US 2678236 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 11, 1954 T. TlNKER 2,678,236
SPRAY NOZZLE Filed April 5, 1952 2 Sheets-Sheet l IN VEN TOR.
JAM) BY M K. M
M ATTORNEY ATENT OFFICE UNITED STATES SPRAY NOZZLE Townsend Tinker, Orchard Park, N. Y., assignor to Kewanee-Ross Corporation, a corporation of Delaware Application April 5, 1952, Serial No. 280,7 59
2 Claims. (01. 299-140) 1 2 This invention relates to new and useful im- Referring to the drawings by numerals of referprovements in spray nozzles whereby a liquid is once and more particularly to Fig. I, there. is discharged from, the. nozzle in a fine spray. shown a nozzle comprised of a cylindrical casing One object of this invention is to provide aspray l and a conical outlet cap member 2.. The casnozzle structure of new and improved construcing I has a cylindrically recessed inlet with tion which is simply and easily constructed and threaded openings 3 and 4 receiving concentric assembled. conducting means or pipes 5 and 6. The open- Another object is to providea mixing device for ing 3 provides an internal chamber 5 having thoroughly blending a gas and a liquid. an end wall 1 which forms with the opening 4 Another object is to provide an improved spray an annular shoulder. Through the end wall 7 nozzle utilizing a, gas jet to atomize a stream of extend the opening 4 and a plurality of aperliquid. tures 8 which are equi-spaced from each other A further object of the invention is to proand located on a common circle. The: casing I vide means for varying the quantity and the size has an annular plane edge portion 9 and. aconical of the particles of the liquid in the spray by central portion in through which opens a varying either the pressure of the gas or the conically shaped or outwardly flaring passagepressure of the liquid or both. way extension i of the central threaded open- Another object of the invention is to vary by ing 4. The cap member 2 has an annular flange mechanical means the quantity and the size portion ll forming an internal side wall H and of the spray particles by varying the volume of having a plane surface which seats on the plane liquid through which the gas must pass within annular edge portion 9 of the casing l andis the nozzle. secured thereto by a plurality of bolts [5. The
Other objects of the invention will become apcap member 2 has a flat internal central porparent from the following. description, the drawtion It from which an annular surrounding lugs to which it relates, and the claims hereinconical portion I2= extends to the wall H said after set forth. wall spacing the inner conical wall surface I2 This invention comprises the new and imfrom the conical casing surface ill. The cap proved construction and combination of parts member 2 cooperates with the casing I to proand their operating relation to each other which vide a chamber having spaced conical wallv surwill be more fully described hereinafter, and the faces l0 and [2 which define an annular conical novelty of which willbeparticularly pointed out cavity or portion I3. which is open. to the pipe 6 and distinctly claimed. through the opening 4 The apertures. 8 which In the accompanying drawings, to be taken open through the end wall 1- have reduced dias part of the specification, there are fully and ameter extended nozzle portions or jets l4 which clearly illustrated several preferred embodiments open through the conical surface Hi substantially of the invention, in which drawings: 30 normal thereto. The cap member 2v has. a. Figure 1 is a longitudinal sectional view of the plurality of apertures ltopening therethrough nozzle taken along the line |l of Fig. 2, which. are enlarged relative. to the jets I4 and Fig. 2 is a view of the discharge end of the are substantially normal to the conical surface nozzle, I2 thereof so that they are directed away from Fig. 3 is an end view similar to Fig. 2, but with each other. The apertures [B are the same in the outlet ca of the nozzle removed, number as and are coaxially aligned with the Fig. 4 is a detail View in section of part of a reduced nOZZle j apertures nozzle like that of Fig- 1,. but. showing. an annular Operation spacer member to vary the. distance between. the body of the nozzle and the cap 45 In operation, this form of the nvention functrons generally as follows and W111 be described Fig. 5 is a view in longitudinal sectlonof anv I as using water and air as the gas and liquid, other form of nozzle showing a mechamcal means respectively, for. varying t distance between the body of Water to atomized is Supplied through the the nozzle and the call, and pipe 6 and opening 4 under pressure into the Fig. 6 1s a longitudinal sectional new of still annular cavity l3 between the nozzle casing I another form of the nozzle showing: an arranged cap member 2. Air, under pressure, is supment of the gasoutlet orifice and the spray orifice plied through t annumr pace t pipes to perm-it their alignment through all degrees of 5 and 6 into the apertures 8 and is discharged" variation. at high velocity through the reduced nozzle or iet apertures I4. The air under pressure then passes as fine restricted jets through the film of water in cavity I3. The jets of air passing through the cavity I3 cause an air and water mixture under confined pressure to discharge from the nozzle through the apertures iii. As the air and water mixture is discharged from the nozzle into a space of reduced pressure, the air is suddenly expanded by the sudden decrease in pressure and the water is torn into a fine mist by the sudden expansion.
