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Publication numberUS2676100 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 20, 1954
Filing dateFeb 2, 1952
Priority dateFeb 2, 1952
Publication numberUS 2676100 A, US 2676100A, US-A-2676100, US2676100 A, US2676100A
InventorsWilliam C Huebner
Original AssigneeHuebner Company
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method and apparatus for reproducing images
US 2676100 A
Images(1)
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

April 20, 1954 w. c. Hur-:BNER

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR REPRODUCING IMAGES Filed Feb. 2, 1952 llllr INVENTOR.

Patented Apr. 20, 1954 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR.

REPRoDUcING IMAGES William C. Huebner, Mamaroneck, N. Y., assignor to The Huebner Company, Dayton, Ohio, a corporation of Ohio Application February. 2, 1952, serial No. 269,655

' (ci. sis- 1.9)

This invention relates to a process and apparatus for reproducing or printing images such as texts, illustrations, symbols and the like on print receiving material.

An object of the invention is to provide a method and apparatus for printing or reproducing on print receiving material images such as texts, i1- lustrations, symbols and the like wherein the reproduction or printing of the image is accomplished directly from the copy to the print receivingr material in final and complete form.

Another object is to provide a method and apparatusv as referred lto, above and, wherein the need for the usual or conventional printing plates, inking apparatus, driers and the like is eliminated and consequently thev labor and materialcosts, incident to the. preparation and use of such plates, apparatus andthe like are eliminated. Y i

Another object isto provide a method and apparatusv as hereinbefore referredto and wherein the reproduced or printed images on the print receiving material are infinal form and do not require drying orfurther'processingv or finishing operations.

A still further object is to provide a method and apparatusA such as previously referred to and` wherein the reproduced or printed image may have anyv desired size relationship with respect to the copy image. v

A still further object-is to provide a method and, apparatus ashereinbefore referred to andl wherein the reproduced or printed image onl lthe print receiving material is not reversed with respect toy thecopy image.

A stilll further object is tofprovide a method and apparatus of the character-referred to and wherein the print receivingmaterial and the image4 copy may be substantially spaced apart and the image reproduced or printed on the ma-l terial withoutjcontat between the. material and the image Acopy.-and-without fthe necessity of ink-v ingl the image copyror @thawing means for migrating-.ink from the image copy tothe print receiving material and then subsequently` drying the migratedA ink on the receivingV material.

A still further object is to provide a process and apparatus as hereinbefore referred to and wherein the image copy may be either light reflecting or, light transmitting as, for instance, opaque copy or transparentv copy.

' A still further object is to provide a process and apparatus as hereinbefore referred to and wherein the reproduced image on the print receiving material may be a monochromatic reproduction or a multicolor reproduction.

29 claims.

' A general object is to provide a method and apparatus for reproducing an image on print receiving material from image copy which is eicient, expeditious, economical and requires relatively simple apparatus and avoids the usual make ready required in ordinary printing and also eliminates the drying and other finishing operations required in ordinary printing, particularly in multi-color printing.

Further and additional objects and advantages not hereinbefore referred to will become apparent hereinafter during the detailed description of an embodiment of the invention which is to follow and which is illustrated in the accompanying drawing wherein,

Fig. 1 isa diagrammatic, partial elevation and partial section illustrating an apparatus embodying the invention, and capableof carrying out the method.

Fig. a is a partial plan view of the apparatus shown in Fig. 1, with certain portions broken away and shown. in section. y

Fig. v3 isa fragmentary view taken substantially online 3-3 of Fig. l looking in the direction of the arrows.

Fig 4; is a fragmentary sectional view showing a modified form of target, and

Fig. 5 is a fragmentary detached elevation of the modified` targetshown in Fig. 4.

The invention contemplates. directly reproducing or printing images in finished form on print receiving material] utilizing transparent or opaque image copy. The image copy will have light transmitting or light reflecting image areas.` A light source of suitable wave. length is utilized to pass light rays through the light transmitting portions of the copy or to reflect light rays from the lig-ht reflecting imageA portions of the copy as the case may be. These light rays will vary in intensity in accordance with the, light trans-` mitting or reflecting properties of the differentv portions. ofu the image areas ofthe copy., The.

5 receiving material.

The term printing zone as used lherein, means the space between the target and the print receiving material and the inlet and outlet points for the reproducing material later to be referred to.

The light rays striking the target and creating radiant areas thereon corresponding to the image areas of the copy cause streams -of electrons to be emitted from the target and in paths extending toward the print receiving material. The intensity of said streams of electrons is directly proportional to the radiation of the target. The non-radiated areas of the target from which no electrons are emitted correspondto the nonimage areas of the copy.

