US 2673737 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 30,1954 E. R. DANIELS APPARATUS FOR POSTURAL CORRECTION 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed June 12 1951 INVENTOR. f BY ATTORNEY.
March 30, 1954 E. R. DANIELS 2,673,737 APPARATUS FOR POSTURAL CORRECTION Filed June 12, 1951 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 IN VEN TOR.
W ATTORNEY Patented Mar. 30, 1954 UNITED STATES ATENT OFFICE This invention relates to orthopedics, and more especially to apparatus for enabling a subject person to develop specific muscle groups and thereby to correct and/or prevent muscular or skeletal deformities.
An object of my present invention is to provide a method of performing certain basic postural exercises against a yieldable, and preferably resilient resistance, whereby a subject is enabled to promote development of those specific muscle groups which are involved in maintaining correct posture.
Another object in this connection is to localize the muscular development resulting from the exercises, and thereby to focus the corrective treatment being administered to a subject to those particular muscles or groups of muscles which require development in order to correct certain postural deficiencies, and to avoid the unnecessary or undesirable development of other muscles which should or need not receive any further development.
Another object of my invention is to provide apparatus for carrying out the described method of posture correction.
A further object in this connection is so to design the exercising apparatus that a subject, when using the apparatus, is guided thereby so as to ensure his assuming the position required in order to focus, or localize, the effect of his exercising, to those particular muscle groups which require development to overcome the postural deformities for which the subject is receiving treatment and direction.
Another object of the invention is to provide a method of posture correction which is highly effective in enabling a subject to overcome postural deficiencies positively and rapidly and yet which is of such a simple nature that after having been familiarized with the few simple steps of the method, and with the preferred sequence of their performance, the subject will be able to proceed with the prescribed corrective exercises without further supervision, or with supervision at only relatively infrequent intervals, to the end that the prescribing orthopedic surgeon will be enabled to assume responsibility for the care of a far greater number of patients than would be the case were the attendance and observation of the prescribing orthopedist required during each exercising period of each patient under his professional observation.
A further object, in this same connection is to provide apparatus. for use in the performance of the exercises, whichis of such alsimple nature 3 Claims. (Cl. 27280) that it can be employed by patients of even less than average intelligence without requiring constant observation and guidance on the part of the prescribing orthopedist.
The invention possesses other objects and features of advantage, some of which, with the foregoing, will be set forth in the following description of the preferred form of my invention which is illustrated in the drawings accompanying and forming part of the specification. It is to be understood that I do not limit myself to the showing made by the said drawings and description, as I may adopt variations of the preferred form within the scope of my invention as set forth in the claims.
Referring to the drawings:
Figure 1 is a perspective view of apparatus for the performance of the method of posture correction of the present invention. Portions of the figure are broken away to reveal details of construction which otherwise would be concealed.
Figure 2 is a view in side elevation of the apparatus of Fig. 1, and illustrating in broken lines the positions assumed by a subject in performing two successive exercises of the series of postural corrective exercises of the invention.
Figure 3 is an end elevation of the apparatus, illustrating in broken lines the position assumed by a subject in performing the third exercise of the series.
Specifically describing the preferred embodiment of the apparatus for performing the method of the'present invention, there is provided a platform 6 upon which two horizontal bars I are mounted in spaced parallel relation to each other at a height which is slightly less than the waist height of the average physical type of person for whose use the apparatus is intended.
.That is to say, for adult persons, the height of the horizontal bars I is slightly less than the height of the waist of an average adult; whereas, if the apparatus is designed for use by children, the apparatus will be designed so that its horizontal bars I are proportionally lower. The bars I are rigidly supported upon the platform 6 preferably by four corner posts 8, 8 and 9, 9, the posts 8, 8 hereinafter being considered the front posts, whereas the posts 9, 9- hereinafter being considered the after posts for the purpose of convenience in the description to follow.
In its preferred construction, the apparatus is so constructed that the horizontal bars I are elevatiomas indicated at H, so as to cause the bars "I to extend horizontally rearwards from the upper ends of the corner posts 8 at the proper elevation. At their after ends the bars 1 are rigidly secured, as by welding l2, to the after posts 9 which, instead of terminating at the height of the bars continue on upwards for an appreciable distance so that the transversely extending horizontal bar |3 interconnecting and preferably integral with the upper ends of the after posts 9 is at an elevation substantially corresponding to that of the neck and shoulders of the physical type of person for whom the apparatus is intended.