To vary the consistency of the spray without mechanical adjustment, either the water or the air pressure or both may be varied. With the air pressure constant, a decrease of the water pressure will decrease the amount of water available or supplied per unit of time to cavity 13, and increase the ratio between the air passing from the jet apertures I i to the cap apertures IS and the quantity of water flowing into the cavity i3, thereby causing the spray to be of a very fine consistency and in the form of. a mist. Increasing the pressure of the water increases the amount available to cavity I1 thereby reducing the jet air to water ratio and causing the spray to have a coarse consistency. It will be noted that with the air pressure constant, the volume of water sprayed is substantially directly proportional to the consistency of the spray. With a small volume of water, i. e., low pressure, the spray is very fine. With the volume of water large, 1. e., high pressure, the spray is very coarse.
he limitation on the fineness or the spray is the pressure and volume of zero. The limitation on the coarseness of the spray is the pressure being equal to or slightly greater than the constant air pressure, at which point a solid stream of water will leave each of the apertures It.
The above stated variations of the consistency of the spray are an important improvement over nozzle devices which use only water pressure to atomize the spray, because in such devices a decrease in the volume of the water would decrease the fineness of the spray and when the volume approaches zero, the water leaves the nozzle in a solid stream or large droplets. However, the nozzle described in this invention permits even a small volume of water at a low pressure to be emitted as a fine spray from the apertures.
With the water pressure constant, the consistency of the spray can be varied in a. similar manner by the variation of the air pressure. The fineness of the spray will be varied substantially inversely proportional to the air pressure. Also, to obtain an optimum volume of flow at a given consistency of spray, both the air and water pressure may be varied to obtain these conditions.
To vary the consistency of the spray by mechanical adjustment, there are several means described which are not to be understood as the only means of mechanical adjustment, but only as general illustrative means. The purpose of the mechanical adjustment is to permit the consistency of the spray to be varied while the air and water pressure remain constant.
In Fig. 4, a variation of the above-described nozzle may be accomplished by the addition of a suitable annular spacer member or washer II of predetermined thickness positioned between peripheral plane edge portion 9 of the casing I and cap flange II. The insertion of this washer increases the thickness of the sheet or the film of water in cavity I3 which therefore increases the coarseness of the spray. The annular washer Il may be incompressible, but is preferably rubber or other compressible sealing material and is so constructed as to have an outer diameter substantially equal to the outer diameter of ms ing I and an inner diameter substantially equal to the inner diameter of the flange iI on cap 2 and to have a plurality of apertures which are suitably spaced and aligned to receive the mounting screws, as bolts I5. Since the member I! is compressible, the thickness of the annular cavity I3 or spacing of the cap and body members from each other may be adjusted by the screws I5 to a predetermined thickness or dimension.
In Fig. 5 is shown another variation whereby a conical cap W2 is secured to casing lliI by means of a plurality of bolts IE5 extending through casing WI and cap I02. The apertures IIIB in cap I02 are threaded so that the distance between apertures I I4 in casing IQI and apertures H6 in the conical cap I62 may be varied by the rotation of bolts H5. A rubber 0 ring H9 is inserted in a peripheral groove I20 in casing IEII to seal against backfiow between casing IiiI and the longitudinally extending rim I2I of the cap member I02. All other parts in Fig. 5 bear the same relation as in Fig. 1 and are assigned the numbers used in Fig. I raised by one hundred.
In Fig. 5, the consistency of the spray may be varied by the mechanical adjustment of bolts I I5 which will move conical cap I02 on its longitudinal axis and thereby vary the size of cavity H3 or the distance between the apertures II i and H5 so as to increase or decrease the thickness of the film of water in cavity IIB through which the air blast from 'jets II must travel. An increase in the size of the cavity II3 will increase the quantity of Water discharged at a fixed air pressure and thus will produce a heavier and coarser spray. It should be noted that a limitation of movement of cap IE2 is required for satisfactory operation of the nozzle when apertures I I4 and apertures I I6 are aligned on an axis normal to the outer face of cap in)? since movement of cap I02 beyond the limits of alignment of apertures IM and apertures I It will cause the air stream to strike the edge of the apertures I I6 instead of blowing. through said apertures.
