shingling between the several courses thereof thereby to greatly enhance the beauty of the shingllng.
Also to be noted is the fact that while the shingles are shown in regular arrangement they can be built into the multiple shingle structures in any pattern, such as to provide a random length eiiect. It will further be seen that at adjacent ends of the units the end shingle of one unit overlaps the extension 20 of the tarred felt backing sheet of the other unit so as to provide sealed joints between the ends of the units. It will also be seen that these tarred felt backing sheets l9, in addition to holding the several shingles of each unit in properly assembled position, also act as a vapor barrier which completely covers the structure being shingled and inhibits the passage of moisture through the wall or root so shingled.
hefeabhrthw sh H: and. wooden:
strips 22 are hrimnicoflitfimcliwhoniihc W8. seahorse described is: coinnlete. a final coat, of point of anydastredcolor anolied; over the xcused; times or the shineicsi. Such final coat. covers: the cross newts,- 218: or, the exposed st p sasiwell as the heads at the nails 32. By the slanted arrangement or the cross parts to of he-staples 2.6,, there is no tendencyiorpamt to collect thereon, and run down in streaks aitter the painter has hissed. Also this angular dispositionor those staples 28 tends, to reduce. splitting of the wooden strips 22 since they are plannd out of alinemennwith the grain of, the wood.
Most: building codes approve the application of; WQDIIBB; shingles to strics of lath ememling hammers-the studs and hence it will bev seen that the; present intention not at romanc with present building codes:
Fmm the for: it will be seen that the Dreams invention Dmldes a very" low cost. mule t me wingio umitiwhich can he aupiied toe framestcuctnre ha viiw. ens kind of or sitting o whicli is Wided with sheathing and in which: each shingle is. firmly and reliably secured tfi filesiiflfldmg wet in which the shingling can beremectod raaidlr endby carpenters, having little ezmcrienee imshimlingz It Wm further be seen that-rtheimultinlc shingle. structure of present.
iiiendon cliches the various objects and has the numerous advantages aszsetforth,
1. As an article of mamaiacture, a. multiple slee stlmctrlre comprising a row of separate nailable shingles arranged in; edge-tmedge relation" a s parate. preformed fiber backing sheet extending along: the greater part or the rear of said row and of each individual shingle, a. narrow ils-hie striu extending along the rear of said row sinus, and disccnt one longitudinal edge of" said: row and remote from the opposite longitudinaL edge thereof, and means securing each shim glo .adiaeent said one longitudinal edge of said row to said strip and means securing at least some of: said: shingles intermediate saidv strip and said pp i e longitudinal; edge to said back;- ing sheet.
2. .As an article of manufacture, a multiwlc shingle structure comprising a row of separate nailahle. shingles arranged in edge-to-edgerelatinn, a separate preformed, fiber backing sheet extending alon the greater port; of the, rear of said row-and of each individual shingle, a narrow: nailable. strip extending along the rear at sa d row along. and adjacent one longitudinal edgfl of said row and remote from the opposite longitudinal. edgethereof, meonssecurlng; each shin:- le. adiacent. said one longitudinal edge of saint row to said nailable strip, and mean securing; at least some of said shingles adjacent said opposite longitudinal edge of said row to said booking sheet, said booking sheet being interposed be tween said nailable strip and said row of; shingles;
3. As an article of manufacture, a, multiple shingle structure comprising a row of segerate nailable shingles arranged in edge-to-edgerelas tion, a separate preformed fiber backing: sheet extending along the greater part, of the rear of said row and of each individual shingle, a narrow nailable. strip extending along the rear of said: backina sheet. along and adjacent to one longitudlnal, edge: of, said row and remote from theopnosite longitudinal edge thereof, said backine. sheet bein interposed between said nailable strip and'said row of shingles, a row or metslirs nsemble solid cried edlemf saddi roar wltlalseach; tsistener extending into said neilable St'1',hfl0kifl8f sheetamin corrcspeudine shingle; and; means securing; each shingle adiaceut said. opposite longitudinal edge of said row o'soid hackin sheet,v
Q. As an, article 0;; manufacture, a multiple shingle structure comprising a row of tapered wooden shingles arranged in edge-to-edge relatiomwith their buttsrand tips, forming respectiv ooposite longitudinal: ed es: of said row, a. narrow nailable. strip extending along the rear of row along and; adjacent th'E-rhfll'it edge of; said row andiifemoto from the tip'edgethereof a senarate preformed: strip; of fibrouslsheet materiat extendinejalonszsuhstantiallx thccntire rear area of said mm along and'adieoeht both said; tipiand butt edgcsoisaid rowrmeans securing'caich shin-P gin to said nailaible strip, and menus: arranged adjacentsaid: tip-=8dgfi of said now and securitw:v
atleostsome of solid-shingles to said strip; otshcet nmterial.