In order to accelerate the emission Vof, the streams of electrons from 'the"`target and to the print receiving material an accelerating potential differential is setjup between the target and the print receiving material. This is accomplished by associating with` the target on the sidethereof away from the print'receiving material a transparent electrically conductive means such as a film of metal to which isy connected one pole of an electrical circuit of suitable potential, as for instance the negative pole thereof. The other pole of said circuit is connected to an electrode located on the opposite side .of the print receiving material from `the target. The electrical circuit used will be of very low amperage with a voltage range between 2,000 and 10,000 volts and will have no function independently of accelerating the emission of electrons from the target.

Simultaneous with the 'emission of the streams of; electrons from the light sensitive target reproducing materiaLin,cloud-like-form such as smoke (combustion or chemical) mist, vapor or the like, is passed through the printing zone from the inlet side thereof to thel outlet side. This reproducing material hasa precharge imparted thereto of apolarity correspondingY to that of the electrode and as lthe material passes through the printing zoneit is propelled or acted upon by the emitted streams of electrons and migrates to and is impregnated in the print receiving material in areas corresponding to the image areas of the copy. It has been found that the emitted streams of electrons acting on the positively charged reproducing material dynamically drive the material against and into the print receiving material so that the reproducing material is immediately integratedwith the print receiving material and will not rub off orsmear and need not be given any drying, heating or othe nishing operation. The density of the pigmentation integrated into the print receiving material by the migrated reproducing material and in areas corresponding to the image areas of the copy will be directly proportional to the light transmitting or light reflecting characteristicsA of the image areas of the image copy so as to producethe desired tonal qualities and variations in the reproduced image.`

It is proposed to utilize an image copy in the form of aweb moving in predetermined timed relation to a moving web of print receiving material.v The transmitted or reiiected light rays from the successive zones of the image copy as it continuously passes a given point function to reproduce the image areasv of said zones on corresponding successive zones of the continuously moving web of print receiving material. As an example, if theimage copy contains .printed or typewrittenv texts the successive zones thus reproduced on the receiving material may be successive lines of the text.

It is further contemplated to employ a plurality of webs of image copy each web having image areas corresponding to a different color portion of the image. These webs of Eimage copy may be utilized successively to reproduce on the print receiving material in the desired colors the image areas of the image copy webs, it being understood that different colored reproducing material will be passed through the printing zone as each different image copy web is employed.

It will also become apparent hereinafter that suitable registration for the different colored image areas on the webs of image copy is effected on the'print receiving material to produce a multicolorv print or reproduction on the receiving material.

The reproduced vimage either in monochromatic or multicolor form may be of the same size as the image copy or of a different size depending upon the adjustment given to the lens along its focal axis', it being understoodthat the print receiving material will move atthe same or diierent speeds with respect to the rate ofmovement of the image copy depending upon the size of the reproduced image. If `the image areas of the image copy arelight transmitting or reflecting areas said areas will be reproduced on the print receiving material by the reproducing material. If the `non-image areas of the image copy are light transmitting or light refleeting areas then said non-image areas will be reproduced on the print receiving material by the reproducing material. y t

A suitable apparatus for reproducing or printing images in accordance with thepresent invention is shown in the drawing for illustrative purposes. IThis apparatus comprises a suitable frame I0, portions'ofwhich are indicated in Fig. 2. The frame I Il mounts a stationary shaft II on which an image copy cylinder I2 is rotatably supported by means of end plates I3, said end plates being rotatably mounted on vthe shaft II by means of suitable bearings. "The cylinder I2 is preferably transparent, being formed of suitable light transmitting plastic or other material. A hood I4 which is substantially triangular in cross section is located within the cylinder I2 and extends the axial lengthA thereof and is fixedly supported on the stationary shaft I'I by means of a suitable supporting bracket I5. The hood I4 has its wall adjacent to the inner circumference vof the `cylinder I2 curved concentrically to the cylinder and said wall portion of the hood intermediate its ends is provided with a narrow slot I6 extending the longitudinal length of the hood. An elongated light tube I1 is supported in the hood I4 and extends the longitudinal length thereof and is 'locatedin line with-the slot I6,

The' light tube I1 is'connected to Van electrical circuit later to bereferred to-and it will be understood that the wave length of the light produced bythe tube `I'I is predetermined invrelation to the wave length sensitivity of the photoelectric target later to be referred to.

An arcuate reflector I8 is supported in the hood I4 in line with the light tube Il and the slot I6 so as to reflect the light rays from Vthe light I1 through the slot IS and' through the transparent cylinder I2 as the latter rotates past said slot. The cylinder I2 is rotated by providing on the circumference of one of the end plates I 3. suit-` able helical gear teeth I9 which mesh with a gear 20 fixed tea drive shaft ZI rotatably supported i in the frame I0V and. driven by.- any;l suitable power source. The. drive` shaft. 2IV extends toa variable speedl transmission 22 later to be referred to.

The frame Ill supports a cylinder 23 for the print receiving material, said cylinder 23 being spacedr from the cylinder I2- longitudinally of the frame. The cylinder 23 preferably is formed of metal and is mounted` upon suitable end plates 24 similar tothe end: plates I3.` for the cylinder I2 with said cylinder 23 electrically insulated from the end plates24 as. will bewell understood inthe art.

