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Publication numberUS2674299 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 6, 1954
Filing dateMar 20, 1952
Priority dateMar 20, 1952
Publication numberUS 2674299 A, US 2674299A, US-A-2674299, US2674299 A, US2674299A
InventorsBruker Hobart W
Original AssigneeGeorge W Swift Jr Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Web corrugating machine
US 2674299 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

April 6, 1954 H, w, BRUKER 2,674,299

WEB CORRUGATING MACHINE Filed March 20, 1952 2 Sheets-Sheet l L J w W 0" V R T 8 5 w W 4, ..l|| dz f? v Q Q m Hunn\m April 6, 1954 Filed March 20, 1952 H. W. BRUKER WEB CORRUGATING MACHINE 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 IN V EN TOR. go B KT WB/PUKER.

A TTORA/EKS.

Patented Apr. 6, 1954 I HobartW. Bruker, Bordentown, N. J assignor to George W.- Swift, Jr., Inc., Bordentown, N. J

a corporation of New Jersey Application-March 20, 1952; Serial No. 277,663

8- Claims.

-I I The invention, in its more specific aspects;'relates to web corrugating machines of the type which have long been used in-the manufacture of single-faced corrugated paper, and wherein the web to be corrugated passes-betweeninterengaged fluted corrugating rolls, the thus corrugated web passes partially around-with the second corrugating roll, adhesive being applied to the peaks of the corrugations of-theweb while so carried by the second corrugating roll, and a liner sheet is pressed by a pressure roll against the gummed peaks of'the corrugated webwhile still carried around by the'second corrugating roll, to form the single faced corrugated paper.

In the useof- 'ma'chinery of' the above characterywebs much narrower in width than the maximum width-which the machinewill accommodate, are frequently run through the machine, these narrower widths thus leaving the "flutes of the corrug'ating rolls exposed through substantial portions of their lengths. -On'the other hand, the mechanism which applies adhesive to the peaks of the corrugations, has to be capable of so applying adhesive to webs of maximum width. To avoid the depositin'gof adhesive upon the exposed -p'ortions of the flutes when webs of narrow width are'beingrungit has long been customary to provide guide members extending partially around the periphery of the second corrugating roll, which guide-members hold the corrugated webin the flutes of the second corrugating roll in the zone near'the bite of the corrugating rolls-and also in thez'one where the liner sheet is applied, these guide members however being specially shaped to per-J mit the corrugations of the web to move out radially somewhat with respect to the flutes of the second corrugating roll, in the intermediate zone where adhesive is applied to r the peaks of the corrugations as above mentioned. In this way the adhesive applying mechanism maybe "spaced from the periphery of-thesecond corrugating roll, sufliciently to avoid depositing adhesiveupon the exposed portions of the flutes of the second corrugating roll, and still 1 apply adhesive-to the peaks of the corrugations. However in so'doing, the corrugations are likely to be distorted in shape when theymove out radially with respect to the flutes of the second 'corrugating roll,- so

that the resulting product may not be uniform in respect to the height and shape of i the corrugations at different points therein.

In oneof its aspects the presentin-vention aims to provide an adhesiveapplying mechanism --appropriatefor-use -inmachineryof the above character, which in a practical and facile manher-may be adjusted to supply and apply a film 1 of adhesive to the peaks of the corrugations, whichfilm will conform in transverse extent to difierent widths of web passing through the machine-fromtime-to time; and may likewise be readily adjusted to conform to difierent transverse positions of the web with respect to the corrugating rolls, as it travels through the machine. Accordingly adhesive Will not be supplied adjac'ent portions of the corrugating rolls which are exposed, while a web of narrow width and particular transverse position with respect to the rolls, is passing through the machine.

' When used in conjunction with an adhesive applyingmechanism of the above character, the above mentioned guide members which are engaged with the peaks of the corrugations of the web while traveling partially around with the second corrugating roll; may be of truly arcuate curvature which conforms accurately to the periph'ery of the roll, so as to hold the corrugations securely in position in the flutes of the second corrugating roll while the adhesive is applied;

'in' other words, it is no longer necessary that the 7 guide members be shaped to allow the corrugation-s to move out radially from close contact with the flutes at the time when the peaks of the corrugations are being coated with adhesive, since there will be no film of adhesive on the portions of the adhesive applying mechanism which are adjacent the exposed portions of the flutes of the corrugating roll. Thus the corrugations of the web may be held securely in place with the flutes of the second corrugating roll at all times while passing partially around with this roll, to" avoid distortion in the shape and height of the corrugations.