5 As an article oil manufacture, a multiple. shingle structure cord al-sing, a. row of taneredi wooden shingles arranged in edge-torcdge reinitifln 'with their: butts and tips respectively forming; ogposite longitudinal edges of said mm, a backing,sheet of waterrepellantmaterialextendingslongvthe greater part at theareain'or said mm and of each; mdividualshingle and projecting be yond: one: end of saidrow to underlay the; end: of amadiaoent multiple shinglestructurez, a. naiilaible strip extending along; the rear: of said row along and adjacent one; longitudinal edge; o1!v said row and the adgiacont longitudinal edge or said backing sheet and romoterfromathe opposite, longitudinal edge of; said row; means securing: each shingle to said nailablestnip, and means arranged along said; ounositezlongiturlinal; edge; of, said: row and securing, atleasii some of: SMdL shingles to said backihgsheot.
6. As an articleof; manufacture, a multiple shingle structure comnrisinss' a row: of; tamedi woode'm shingles arranged; in, edgeetm-edge; reliantion, with; their huttstipsxespactivcly: forms mg. opnosite' longitudinal edges of; saidirowirac backing; sheet. of water: repellent :malterisd, are ranged; in faceg-tofacnsrelwtioni withitlmgreater part. of the; roar of! said now and of, eaicir 111111; vidhallshinglesendmroioctina beyond: DIIBcEIIdQOI' soiclucomvr to underlain the: and; at on adjacentzmulu tirualshin le 'BtI'uGEHl'fifii-Rfl m w od n simmer tending along the; reaper-said: backing sheet and; along; sanda adiacent the-buttedzmof said row) amt remote f romithe; tipedge ofsaidrow, as now 013. metal fasteners along. said, woodenustripiwitireamh. fastener extending, into said wooden: strip, said! backing. sheet and the: butt; 01- di correspcndinm' shingle, and a second row of metal fasteners alongtthe, top edge otsa-id row andconneotingr said backing sheet with the tip end of each shingle.
7. As an article 01 manufacture, a multiple shingle structure comprising, a. row oil separate nailable shinglesarranged in, edge-to-edge relation, a narrow nailable strip extending alongjhe rear of saidrowolongond adjacent one longitudinal ed'geof sanidrow'andremote from the opposite= longitudinal edge thereof; the overall lengthiersaid stripbeing ereoterthan the length at said: row and being provided at its-opposite ends with acomnlementaw notch andprojiaotldneach substantial]? eqnal ini a direction lengthwise of saidstrim tocthediflerence between the: overalllenlth or, saidustrieand thmlemtbiodisaid:
row, a strip or sheet material extending along the rear of said row along and adjacent said opposite longitudinal edge of said row, means securing each shingle to said nailable strip, and means arranged adjacent said opposite longitudinal edge of said row and securing each shingle to said strip of sheet material.
8. As an article of manufacture, a multiple shingle structure comprising a row of tapered wooden shingles arranged in edge-to-edge relation with their butts and tips respectively forming opposite longitudinal edges of said row, a backing sheet of water repellant material extending along the greater part of the rear area of said row and of each individual shingle and projecting beyond one end of said row to underlay the end of an adjacent multiple shingle structure, a narrow wooden strip extending along the rear of said backing sheet and along and adjacent the butt edge of said row and remote from the tip edge of said row, the overall length of said strip being greater than the length of said row and said strip being provided at its opposite ends with a complementary notch and projection each substantially equal, in a direction lengthwise of said strip, to the difference between the overall length of said strip and the length of said row, a row of metal fasteners along said strip and each extending into said wooden strip, backing sheet and a corresponding one of said shingles, and a row of metal fasteners along the tip edge of said row and connecting said backing sheet with the tip end of each shingle.
9. A shingled structure, comprising a plural ity of substantially uniformly spaced and substantially parallel wooden structural members arranged generally in a common plane, a plurality of strips of water repellant sheet material arranged in generally horizontal rows with their rear faces opposing said wooden structural members, a row of separate nailable shingles arranged in edge-to-edge relation with their upper ends across the front of each of said strips of sheet material, a narrow nailable wooden strip along the rear of the corresponding row of shingles adlament the lower edge thereof and remote from the upper edge thereof, means securing the lower end of each shingle to its nailable strip, means securing the upper end of each shingle to its strip of sheet material, and means securing said shingles to said wooden structural members, comprising a nail extending through a corresponding shingle, its nailable strip and anchored in each of said wooden structural members.
10. A shingled structure, comprising a plurality of substantially uniformly spaced and substantially parallel wooden structural members arranged generally in a common plane, a plurality of sheets of water repellant material arranged in generally horizontal rows with their rear faces opposing said wooden structural members and with their upper and lower edges in overlapping relation, a horizontal row of tapered wooden shingles arranged in edge-to-edge relation with their butt and tip ends respectively forming the lower and upper edges of the row of shingles and respectively arranged adjacent the lower and upper edges of a companion backing sheet, a horizontal wooden strip associated with each of said backing sheets and interposed between the overlapping portions of two rows of said backing sheets, metal fastenings extending into and uniting the butt end of each shingle, its backing sheet and its wooden strip, metal fastenings extending into and uniting the tip end of each shingle with its backing sheet, and means uniting said shingles to said wooden structural members, comprising a nail extending through the butt end of a corresponding shingle, its backing sheet, its wooden strip, the tip of a shingle of the next succeeding lower row, its backing sheet, and anchored in each of said wooden structural members.
CARL J. FINK. CHARLES E. HEIN'IZ.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,814,291 Caton July 14, 1931 2,232,786 Kendall Feb. 25, 1941