The end plates 24j are rotatably supported. by means of suitable bearings on a stationaryhollow shaft 25 mounted in thev frame I0 andparallel to the shaft I I. One of the end plates124. is provided with helical gear teeth 26 on its circumference which mesh with a gear 21; fixed to a drive shaft 2Ia rotatably mounted in the frame I -IJ andi extending longitudinally thereof. The drive shaft 2I extends to the variable speed transmission 22 and thev latter operatively interconencts thedrive shafts 2i and 2Ia so. that the shaftr- 2Ia may be operated by the shaft 2;I att-he same orv different speeds, depending upon whether the reproduced image is of. the same size or a different size with respect to the image' copy.

The.y image copy indicated at 28- and the print receiving material indicated at 29 arerillustrated as in the form of webs and in. order that the image copy and the print receiving material will move in accurately timedA relationship said copy and said material are provided along their edges with openings accurately and identically spaced longitudinally of the copy and` material and cooperating with accurately and identically spaced projections 30 formed on the circumferences and adjacent the ends of the image copy cylinder I2 and the print receivingv material cylinder 23. The spaced openings and the projections 3U just referred to` maintain the predetermined relationship required between the image copy and the print receiving material and are particularly important when multicolor reproductions are vbeing made as they maintain the proper registration of the different colored imageportions with the corresponding portions ofthe print receiving material. I

Intermediate the cylinders I2- and- 23 the frame In supports a suitable lens indicated at 3I. lens may take the form of the reversing lens disclosed in my United States. Patent 2,408,855, issued October 8,1946, and the description c ontained in said patent of said reversing lens is incorporated herein by reference.

This f The lens 3l is supported on upstanding'pon tions 32 of a supporting plate 33, the opposite ends of which are slidably supported for adjustment purposes inl channels formed inrupstanding walls of a base 34. It. will. be seenA that the lens; 3| can be adjusted from a mid position to either side thereof longitudinally of its focal axis and it will bey understood that suitable means, not shown, may be provided for locking the lens in anyadjusted position. The focal axis of the lens 3| is aligned with the opening I6 in the light spaced'apart substantially the width ofthe printing zone, it being recalled that said; printing-zone is thespace or gap between the cylinder 23, the nozzles 31 and 38, and the photoelectric target later to be referred to.

The hoods .35 and 3S on their sides` adjacent to the lens 3| are provided with thickened portions which support a transparent plate 39,l that is covered oni its side adjacent tothe. lens 3| with opaque material 40, except for a space indicated at 4Iv and constituting a slot in line with the focal axis of the lens 3I and the slot I6 of the light hood I4. The slot 4I extends the axial length of the cylinder 23. The transparent plate 39- on its side adjacent to. the cylinder 23 supports a thin transparent metallic' lm such as an aluminum lm indicated at 42 and having a central portion registering with the slot 4I., it being` understood that the plate 39 and lm 42v extend the longitudinal' length of the print. receiving material' 23. Y

The film 42 on its side adjacent to the cylinder 23 has a layer 43 of suitable photoelectric material. The central portion of theflayer 43 registers with the. slot 4I and said layer also extends the longitudinal length of the cylinder 23 and the slot. 4I. The material of which the layer 43 is formed; may vary in accordance with the wave length of the light rays produced by the light $1. While various photoelectric or light sensitive materials may be used to form this layer the layer will be referred to herein as a selenium layer for purposes of illustration although it might be. formed of germanium or other suitable photoelectric material.

The transparentmetallic filmv 42 is connected to the negative side of a suitable electric circuit indicated at 44. The positive side of thev said circuit is indicated at. 45 and is connected tov an electrical conductor 46 mounted inbut insulated from the tubular shaft 25 and said conductor is electrically connected to a blade-like. electrode 41 within the cylinderl 2.3 and located in the plane of the focal axis of the lens. 3l' and having a knife n edge spaced from the inner circumference of the cylinder 23 and the said electrode extends the longitudinal length of the cylinder 23 and is suitably supported therein by the stationary shaft 25.. The electrical circuitv referred to provides for an accelerating potential between the metallic film 42 and the electrode 45 to accelerate or facilitate the emission of electrons from the photoelectric layer 43 under the action of the light rays as will later be more fully explained. It will be understood that the voltage of the electric circuit will be suitable to produce the accelerat.n ing potential desired.