To simplify the construction of the apparatus and to enhance its rigidity, preferably the lower end of each of the four posts8,-8,: and 9; 9 is-attached to the platform 6 by means of a flanged socket member It.
At an elevation somewhat less than half that of the horizontal bars 1', the'front corner posts 8 are interconnected by a transverse bar It preferably welded at its ends 'to the corner posts 3. At the same elevation abovefthe platform 6 as the transverse bar |3, anotherb'ar ll extends forward from each of the front corner posts 8 to the up er end of a front leg I8; and'the upper ends of the two front legs iii are interconnected by another transverse bar N at the same elevation as the bars |6 and H. Thus it maybe seen that the bars l5, El, and I9 define a rectangular frame lying in a horizontal plane at the front of the apparatus and at an elevation somewhat less than half that of the horizontal bars l; Extending across this frame and disposed longitudinallywith respect to the apparatus is a'plate 2| apertured substantially at its center, as indicated at 22, to accommodate a pulley 23 journaled upon a transversely extending pin 'Msuitably mounted upon the plate 2|. is a suitable cable, cord, or other preferably inelastic tension member'26 which, for the sake of convenience in the description to followwill hereinafter be called a' cable. Eyes ZTand 28"are provided at the end of this cable 26 which; respectively, are above and below the pulley 23. The upper eye 21 provides convenient means of attachment for anyone of three chains to be described in greater detailhereinbelow; whereas Engaged upon this pulley 23:
the lower eye 28 is preferably permanentlyengaged within a hole 29 in the forward end of a lever 3|, r
the after end 32 of which is pivotally' mounted at the upper end of a bracket or standard 33 rigid with and upstanding from the platform 6 in such position that it does not interfere with the desired positions of the subject person in any one of theseveral exercises for the performance of which the apparatus is intended. Consequently, the bracket 33 is disposed substantiallymidway of the transverse dimension of the platform 6 and forward of the plane of the rear corner posts 9 by a distance substantially'equalto one-third of the distance between the frontcorner posts 8 and the rear cornerposts 9. The lever 3| is disposed substantially horizontally but is capable of a limited degree of pivotal reciproca'toryymotion about theaxis of the'pivot pin' 34 whereby the after end 32 of the lever 3| is pivotally connected to the upper end of the bracket 33. A head 36 is mounted upon-the lever 3| for slidable adjustment longitudinally thereof but a wing-headed screw 3'l' threaded through one side of the head 36 is adaptedto engage-thelever 3| and thereby releasably lock the head in selected positionof adjustment lengthwise of the'lever 3|. A tension spring 38 has its upper end secured to apparatusb'etween the horizontal bars 1.
the head 36; whereas the lower end of the spring 38 is engaged upon a track or guideway 39 disposed preferably below the upper surface of the platform 6 and extending longitudinally of the platform in parallelism with the lever 3|. Hence, the spring 38, in order to extend into engagement with the guideway 39, reaches through a slot 4| with which the platform 6 is provided. Not only does the lower end ofthe spring 38 engage the guideway 39, but it is slidable longitudinally thereof in conformity with the sliding adjustment of the head 35 along the lever 3|. It is apparent, thereforeythatzthe spring 38 is capable of yieldably and resiliently resisting upward pivotal motion of the lever 3| about the axis of its pivotal mounting.- It is also apparent that the degree or magnitude of such yieldable resilient resistance offered by the spring 38 can be adjusted by manipulation of the head 36; that is to 'say,'the greater-thedistanceof the head 36 from the pivot pin 134 thegreaterr will be the force requiredtapplied'at the outer end of the lever 3| as by meansof 'the'cable'26, inorder to lift'the outer end of the lever 3| in pivotal motion about the pivot pin 34;
Preferably, the transverse bar I H) at the extreme forward'endiof the" apparatus is of two parts, the inner ends. OfIWIfiCh are welded or otherwise rigidly and permanently securedfto a tubular 'stand 46 upstanding-from the platform 6 to which its lower end is rigidly secured preferably by-means: of a flanged-socket similar to those M of the corner posts 8"and 9. The tubular stand 46' is of such length that it extends to an elevation substantially-midway between that of the transverse front'bar I9'and that of the horizontal longitudinallyextending bars I. This tubular stand serves for the telescopic support of a'post 48 upon the upper end of which a suitable cushion 49 is mounted. Th'eefl'ective height of this cushion 49 may be adjustedlby loosening a clamping screw- 5| with which the-stand 46 is provided at its upper end.