It should be noted that in the forms of invention illustrated in Figs. 1 to 5, the apertures for discharge of the water spray are arranged for a divergent discharge. This divergent discharge arrangement has been made so that the separate sprays from the discharge apertures will not materially interfere one with another. An interference between the adjacent sprays has a tendency to cause an agglomeration of the fine drop lets or mist into larger droplets which reduce the efiiciency of the spray.
In Fig. 6, another variation is shown which is identical with Fig. 5 except that apertures I I4 in casing IOI and apertures I16 in conical cap I02 are constructed on the same axis, which is parallel to the fiow of water through pipe Hi5.
In Fig. 6, the consistency of the spray may be varied in the identical manner as in Fig. 5, by the mechanical adjustment of bolts H5 which will move the cap I02 on its longitudinal axis and thereby vary the size of cavity IIS so as to increase or decrease the fineness of the spray. It should be noted that the limitation of movement of cap I02 tor satisfactory operation of the nozzle due to the alignment of apertures I I4 and I It has been remedied by the construction of said apertures on same axis which is parallel to the flow of water through pipe I06. This permits said apertures toremain aligned through all degrees of movement of cap I62. In this modification, however, with parallel sprays, there is a tendency for interference between the various sprays which may not be desirable in certain applications.
While there have been several embodiments of this invention illustrated and described, it will be obvious to the artisan that other embodiments are possible without departing from the scope and intent of the invention which is to be limited only by the appended claims.
Having thus described the invention, what is claimed and desired to be secured by Letters Patent of the United States is:
1. In a spray nozzle, a body member having a conical end surface and a small longitudinal opening therethrough, said body member having a larger opening extending partially therethrough and forming a shoulder therein, said small opening being adapted to receive a liquid conducting pipe, said larger opening being adapted to receive a compressed air conducting pipe, a cap member having a conical end wall, said cap member being secured to said body member at its periphery with said conical end surface and said conical end wall spaced to provide a thin conical cavity, said body member having a plurality of spaced passages extending through said shoulder into said conical cavity, the outlet ends of said passages being very small and opening through said body member conical surface substantially normal thereto, said cap member having a plurality of spaced apertures therethrough and substantially normal to the conical surface thereof, said apertures being substantially larger than the outlet ends of said body member passages, and said passage outlet ends and said apertures being aligned for divergent discharge of compressed air through said conical cavity and said apertures for atomizing liquid therein, said apertures being spaced circumferentially from each other a distance suificient to prevent substantial interference between adjacent streams of atomized liquid.
2. In a spray nozzle, a cylindrical body member having at one end a conical end surface and an annular plane clamping surface, said body member having a small longitudinal opening therethrough and a larger opening extending partially therethrough and forming therewith an internal shoulder, said small opening being adapted to receive a liquid conducting pipe, said larger opening being adapted to receive a compressed air conducting pipe, a cap member having a conical end wall and a flat annular clamping flange, clamping means securing said cap member to said body member with said flange engaging said body member clamping surface, said flange being of a thickness sufficient to space said cap and body members to provide a thin conical cavity, said cap member having an interior flattened end wall portion operable to direct the flow of liquid into said cavity, said. small longitudinal opening having a flared end portion opening into said cavity, said body member having a plurality of passages extending longitudinally partially through said shoulder, a plurality of very small jet apertures opening from said passages through said body member conical surface substantially normal thereto, said cap member having a plurality of apertures extending through the conical end wall thereof and substantially normal thereto, said cap member apertures being substantially larger than said jet apertures and being aligned therewith for divergent discharge of compressed air through said cavity and said larger apertures for atomizing liquid therein, and said cap member apertures being spaced circumferentially from each other a sumcient distance to prevent substantial interference between adjacent streams of atomized liquid.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 788,764 Fitton May 2, 1905 861,662 Lassoe et a1. July 30, 1907 1,168,856 Clea ve Jan. 18, 1916 1,243,559 Schawrowsky Oct. 16, 1917