As a further feature preferably used in conjunction with the features above referred to,

5 thepeaks of'the corrugations of the second cor- 'rugating roll, shortly prior to the time when they reach the bite of the corrugating rolls to form the corrugations in the web, may be coated with 'scribed, to temporarily hold alternate peaks of adhesive as hereinafter more specifically dethe 'newly formed corrugations in position with respect to the flutes of the second ccrrugating roll. This'insures separation of the corrugated web from the flutes of the first'corrugating roll and the" flutes of the corrugating roll may extend continuously from one end of the roll to the other. However, the bond thus effected between the newly corrugated web and the second corrugating roll, is relatively weak and will persist only for the first inch or so of travel of the newly formed corrugations beyond the bite of the corrugating rolls. The adhesive deposited on the peaks of the flutes of the second corrugating roll should be of a type which converts into powder form almost instantaneously after being subjected to the heat and pressure which obtains at the bite of the corrugating rolls, such as the starch type adhesive which is known in the art, thus avoiding the building up of troublesome adhesive deposits on the corrugating rolls. This adhesive is applied only to the outer tips of the flutes of the second corrugating roll, with the result that only longitudinally spaced, narrow strips of adhesive are applied to the inner surfaces of alternate corrugations of the web, no adhesive being applied to the portions of the corrugated web which lie in the valleys of the flutes of the second corrugating roll. Thus the adhesive bond between the newly corrugated web and the flutes of the second corrugating roll exists only at local points and persists only for an instant, i. e. until the corrugations reach the arcuate guide members above referred to, which guide members from then on hold the corrugations of the web securely in position in the flutes of the second corrugating roll while the adhesive is applied to the exposed peaks of the corrugations and nearly until the liner sheet is applied as above referred to. Further objects and advantages of the invention will be in part obvious and in part specifically referred to in the description hereinafter contained which, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, discloses a preferred form of corrugating machine constructed to operate in accordance with the invention; this disclosure however should be regarded as merely illustrative of the principles of the invention in its broader aspects. In the drawings Fig. l is a longitudinal sectional view, largely schematic, of the corrugating machine above referred to.

Fig. 2 is a detail transverse sectional view of the adhesive applying mechanism of the machine, taken on the broken line 2-2 of Fig. 1, a

and looking in the direction of the arrows.

Fig. 3 is a view similar to Fig. 2 but showing the adhesive applying mechanism altered in position to conform to a paper web of the narrower width.

The invention is disclosed as applied to a corrugating machine wherein the paper web I to be corrugated is fed past the rolls 2, 3 and 4, and then to a preheater and steamer 5 which moistens and further heats the under surface of the web I, and then past a steam moistener E which is applied to the upper surface of web I. The above parts are merely typical of preliminary apparatus such as is customarily used with corrugating machines of the type under discussion, to heat and moisten the web I to be corrugated.

The web then passes partially around with the first corrugating roll I, with which is intermeshed the second corrugating roll 8, so that the web I is progressively corrugated as it reaches the bite of rolls I and 8, after which the corrugated web passes partially around with roll 8 until it reaches the pressure roll 9, by which the liner sheet I0 is progressively pressed into contact with the exposed peaks of the corrugated web I, to which exposed peaks adhesive has been applied as hereinafter described in greater detail.

As previously stated, adhesive of the type which quickly converts to powder under pressure and heat which obtains at the bite of the rolls 1 and 8 is preferably applied by appropriate mechanism to the peaks of the flutes 8a of the second corrugating roll 8, shortly before these peaks reach the bite of the rolls I and 8. In the disclosed form of the invention this adhesive mechanism includes an adhesive applying roll II to the surface of which a film of adhesive is applied, means being preferably provided to alter the transverse extent of this film to conform it to the width of the web I which is being run through the machine at the time. The disclosed form of the above adhesive applying mechanism will not be described in further detail at this point, since it may be understood as conforming in general construction and mode of operation to the hereinafter described adhesive applying mechanism which is used to apply adhesive to the exposed peaks of the corrugations of web I after the web has passed through the bite of rolls 7 and 8 and has traveled part way around with roll 8.