A flexible strap 56 extends transversely of the Each end of this'strap'56 is' wound'upon a tubular sleeve 5! which is both rotatable and slidable longitudinally' 'upon' one'of' the horizontal bars 1; and each sleeve-'51 is provided with a set screw 58-which maybe tightened against the associated horizontal bar! to releasably retain the sleeve in selected position of adjustment upon the bar 7. Thus it may be seen that'the position of the strap 56 maybe adjusted-along thehorizontal bar 1 by sliding thesleeves 5T thereupon, and that the effective'tightness or'extent'of sag of the strap 56 betweenthe horizontal bars 7 canbe adjusted by rotating one or both of the sleeves 5? upon their respective horizontal bars '1. It is to be understood, of course, that afterthe desired adjustment has been'attained the set screws 58 will be tightened'so as to retain the parts in their selected position of adjustment.
, Another strap 6| extends betweenthe two rear posts!) adjacent their-upper ends," ,i. e., only a slight distance below the transversely extending cross bar 13; This strap 6| is carried by a pair of brackets 62 each of which is formed as a portion of a clamp 63 which is sli'daible upon one of the posts 9, a clamping screw 64 being provided for each of the clamps 63-so as to releasably lock the parts in .seleoted position'. of 1 adjustment.
The 'strap :6 I salso-i is Lpreferably provided with. La buckle:v 66:; whiclr not: only;- facilitates:v engaging the strap 6| upon the bracket 62 and in releasing it therefrom when it is desired to remove the strap; but it also permits adjustment ofthe tension of the strap BI and thereby predetermining the amount of fiexure which the strap will be permitted to develop when a person leans his back and shoulders against the strap Bl in a manner to be described hereinbelow.
The method of posture correction contemplated by the present invention comprises three exercises which, though performed separately and in predetermined sequence, co-operate with each other in producing the unified and coordinated development of the specific muscle groups which are involved in maintaining correct posture. These three exercises involved in my method are performed successively and at intervals and for periods of duration which are determined professionally in accordance with diagnosis of the age, general physical tone, degree of postural deficiency of the subject patient, as well as both the rate and extent of response to treatment which the subject has already demonstrated. The exercises are performed by using the apparatus hereinabove described in detail, which difiers from other types of apparatus heretofore designed for similar purposes, because it assures localization of development to proper muscle groups by the positions which the subject is aided in assuming and maintaining while performing the exercises.
The primary postural exercise is that of flattening the low back or decreasing the lumber lordosis. This is accomplished by rotating the pelvis forward on an axis corresponding to the lower lumbar spine. The muscles involved in performing this action are chiefly the gluteal and anterior abdominal groups. In using the apparatus to develop these groups, the subject stands upright upon the platform 6 between the plane of the rear comer posts 9 and the extreme after end 16 of the platform, as illustrated by the broken line figure indicated at 11 in Fig. 2. He stands with his back against the strap 6|, it being understood that the clamps 63 have previously been loosened, slid vertically along the posts 9 and then tightened again in that position of adjustment which locates th strap 6| at the level of the lower dorsal region of the subjects back, as it is also indicated in Fig. 2. A
belt 18 is then placed around the subjects pelvis,
and a chain 19 or other suitable tension member, which is secured to the back of the belt 18 is attached, as by a conventional harness snap 8|, to the eye 2'! at the upper end of the cable 26, i. e.,
above the pulley 23. The parts are so proportioned that when the subject stands relaxed, all slack is removed from the chain 19 and cable 26, but with the lever 3| at or adjacent its lowest po sition, i. e., the position of least extension of the spring 38. The exercise is then performed by the subject rotating his pelvis forward, against the yieldable resistance to such motion which is offered by the spring 38, acting through the lever 3!, cable 26, chain 19, and belt '18. Th sub ject is supported so as to resist any tendency to step backward in response to the pull exerted by the resistance mechanism, by the coun'terfixation presented to the subject's back by the strap 6!.
The described rotation of the pelvis is carried as far forward as can be accomplished by the subject, substantially to the position indicated by the broken line showing 11, whereupon the subject relaxes, permitting the spring 38 toIZretract the resistance mechanism, and assumes his 6 starting position. This exercise is repeated a predetermined number of times, as determined and prescribed by the orthopedist in charge.
The second postural exercise is straightening the dorsal spine or decreasing the kyphosis. In order to localize the action to the extensors of the dorsal spine and protect the low .back it is necessary to do this exercise bent forward to a right angle at the hips and with a support under the abdomen. In using the exerciser, then, to develop the extensors of the dorsal spine the subject bends forward with abdomen resting on the strap 55, as indicated in broken lines at in Fig. 2.