Qn eachv side of the blade electrode,l #i1v is a seriesfof electricv magnets,` with the Aopposite poles ofy each electromagnet spaced from each other longitudinally of the cylinder. and of the blade electrode 41, see Figs. 1 and 3. The series of magnets on one side of the electrode 'il' is indicatedat 48 and the series` of magnets on the other side of the electrode is indicated at 49. The opposite poles of the magnets in both of the series are indicated at P and P' in Fig. 3. Thek opposite poles P and P of the series of magnets are spaced from the electrode 4.1l a predetermined distance and the magnetic field between the opposite poles P and P' of each. magnet in the two series form continuous or overlapping parallel magnetic fleldsuon each` side of the electrodey 41 throughout its longitudinal length and said continuous paral lel ,magnet-,ieri fields form a magnetic. shield ex tending longitudinally ofV the electrode and on opposite sides thereof. The magnetic elds of two of the magnets are indicatedbydash lines inFig. 3, and it will be noted that said iields overlap `and hence each series oi? magnets produces in effect a continuous ileld extending longitudinally of the series.

`'llie magnets 41B and 49 are provided with mounting .portions 50 which embrace; the tubular stationary shaft 25 'and are clamped thereon by suitable clamping'l bolts 5i, it being understood that a bar 521s interposed between the ends of the mounting portions 50 to facilitate the clamping of said portions to the tubular shaft 25.Y An insulating sleeve 53 may be interposed between the rshaft 25 and themounting portions D of the magnet and also the part 52 might be formed of insulating material.

It will be understood that the windings of the magnets are connected to a suitablesource of electric current in any conventional way. It will further be understood that the apparatus will function satisfactorily without the magnets and that the latter need not be used but it is felt that the use of the magnet, producesimproved results and particularly with respect tov certain reproduction materials, certain print receiving materials and certain photoelectric layers and their use is recommended.

The magnetic iields on each side of the electrode v41, as already statediunction as shields and act to conne the flow of electrons across the gap of the printing zone to straight line iiow corresponding to the light rays. The stated action of the magnetic shields is due to the fact that said shields conne theaocelerating potential and 'prevent dispersion thereof.

The inlet hood 35 is connected with an inlet conduit 54 and the reproducing material in cloudlike-form is introduced into the hood 35 through said conduit. A precharging electrode 55 is located within the hood 35 and is connected by a lead 5B to the positive side of the accelerating current and said electrode 55 imparts 'a positive precharge to the material entering the hood 35 prior to said material passing through the inlet nozzle 31 into the printing zone. The electrode 55 is shown as in the form of bars which extend the longitudinal length of the hood 35, it being understood that said bars will be electrically insulated from the hood in any suitable and well known manner.

The conduit 54 may extend to a single source of supply of "reproducing material if monochromatic reproductions are to be made or it may be selectively connected to a plurality of conduits 51, each of which` extends to aseparate source of supply of reproducing material as, for instance, in the reproduction of multicolor images the conduits 51 would extendA to supply sources for reproducing material to produce the different desired colors. v

The conduits 51 are connected to openings in a stationary plate 58 which is mounted in a rotatable cone-shaped connecting member 59 that has a plate 6G provided with a single opening which when the member `59 is rotated can be selectively aligned with any one of the openings in the plate 58 to connect the interior of the member 59 with any one of the conduits 51 as desired.

The cone-shaped member 53 is provided With a cylindrical extension intertting the conduit 51 and interconnecting said conduit with the interior ofthe member. The outlet hood 3.6 is connected with a conduit 6| that extends" to a suction device so that reproducing material which is not migrated to the print receiving material can be drawn from the printing zone through the nozzle 38, hood 36 and conduit 6l and said With- -drawn material, if desired; may be recirculated to the conduit 54 or to the proper conduit'51 as the case may be. l

The elongated light tube l1 in the light hood I4 is connected in an electrical circuit indicated by the leads G2 and 63 by suitable connecting wires 64 and 65. It will be noted that the connesting wires B4 extend to a double pole single throw switch G6 which is electrically connected to the lead 62 through an on and off rotatable' communtator 61. The communtator 61 is provided on its circumference with insulatingportions 38 and when said portions are in contact with the brushes of the commutator the circuit to the light l1 is interrupted. It will'be understood that the commutator 61 is suitably insulated from its supportand is rapidly rotated by any desired means and thus eilects rapid make and break of the circuit to the light l1. This rapid make and break of the light circuit produces a pulsating effect so that the light source produced by the light can be designated as a pulsating light source although the rapidity of the pulsations is such that to the eye it would appear as a constant light source.

It has been found that the rapidly pulsating light source produces improved results and enables a sharper more clearly defined image to be reproduced. Of course, if it is desired to use a non-pulsating light source, then the commutator rotation can be stopped in a position wherein the brushes are not on the insulated portions 58 and a continuous vcircuit is maintained to the light.

It will be assumed rst that a monochromatic reproduction is to be made in accordance with the method and by the apparatus described. It will also be assumed that the web 28 of image copy is moving with the cylinder i2 rotating in the counterclockwise direction as indicated by the arrow in Fig.` 1.

The web of image copy has its image areas light transmitting and its non-image areas opaque. The web of print receiving material `is moving in a downward direction with the clockwise rotation of the cylinder 23 as viewed in Fig. 1 and as indicated by the arrow.