When the adhesive coated peaks of the flutes on roll 8 reach the bite of rolls l and 8 where web I is corrugated, the attendant heat and pressure quickly convert into powder form, the narrow, transversely directed and longitudinally spaced strips of adhesive which are thus interposed between the peaks 8a of the flutes and the areas of the corrugated web which overlie them, the valleys between peaks 8a and the areas of the web which engage them being free of adhesive, with the result that the adhesive bond thus effected between the corrugated paper web and roll 8 persists only for an inch or two of the travel of the corrugated web beyond the bite of rolls I and 8. This bond however is sufiicient to insure that the corrugations of web I will separate from the flutes of roll I, and start to travel around with roll 8 in conformance with the flutes thereof, without the need of any stripper fingers such as are usually provided to work in peripheral grooves in the first corrugating roll, to insure the separation of the corrugated paper web therefrom. Thus the flutes of the roll 1 may run continuously, transversely of the machine, from one end of roll I to the other.

In order to hold the corrugated web 5 securely in position against the flutes of the second corrugating roll 8, as the corrugated web passes partially around with the latter, a series of transversely spaced arcuate guide members 52 are provided, which may be understood as similar in construction and mode of operation to the guide members 22 disclosed in United States Patent No. 2,542,230 issued to me on February 20, 1951, except that in the present instance the curvature of th guide members I2 may be truly arcuate throughout, so as to be accurately concentric with the peaks of the corrugated web as it passes partially around with roll 8, and hold the corrugations of the web securely in position against the flutes of roll 8 from a point slightly beyond the bite of rolls 1 and 8, around nearly to the bite of rolls 8 and 9. Thus the height and shape of the corrugations in web I will be held against distortion until the liner sheet IQ is applied thereto.

As previously stated, the corrugations of the paper web may be held closely in the flutes .of

the second corrugating roll, since the adhesiveapplying mechanism which is used toieoat the exposed peaks of thecorrugated web as it travels partially around with roll 8, may bealtered or adjusted to conform the-transverseextent of the adhesive coating thus applied to the peaks of the corrugations, to the particular width of the-transverse paper web which is .being run-through the machine. The form ofadhesive applying mechanism which is disclosed for the above purpose, comprises an adhesive applying roll l3 long enough to serve the maximum width-of Web for which the machine is designed and having therein a series of peripheral'grooves M which receive the guide members 12. Adhesive supplying units are provided which serve different portions (transversely of the machine) of the adhesive applying roll it, these adhesive supplying units being adjustable one with respect to the other,

transversely of the machine, so that the transverse extent of the adhesive film supplied to roll it may be adjusted to conform to the width of web I which is passing through the machine by adjusting the transverse positions of the adhesive supplying units with respect to each other. Thus adhesive will not be supplied to the portions of the surface of roll !3 which are adjacent portions of the flutes on roll 8 which are left exposed when a paper web I of width less than the transverse extent (length) of the roll it ispassing through the machine.

The adhesive supplying units above referred to may be constructed alike, and therefore a de scription of one will serve for both. In the particular form disclosed, the adhesive supplying unit shown at the left of the Figs. 1 to 3 comprises an elongated adhesive receivin trough it from which a downwardly inclined overflow apron it (Fig. 1) extends nearly to the periphery of roll l3, so as to supply a film of adhesive to that portion of the transverse extent of roll 53, which is adjacent the adhesive supplying unit under dis-- cussion. Adhesive is supplied to the trough it through an appropriate pipe [1, and this adhesive may be of any desired type such as the silicate type frequently used, or the starch type abov mentioned.

The adhesive trough [5 may be provided with supporting bases l8 which are slidable along a cross bar I?) extending transversely of the machine between the side frames indicated at 2i! (Figs. 2 and 3) and thus by adjusting the transverse position of the trough l5 and its apron iii, adhesive may be applied to different portionstransversely of the machineof roll l3.