With the subject in this position, the pulley 23 is almost directly beneath the subjects chin. Hence by attaching the resistance mechanism to a band 82 encircling the subject's neck, as by a chain 83 having a harness snap 8d at its lower end, the subject is caused to stress the extensors of the dorsal spine by his resistance to the downward pull which the spring 38 and lever 31 exert 0n the cable 25 and chain 33. The subject then alternately hyperextends his upper back, i. e., the dorsal spine, and then relaxes, at a rate and for a period prescribed. He may grasp the front corner posts 3 with his hands, as indicated at 84, so as to prevent undue low back strain.
Next in the series of exercises is pulling the shoulders back, which is done by the adductors of the scapulae. To strengthen the scapular adductors by means of the apparatus the subject assumes a position similar to that of the previous exercise except that in addition to the abdominal support, the forehead also rests on the cushion 69. The cervical spine is held in flexion with chin tucked in. The resistance point remains in the same relative position as with the previously described exercise but is attached to the subject by two bands 9| which are slipped over the upper aspects of the arms. The arms are held abducted to from the body in a plane level with the back, as illustrated at 92 in broken lines in Fig. 3, in which position there is zero resistance by the subjects arms to the downward pull exerted by the resistance mechanism, to which the bands 9! are attached by individual chains 93 and a single harness snap at, common to both chains 93. The subject then alternately pulls his shoulders back, i. e. proximates the scapulae, and then relaxes, again in accordance with instructions specified by the supervising orthopedist.
The three described exercises strengthen the ilexors of the cervical spine as Well as the scapular adductors so that all muscle groups involved in back flattening are developed by the three procedures. Each of the exercises should be continued for periods the duration of which is determined by the supervising orthopedist, at intervals also according to prescription. As the subject responds to the exercises, as evidenced by strengthening of the involved muscles and the resultant gradual improvement in his posture, the duration and frequency 01"- the periods of the exercises may be increased; and the degree or magnitude of the yieldable resistance provided by the apparatus may be increased by shifting the spring 38 further from the fulcrum 34, in the manner hereinabove described.
1. Posture correction apparatus of the character described comprising a platform, a frame rigid therewith comprising a pair of horizontal bars and means for rigidly supporting said bars in spaced, parallel relation above said platform, a
strapjsuspended:between said bars in position to support the abdomen of a person standing upon said platform andbent'forwardrat a right angle at the hips,-means mcunted'on said platform providing yieldable -resistance to upward motion, a pair of arm-encircling bands, a-fiexible tension member interconnecting said bands, means for connecting saidrtension member at a. point intermediate said bands to said resistance-providing means at a location below the neck of said person, and means for supporting the forehead of said person.
2. Posture correction apparatus of the character described comprising a. platform, a frame rigid. therewith and comprising a pair of horizontal bars and means forrigidly-supporting said bars in spaced, parallel relation above saidoplatform, a strap suspended between said bars in position to support the abdomen of a person standing upon said platform and bent forward at a right angle at the hips, means mounted on said platform providing yieldable resistance to upward motion, a pair of arm-encircling hands, a flexible tension member interconnecting said bands,
meansior connecting saidtension member at a point intermediate said bands to said resistanceproviding means at a location below the neck of said person, and a head support comprising a tubular stand rigid with said platform, a post telescopically engaging said stand and extending from theupper end thereof, means for releasably locking saidpost in selected degree of extension from said stand, and a forehead-engaging cushion on the upper end of said post.
3. Posture correction apparatus of the character ..described comprising, a. platform, a frame rigid therewith comprisinga pair of horizontal bars andlmeansiorrigidly supporting said bars in spaced, parallel relationabove said platform, a strap suspended between said bars in position to support the abdomen of a person standing upon said platform andbent forward at a right angle at the hips, means mounted on said platform providing yieldable resistance to upward motion, said resistance-providing means being adjustable tovary themagnitude of the resistance thereof, a pair of arm-encircling bands, a flexible tension member interconnecting said bands, means for connecting said tension member intermediate said bands to said resistance-providing means at a location. below the neck of said person, and means for supporting the forehead of said person.
ELIJ AH R. DANIELS.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 886,032 Barrett Apr, 28, 1908 1,548,849 Ruden Aug. 11, 1925 1,705,745 Anderson Mar. 19, 1929 2,097,376 Marshman Oct. 26, 1937 2,261, 72, Maxwell? Nov. 4, 1941 2,274,574 Zerne Feb. 24, 1942 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 812,332 France Feb. 1, 1937