It will be assumed that the image is to be reproduced the same size as the image of the copy and hence the lens 3| will be adjusted on v its focal axis to its central or intermediate position between the cylinder l2 and the target 43. The switch 66 is closed to place the light I1 in the light circuit and if a pulsating light is to be used the rotation of the commutator Elwill be initiated. Also the cloud-like reproducing material in the form of smoke (combustion or chemical), mist or vapor is introduced through the conduit 54 into the inlet hood 35 and under slight pressure while the outlet hood 36 is under suction by the suction device connected to the conduit 6I. As successive portions of the image copy 28 continuously move past the slot IB the light rays from the light I1 pass through the slot IB, the transparent cylinder l2, the image areas of the copy, lens 3l, slot 4|, transparent me tallic nlm 42 and strike the photoelectric layer or target 43 in areas corresponding to the image areas of the copy. The light rays thus striking the layer 43 cause streams of electrons to be emitted therefrom which travel toward the print 9,. receiving material V29. streams of electrons is :accelerated by .the vaccelerating potential `between-the transparent metallic -film -4-2 and the electrode 41, it being understood that `the 4electric circuit for creating said potential has been established. Also the cloud-like reproducing material enter-ing the printing -zone has received a positive charge and hence said material will be acted on by the -accelerated streams of electrons and carried across to and impregnated in the print receiving .mam terial in -areas corresponding -to the image -areas of the copy to thus reproduce on the continuously moving print receiving-material the image areas of the continuously-moving image copy.

The electromagnets 48 -and 49 may or may not be energized depending upon whetherit is vdesired or necessary to utilize their shielding action. The reproducing material which is not mig-rated to Aand limpregnated in the print receiving vmaterialis drawn from the printing zone through lthe exhaust -nozzlef38, hood 36 and conduit 6i. It will be noted that the print receiving material has had any static electrical charges which might have -been thereon Yremoved before entering the printing zone by a suitable static eliminator L69. A second static eliminator y6.9 -is employed to remove any residual charges from the print receiving vmaterial after it has passed through `the printing zone `and off of the Icylinderi23. i In additionit will be vunderstood that the cylinders I2 and 23 and the image copy 23 and print receiving 'material 29 rotate or move v'at Vthe same speed and this is accomplished `by lthe proper 'setting of 'the variable speed transmission 2'2, it being recalled that the synchronization in -movement of the image .copy 28 and the print receiving material 29 is assured-by the use of the projections 30 formed on the circumferences :of the cylinders and engaging in spaced openings in the image copy and print receiving material, it being understood that this prevents any slippage of the copy or the material with'A respect to the cylinders l2 or 23. If the image to be reproduced is smaller or larger than the image on the Vimage copy then the lens 3| will be adjusted along its 'focal axis to one or vthe other side of its `intermediate 'position as the case may be while the variable speed transmission will be adjusted so that the speed of the cylinder 23 will be faster or vslower than the speed of thecylinder 2 as will be'well under stood.

If it is desired to reproduce'a multicolor image,

'/Ihe emission fof theY as for instance an 'image of 'three colors, 'lthen senting the particular color 'will be reproduced in such color on the print receiving material in the manner 'already described with respect "to 'the reproduction of a monochromatic image.

When the'image areas vcorrelated to one color have beenreproducedon 'the lprint receiving ma.- terial the web 28 of "image 'copy vis replacedby 'a web 28 having image 'areas corresponding "to the Vsecond color and "then 'the print receiving web is run rthrough a second 'time with the A'second image'copy web to reproduce on the web 29 the image areas of the second copy, it being lunderstood that the conduit 54 -is connected to the conduit 51 which `extends to the source of supply of print yreproducing material for the second color. The same thing vis repeated to reproduce the third color as will be apparent.

Inasmuch as the cylinders i2 and 23 are provided ywith the projections 38 engaging in the spaced openings in the image copy webs y28 and the ,printing receiving material web 25 and the cylinders lare rotating in accurately predetermined speed relationship, it will be seen that proper registration is obtained `between-the .image areas ofthey different colors.

If it is desiredY to employ la web of image copy having vthe image areas thereof light reflective rather than light transmitting then the light Il in the light hoodie is not used and in place thereof similarlights are employed, said lights 10 being mounted in light directing shields H which project the light rays from the lights i0 onto successive portions of the yimage copyv 28 which continuouslypass throughV the focal axis of the Jlens l 31, it being noted lthat said lights lil and shields 1| are ,located on opposite sides of the focal axis iof the .lens :withpthe shields posi- .tioned to 'project the light rays onto .the riinage copy Vin substantially Vthe same :area with respect to the lens focalaxis The lights 10 are connected by lwires l'lf2 .and 'i3 tolthe other pole .of the two-:pole'switch 66 :so that when said switch Visthrown from the full line' position indicated in Fig. 1 to the dash line position thereof -the lights J0 will be Velectrically connected to the `commutator 61. The lights 10 are connectedfto the :lead 63 inthe other side ofthe lightcircuit -bywires vI4 and 15.