In the particular form of the invention which is disclosed, the adhesive supplying unit above described, is of a transverse extent (length) which will serve somewhat more than half of the transverse extent (length) of roll [3, and a second similarly constructed adhesive supplying unit is provided, in respect to which the parts l5a-l 9a may be understood as respectively similar to the parts l5l9 above described. This second adhesive supplyin unit however is spaced from the first unit longitudinally of the machine, as shown in Fig. 1, and also applies adhesive to points on the periphery of roll 13 which are peripherally spaced therearound, with respect to the first unit.

Thus when the two adhesive supporting units are positioned as shown in Fig. '2, so that they overlap only slightly in the centralzone of the machine, adhesive will besuppliedalong the full transverse extent of roll 13, as will be needed when a paper Web of maximum width is passing :through the machine. However, when the'ltwo adhesive supplying units are iadjustedfto overlap toa greater extent asish'own in Fig. 3, the trans- Verse extent of the a'dh'esive film aapplied to roll It will be appropriate for a proportionately :narrower width "of paper web :being "corrugated. If the path of travel of :a narrow web through the corrugatings-rolls is:nearer-to one side of'the ma- :chine than theothenthe'adhesive supplyin units :may be adjusted to conform toliitxa'n'd the minimum width of web I 'to which theiadhesiveapplying mechanism may be conformed, will-depend on the number of adhesive supplying units which are coordinated with -:each other as above described. In the disclosed embodiment, widths down nearly to one-half oflength' of .thecorrugating rolls may be thus accommodated, which satisfies usual requirements.

A drip pan 2| (Fig. 1) may underlie the adhesive applying mechanism above described, to catch and recirculate throughpipes I 1 and Ila, adhesive dripping down from the parts above it. Also a scraper roll .22 (Fig. 1) will usually be adjustably positioned adjacent the adhesive applying roll 13, to regulate the thickness of the adhesive film applied to :the corrugations by the latter roll, and adhesive may be scraped off from roll 22 by a scraper blade .23 (Fig. 1).

Reverting now to the adhesive supplying units used in conjunction withroll ll, the parts designated Hid, I6e, 2m, 22a, and 23a, in the upper right hand portion of Fig. -1, may be understood as respectively similar to .the parts :16, Hill, 2 I-23 above described, and ashavingsimilarparts associated therewith. Thus the transverseextent, and transverse locationyof the adhesive coatings applied to the peaks 8a of the fiutes'of the second corrugating roll 8, may be conformed to the width and transverse path of travel of the Web passing through the machine, to :the end that no adhesive be applied -.to the portions of the roll 8 which are left exposed by the .paper web passing through the machine.

With a corrugating machine having its working parts coordinated as above described, the web i may be corrugated as it :passes through the bite of rolls 1 and :8, by flutes extending continuously along the rolls from end to end, the newly formed corrugations will be :momentarily bonded to the second :corrugating roll '8 by the spaced strips of adhesive at the peaksta of its flutes, until the corrugations reach the arcuate guides 12. By this time the adhesive-so applied will have been converted into powdered form, and the guides l2 will hold the corrugations in accurate conformance with the shape of the flutes of roll 8 while adhesive is being applied to the peaks of the corrugations, thus insuring that the corrugations reach the bite of rolls 8; and 9 without being deformed in the meantime. As previously stated the adhesive applied to the peaks 811 of the flutes, being applied only to the tips thereof, and converting almost instantaneously into powdered form after the bite of the corrugating rolls is reached, does not build up permanent deposits on the flutes; and with the adhesive applying mechanism l3, etc. conformed in transverse extent to the width of the web passing throughthe machine, in the manner above described, the adhesive applying mechanism will adequately coat the exposed peaks of the corrugations traveling around with roll 8, without depositing adhesive on the portions of the flutes of roll 8 which are left exposed by the corrugated web, and preferably-the adhesive applied by the roll II is likewise conformed to the width of the web.

The various rolls above referred to, should be understood as driven and heated, as is customary in the art.

While the invention has been disclosed as carried out by a machine of the above described specific construction, it should be understood that changes may be made therein without departing from the invention in its broader aspects, within the scope of the appended claims.

I claim:

1. A web corrugating machine of the character described having rotary interengaging fluted corrugating rolls extending transversely of the machine, an adhesive applying mechanism extending transversely of the machine in position to apply adhesive to the peaks of a corrugated web traveling partially around with one of said rolls, said mechanism including a plurality of adhesive supplying units each of which is constructed to serve a part only of the transverse extent of said last mentioned corrugating roll, and means affording adjustment, transversely of the machine, of one of said adhesive supplying units with respect to the other, thereby to alter the over-all width, transversely of the machine, of the portion of said last mentioned corrugating roll along which said adhesive will be supplied by said mechanism.

2. A web corrugating machine of the character described having rotary interengaging fluted corrugating rolls extending transversely of the machine, a rotary adhesive applying roll extending transversely of the machine in position to apply adhesive to the peaks of a corrugated web traveling partially around with one of said rolls, a plurality of adhesive supplying units each constructed and positioned to supply adhesive to a portion only of said adhesive applying roll, and means affording adjustment transversely of the machine, of one of said adhesive supply units with respect to the other, thereby to alter the over-all width, transversely of the machine, of the portion of said adhesive applying roll to which adhesive is supplied by said units.

3. A web corrugating machine of the character described having rotary interengaging fluted corrugating rolls extending transversely of the machine, ,a rotary adhesive applying roll extending transversely of the machine in position to apply adhesive to the peaks of a corrugated web traveling partially around with one of said rolls, a plurality of adhesive supplying units each constructed to supply adhesive to a portion only of the transverse extent of said adhesive applying roll, and said units being positioned with respect to said adhesive applying roll at points which are peripherally spaced around the circumference thereof, and means affording transverse adjustment of at least one of said units with respect to the other, thereby to alter the overall width, transversely of the machine, of the portion of said adhesive applying roll to which adhesive will be supplied by said units.

4. A web corrugating machine of the character described having rotary interengaging fluted corrugating rolls extending transversely of the machine, an adhesive applying mechanism, means for mounting said last mentioned mechanism adjacent the periphery of the second corrugating roll in position to cause the flutes of said last mentioned roll to sweep successively past said adhesive applying mechanism on their way toward the bite of the corrugating rolls to thereby apply adhesive to the peaks only of such flutes, said corrugating rolls each having flutes extending continuously therealong transversely of the machine, a plurality of web guide members spaced transversely across said second corrugating roll and disposed in the zone thereof which is immediately beyond the bite of said rolls, said guide members having curvature accurately conforming to the curvature of said second corrugating roll to thereby hold the web corrugations in engagement with the flutes of said second corrugating roll while passing said guide members, an adhesive applying mechanism positioned to apply adhesive to the peaks of the web corrugations while held by said guide members in engagement with the flutes of said second corrugating roll, said mechanism including means for conforming the transverse extent of the adhesive so applied, to the width of web passing through the machine, and a pressure roll located adjacent said second corrugating roll in position to apply a liner sheet to the peaks of the web corrugations after passing said guide members.

5. A web corrugating machine of the character described having rotary interengaging fluted corrugating rolls extending transversely of the machine, an adhesive applying mechanism, means for mounting said last mentioned mechanism adjacent the periphery of the second corrugating roll in position to cause the flutes of said last mentioned roll to sweep successively past said adhesive applying mechanism on their way toward the bite of the corrugating rolls to thereby apply adhesive to the peaks only of such flutes, said corrugating rolls each having flutes c teriding continuously therealong transversely of the machine, an adhesive applying mechanism positioned to apply adhesive to the peaks of the web corrugations while traveling partially around in engagement with the flutes of said second corrugating roll, said last mentioned mechanism including means for conforming the transverse extent of the adhesive so applied to the width of web passing through the machine, and a pressure roll located adjacent said second corrugating roll in position to apply a liner sheet to the peaks of the web after passing said adhesive applying mechanism.

6. A web corrugating machine of the character described having rotary interengaging fluted corrugating rolls extending transversely of the machine, said corrugating rolls each having flutes extending continuously therealong transversely of the machine, an adhesive applying mechanism, means for mounting said last mentioned mechanism adjacent the periphery of the second corrugating roll in position to cause the flutes of said last mentioned roll to sweep successively past said adhesive applying mechanism on their way toward the bite of the corrugating rolls to thereby apply adhesive to the peaks only of such flutes thereby to cause the web corrugations, as they leave the bite of the corrugating rolls to separate from the flutes of the first corrugating roll and be held temporarily in engagement with the flutes of the second corrugating roll.