In `place fof the .transparent .metallic 'lm 42 and photosensitive target, 43 v.heretofore described,;the.arrangement shownin Figs. 4 and 5 'may he used. This arrangement constitutes `a fine wire mesh :or :screen 16, :such as a chrome nickel screen, the wires of which are coatedwith .germanium or other light sensitive material. .The screen 16 is connected in the electrical -circuit as is the lrn 42 to provide for the'accelerating potential, While the light sensitive material coating .the wiresserves thefpurpose of the :target A:43, it being understood that the `light vrays '.pass through ,the screen.

.It win .be understood that the method and to the description :heretoforefset -forth with Vrespect ltothe reproduction of images lby translmitted 1ight.rays and hence there is no necessity .to `repeat such description with respect to reilected light .ira-ys.

It will `also be understood that Itheimage areas of the image copy `Will `have rportions varying as to light .transmitting or light reflecting .ability and '-.that the :different densities :of -the light .rays passing `through .such vportions `or -reiiected vfrom `such 'portions 'will cause the :image to xbe reproduced on the print receiving material -with correlated tonal -or density variations so that the `reproduced-@image will have light 'and-dark'por- `tions `and portions intermediate light and ldark` corresponding ito A'the llight and vdar-lr color vdensities of the original sub-ject represented bythe Aimage copy.

The term transparen-t" is `used herein rand in the claims as connoting the yability to trans- 11 mit light and includes not only clear transparency but also translucency.

The term opaque is used herein and in the claims to signify the ability to reilect light as contrasted to transmitting light.

The term reproducing material in cloud-likeform is employed herein and in the claims with the significance of the definition of cloud in Websters Unabridged-New-International Dictionary-second edition. namely, a visible assemblage of particles in the air or in a gas; as, a cloud of smoke or of dust or of Vmist or of vapor.

The term smoke is used herein and in the claims to indicate smoke created by combustion or smoke created by chemical action.

Although preferred forms of the invention have been described and illustrated herein, it will be understood that the invention may be embodied in other forms coming within the scope and meaning of the appended claims.

Having thus described my invention, I claim:

1. An apparatus for reproducing images directly on print receiving material from image copy which comprises an image copy support, a print receiving material support spaced from said copy support, a light sensitive target located adjacent to but spaced from said material support with an air gap therebetween, a lens located intermediate said supports and having its focal axis passing perpendicularly through said target, means for projecting light rays correlated to the image copy supported by said copy support through said lens and upon said target to cause the emission from the target of streams of electrons passing through the air gap and toward said material support and the print receiving material thereon, and means for introducing reproducing material in cloud-like form into the air gap intermediate said target and said material support to be acted on by the streams of electrons and migrated and propelled thereby toward said material support and the print receiving material thereon.

2. An apparatus according to claim 1 and wherein means is provided for adjusting said lens along its focal axis.

3. An apparatus according to claim 1 and wherein means is provided for creating a potential differential between said target and said material support to accelerate the emission of the streams of electrons from the target and which means includes a transparent metal ilm associated with that side of the target adjacent the lens and connected to one pole of an electrical circuit and an electrode operatively associated with said material support and located on the side thereof remote with respect to said target and in the focal axis of said lens and connected to the other pole of said electrical circuit.

4. An apparatus according to claim 3 and wherein means is provided for shielding .the streams of electrons and for conning the same to straight line paths and which includes a series of electromagnets arranged on opposite -sides of said electrode.

5. An apparatus as dened in claim3 and wherein means is provided for charging the reproducing material in cloud-like form with a charge of the same polarity as the polarity of the electrode.

6. An apparatus as dened in claim land wherein the means for projecting the light rays includes means for rapidly pulsating said light rays with a predetermined frequency.

7. An apparatus as defined in claim `1 and wherein the supports for the image copy and for the print receiving material are rotatable cylinders, while an operative connection is pro# vided between said cylinders to rotate the same in timed relationship and includes a variable speed transmission. I

8. An apparatus as dened in claim 7 and wherein the image copy support is a transparent cylinder, while the means for projecting the light rays includes a light source arranged within said transparent cylinder and including a light housing having Va reflector and a slot extending longitudinally of the transparent'cylinder and located on the focal axis of the lens.

9. An apparatus for reproducing images as defined in claim 7 and wherein the means for projecting the light rays include light housings each having a light source therein and located exteriorly of the image copy cylinder support and positioned to direct light rays against `the image copy carried by said cylinder support in an area thereof through which the focal axis of the lens passes. K

10. An apparatus for reproducing images` as dened in claim 'Iv and wherein the image copy cylinder support and the print receiving material cylinder support are each provided on its circumference with identically circularly spaced projec tions adapted to engage in correspondingly spaced openings formed in the image copy and the print receiving material to assure proper correlation of movementbetween the image copy and receiving material. y f

l11. An apparatus for reproducing images as defined in claim 'I and wherein the means for introducing reproducing material in cloud-like form intermediate the target and the receiving material support includes a conduit and means for selectively connecting saidconduit to a plurality of additional conduits each extending to a different supply source of reproducing material.