7. A web corrugating machine of the character described having rotary interengaging fluted corrugating rolls extending transversely of the machine, said corrugating rolls each having flutes extending continuously therealong transversely of the machine, an adhesive applying mechanism, means for mounting said last mentioned mechanism adjacent the periphery of the second corrugating roll in position to cause the flutes of said last mentioned roll to sweep successively past said adhesive applying mechanism on their way toward the bite of the corrugating rolls to thereby apply adhesive to the peaks only of such flutes thereby to cause the web corrugations, as they leave the bite of the corrugating rolls to separate from the flutes of the first corrugating roll and be held temporarily in engagement with the flutes of the second corrugating roll, said adhesive applying mechanism including a plurality of adhesive supplying units each of which is constructed to serve a part only of the transverse extent of the second corrugating roll, and means affording adjustment transversely of the machine, of one of said adhesive supplying units with respect to the other, thereby to alter the overall width, transversely of the machine, of the portion of the second corrugating r011 along which adhesive will be supplied to the peaks of the flutes thereof.

8. A web corrugating machine of the character described having rotary interengaging fluted corrugating rolls extending transversely of the machine, said corrugating rolls each having flutes extending continuously therealong, transversely of the machine, an adhesive applying mechanism, means for mounting said last mentioned mechanism adjacent the periphery of the 10 second corrugating roll in position to cause the flutes of said last mentioned roll to sweep successively past said adhesive applying mechanism on their way toward the bite of the corrugating rolls to thereby apply adhesive to the peaks only of such flutes thereby to cause the web corrugations, as they leave the bite of the corrugating rolls to separate from the flutes of the first corrugating roll and be held temporarily in engagement with the flutes of the second corrugating roll, an adhesive applying mechanism located adjacent said second corrugating roll in position to apply adhesive to the peaks of web corrugations traveling partially around with said roll, each of said adhesive applying mechanisms including a plurality of adhesive supplying units each of which is constructed to serve a part only of the transverse extent of said corrugating roll, and means aiiording relative adjustment transing units thereby to alter the overall width, transversely of the machine, of the portion of said second corrugating roll along which adhesive will be applied by said mechanisms.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,218,419 Labombarde Mar. 6, 1917 1,264,506 Hahn Apr. 30, 1918 2,572,716 George Oct. 23, 1951

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2754796 *Sep 10, 1953Jul 17, 1956Rock Hill Printing & FinishingDesign coloring means for fabric material
US3220911 *Nov 6, 1961Nov 30, 1965Werner Arthur WCorrugating machine
US3283712 *Jan 3, 1966Nov 8, 1966Etudes De Machines SpecialesWiper roll inking device for printing machines using fatty inks
US3635778 *Jan 6, 1965Jan 18, 1972Pid CorpApparatus for making pictorial parallax panoramagram units
US3804688 *Dec 30, 1971Apr 16, 1974Batesville Casket Co IncShirring machine
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US4297968 *Jan 31, 1980Nov 3, 1981Isowa Industry Co., Ltd.Device for spreading paste on paperboard in a corrugated board manufacturing apparatus
US4379016 *Apr 13, 1981Apr 5, 1983Winkler + Dunnebier Maschinefabrik Und Eisengiesseret Gmbh & Co. KgMethod and device for applying elastic strips in sections onto a web of material used for making diapers
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US7833376Nov 10, 2006Nov 16, 2010Copar CorporationApparatus and method for manufacturing corrugated boards
US20040261948 *Jul 29, 2004Dec 30, 2004Heineken Technical Services, B.V.Process and apparatus for decorating packages with convex surfaces
EP0117782A1 *Jan 26, 1984Sep 5, 1984S.A. MartinDevice for instantaneously adjusting the width of spread of adhesive during the manufacture of corrugated board, and method of using the same
EP0143173A1 *Jul 28, 1984Jun 5, 1985Werner H. K. Peters Maschinenfabrik GmbHMethod of manufacturing corrugated cardboard
WO1990004513A1 *Oct 27, 1989May 3, 1990Langston MachineImprovements in corrugating machines
Classifications
U.S. Classification156/473, 118/227, 156/205, 118/249, 118/44, 118/262
International ClassificationB31F1/20, B31F1/28
Cooperative ClassificationB31F1/2818
European ClassificationB31F1/28D