12. An apparatus for reproducing images di'- rectly on print receiving material from image copy which comprises an imagecopy support, a print receiving material support spaced from said copy support, a light sensitive target located adjacent to but` spaced. from said material support byan air gap, a transparent metal nlm asso.- ciated with that side of the target remote to the material support and connectedv to one pole of an electrical circuit and contacting said target, an electrode operatively associated with said material support and located onthe side thereof remote with respect to said 1target and connected to the other poleof said electrical circuit, said metal fllm and said electrode creating a potential differential between saidtarget and said material support, a lens located intermediate said supports and having its focal axispassing perpendicularly through said target, means for .projecting lightrays correlated to the image copy supported by said copylsupport through said lens Aand upon said target to cause the emission from the targetv andacross the air gap of'streams of electrons extending toward said material support and the print .receiving material thereon and accelerated bythe said potential diierential, and means for introducing material in cloudlike form Ainto the air gap intermediate said target and saidmaterial support to be actedon by the streams ofelectrons `and-,migratedand propelled therebyV toward -said `material support and the print receiving,materialV therecnl; j

13. An apparatus for reproducing images v6.1-

sacarte re`ctly on 'print'receiving' Ymaterial '-'from image copy which comprises an image vcopy support, a print receiving material support spaced from said copy support, a line mesh wire screen located 'adjacent to but spaced from said material support by an air gap and having thewires thereof coated with a light sensitive material, a lens located intermediate said'supports and having its focal axis passing perpendicularly through said screen, lmeans lfor projecting light rays correlated to the image copy supported-by-said copy support through said lens and upon said screen tocause the emission vfrom the screen of streams vof electrons extending across the air 'gap toward said material support and the print receiving material thereon, means for `introducing .reproducing material in cloud-like form into said air gap intermediate said screen and said material support to be acted on by the streams of electrons and migrated and propelled thereby across lthe air gap toward said material support and 'the print receiving materialthereon, an electrode operatively associated wit-hsaid material support and located on the sidefthereof remote with respect to said screen and `in the focal axis of said lens and Yconnected lto-one Vpole of an electrical circuit, said screen being connected to the other pole -of said-electrical circuit wherefore said scre'en and said electrode create a potential diie'r'en'tial between said screen and saidl material -support that accelerates the emission of the streams of 'electrons vfrom the screen.

14. The method of reproducing images directly on print receiving material from image copy which comprises projectingfli'ght rays correlated te the image copy through a lens and upon a light 'sensitive target to cause the emission therefrom of streams of electrons `in areas correlated to the image copy, simultaneously positioning the print receiving material closely adjacent to the electron emitting surface of the target but spaced therefrom by an air gap and-in the path of said streams of Velectrons that are flowing across the gap, whereforethe electrons directly strike the print receiving material, and simultaneously introducing into said air gapl betweenr the target and the print receiving material reproducing Vmaterial to Athe `print receiving material to form directly on the surface 'thereof adjacent to the target the lfinished reproduced image.

` 15. The method of reproducing images directly on print receiving-material from `image copy as defined in claim 14 and wherein the light rays correlated to the image copy are projected through a reversing lens and upon the light sensitive target to cause the emission therefrom of streams of electrons in areas correlated to the image copy and of the same order.

16. The method of reproducing images directly on print receiving material from image copy as defined in claim 14 and wherein the projected light rays are rapidly pulsated at a predetermined frequency.

17. The method of reproducing images directly on print receiving copy as delined in clai-m 14 and wherein the light rays are transmitted through transparent image copy and through a lens and upon the light sensitive target to cause the emission of streams of electrons in areas correlated to the image copy.

18. The method of reproducing images directly on print receiving material from image copy as defined in claim 14 and wherein the light rays are ren'ected from 'opa'quelimage .copy .and :through la lens and'upon the light sensitive target to cause the emission from the target of streams of electronsin areas correlated Ato the image copy.

19. The methodofreproducing images directly on print receiving material from image copy .as deiined in claim -14 and which includes creating .spaced parallel magnetic `iields which lshield 'the streams of electrons and cause the same to follow vstraight coniined paths.

' 20. The method cfflreproducing images directly on print receiving material from image copy as defined in claim 14 and wherein a potential differential is created between the ltarget and 'a locationon the remote side of the print receiving ymaterial to accelerate the emission of the streams of electrons ifrom' the target and directly to the print receiving material.

21. The methodof reproducing images directly on print receiving material fromimage copy as dened in claim 20 and which includes imparting to the reproducing material before it is introduced into the air gap an electrical charge ofa polarity such that the potential'differential which accelerates the emission of the streams rof electrons from the target will 'facilitate the fmigration and propulsion of the reproducing material by the streams of electrons to the print receiving material.

22. The method of continuously l"and successively reproducing images directly-on successive areas of webs of print receiving -Inate'rial lfrom successive corresponding areas of webs of image copy which comprises -moving Ythe Webs fof print receiving material and of ytheimage copy in timed relationship to each other, simultaneously projecting light rays correlated t'o the successive areas of the moving web vof image copy through a lens and upon a light sensitive target to cause the successive emission therefrom of 'streamsof electrons correlated 'to the successive areas of the image copy and with the'correspondingsuccessive areas of themoving web 'of print receiving material located -`closely adjacent to the target but spaced from the electron emitting surface thereof by an air gapand inthe path of said streams of 'electrons rflowing across the gap whereby the 'electronsdirectly strike-the surface 4of the said successive areas of the A*moving web of print receiving material tha-tis adjacent to the target, and simultaneously introducing into said `air gap between the target and the print receiving'matevrial reproducing material in cloud-like form to be acted on by the streams of electrons and migrated and propelled thereby tothe corresponding successive areas of the moving web `of print receiving material to Aform continuously and directly and successively on the surface thereof ad-` jacent to the target the finished reproduced images correlated to the successive areas of the `Illilfla/ge COPY.

23. The method of continuously and successively reproducing images directly on successive areas of webs of print receiving material from successive corresponding areas of webs of image copy as deiined in claim 22 and wherein the light rays correlated to the successive areas of the moving web of image copy are transmitted through transparent portions of said web of mage copy and through the lens and upon the light sensitive target.

24. The method of continuously and successively reproducing images directly on successive areas of webs of print receiving material from successive corresponding areas of webs of image ,copy as definednin claim 22and wherein the light rays correlatedyto the successive areas of the moving v weh of imagecopyare reflected from opaqueportions oftsaidweb of image copy and throughthe lens and uponthe light sensitive target.

25. The method of continuously and successively reproducing images directly onsuccessive areasof webs of print receiving material from successive corresponding areas of webs of image copy as deiinedin claim 22 and wherein spaced parallel magnetic fields are created to shield the streamsof -electrons andcause the same to followstraight confined paths across the gap.

.26, The method of continuously Vand `successively and directly reproducing images -on successive areas of webs :of printreceiving material from successive corresponding areas of webs of image copy as deiinedin claim 22 and wherein a potential differential between the target and a location on the remote side-pf the print receiving material is created to accelerate the emission of the streams of electrons from the target across thegap to the print receivingmateral 27. The method of continuously andrsuccesan electrical charge is given to the reproducing material prior to its introduction to the air gap and of a polarity correlated to said potential differential such thatthe migration and propulsionof the reproducing material by the streams of electrons to the print receiving material is facilitated. i

28. The method of reproducing images directly on print receiving material from image copy and of the same size as or of a different size than the image copy which comprises projecting light rays correlated to the image copy through a lens and upon a light sensitive target to cause the emission therefrom of streams of electrons in areas correlated to the image copy, adjusting the lens along its focal axis to obtain the desired size of t material reproducingmaterialj in cloudlikeform to be actedupon by the streams of electronsv and migrated and propelled thereby` tothe surface of the print receiving material that is adjacentto the target toform directly thereon the finished reproduced image. i :f

29. The method of reproducing multicolored images directly on a web Yof print receivingmaterial which comprises successively moving the web of print receiving material in timed and predetermined relationship to a plurality of webs-,of image copy each having image 4areas correlated to a different one of the multicolorsof the reproduced image, successively projecting :light rays correlated tothe image areas of each of the moving webs of the image copy through a lens and upon a light sensitive target to causepthe emission therefrom of streams of electrons correlated to the image areas of each web of image copy, simultaneously and successively positioning the moving print receiving material closely adjacent to the electron emitting surface of the target but spaced therefromv by an air gap. and in the path of said streams of electrons that are owing across the gap, wherefore the electrons directly strike the surface of the print receiving material that is adjacent to the target, simultaneously and successively introducing reproducing material of the desired color. and in cloud-like form into said air gap intermediate the `target and the print receiving material to beacted upon by the streams of electrons and migrated and propelled thereby to the moving web of print 4receiving material to form directly and successively on the surface thereof adjacent tothe target the portions of thereproduced images of thevarious desired color and corresponding to the image areas of the webs of image copy. Y

References cited in the nie of this patent UNITED sTATEs PATENTS Great Britain Aug. 6, 1948

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Classifications
U.S. Classification430/54, 430/97, 399/116, 347/120, 399/291, 430/22, 430/123.2, 101/DIG.370, 430/139, 347/137, 250/326, 430/31
International ClassificationG03G15/34, G03G15/24
Cooperative ClassificationG03G15/24, Y10S101/37, G03G15/348
European ClassificationG03G15/34S2, G03G15/24