US 2678805 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 18, 1954 w. N. SUTLIFF 2,678,805
HYDRAULIC WELL JAR Filed Feb. 20, 1950 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 3 5 8 0 2 435 2 Z 3: w a. m 0 VMMY E KM y xv z 8 L s v x 7 f4? 3 7 z c INVENTOR. hw /v5 51/72 0 7-,
flrroe/vsn 3 4.2 \K \v\\ m Pr 4 4 aw 25a 2 3 M j 7 n 8 4. 2 J 2 $22 24 Z 2 w May 18, 1954 w. N. SUTLIFF HYDRAULIC WELL JAR 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed Feb. 20,
T L 5 M m a W 2 W 4 l 6 E a IIIIIHII, M I E 3 J 9 7 0 7 g fi Patented May 18, 1954 HYDRAULIC WELL JAR Wayne N. Sutliff, Bakersfield, Calif. Application February 20, 1950, Serial No. 145,289
relates to oil well tools, and particularly pertains to an hydraulic well jar.
When part of a drill pipe or the like becomes lodged in a well bore, it is necessary to engage the lodged portion and then to apply a jarring action which would dislodge the portion and permit it to be withdrawn from the well. This jarring action is produced by well jars usually operating mechanically when attached to a supporting drill string which is under a desired amount oi tension. Mechanical well jars are often very complicated structures and may be damaged easily due to the enormous magnitude of the jarring blow imparted to their parts, as well as the strain which is imposed upon the parts of the release mechanism. It is the principal object of the present invention, therefore, to provide a well jar which may be set and reset without being removed from the well, and which operates hydraulically so that a jarring strain may be imposed upon the portion to be dislodged for a predetermined period of time and will then he suddenly released to cause a jarring blow to be made.
The present invention contemplates the provision of a barrel within which a tubular mandrel is mounted, said barrel also carrying a fluid cylinder into which. and from which fluid may flow, the mandrel and barrel being formed with This invention differential rs whereby the mandrel may 0 be suddenly released so that a hammer and anvil may strike each other.
The invention is illustrated by way of example in the accompanying drawing in which:
Figure 1 is a longitudinal view of the mandrel 1 its barrel shown in longitudinal section. .1; 2 is a fragmentary View in longitudinal section on the line 2-2 of Fig. 1 showing the jar mechanism released.
Fig. 3 is a view in longitudinal section on the line 33 of Fig. 1 showing the jar mechanism in its released position.
4c is a view in longitudinal section corresponding to that of Fig. 2, showing the section taken at right angles to Fig. 1, and with the jar locked and ready to be pulled, the view particularly showing the locking mechanism.
Fig. 5 is a view similar to that shown in Fig.
3 indicating the plunger and the mandrel in positions corresponding to the position of the locking parts as shown in Fig. 4.
Fig. 5 is an enlarged view in transverse section as seen on the line 8-6 of Fig. 5 and shows the position of the relief valve and the timing valve.
Fig. '7 is an enlarged fragmentary view in transverse section as seen on the line 1-1 of Fig. 6 showing the construction of the relief valve.
Fig. 8 is an enlarged view in transverse section as seen on the line 88 of Fig. 6 showing the construction of the timing valve.
Fig. 9 is a view in transverse section as seen on the line 9-9 of Fig. 2 and shows the splined locking members and the manner in which they fit into keyways in the tubular mandrel.
Fig. 10 is a view in longitudinal section similar to that shown in Fig. 4 with the locking elements in their position prior to pulling.
Fig. 11 is a view similar to that shown in Fig. 5 with the mandrel and plunger ready for a release action.
Fig. 12 is a view in transverse section as seen on the line l2-l2 of Fig. 10 and shows the splined relationship between the tubular mandrel and the anvil head.
Fig. 13 is a view in transverse section through the well jar as seen on the line Iii-I3 of Fig. 1c and shows the latch rollers and their relation to the tubular mandrel.
Fig. 14 is a view in transverse section through the well jar as seen on the line i i-Hi of Fig. 10 and shows the splined connection between the lower end or" the mandrel and the body of the latch structure.
Referring more particularly to Fig. 1 of the drawing, 29 indicates a lower tubular member to which a fishing tool may be attached. This lower tubular member is internally threaded at its upper end to receive the lower pin of a sub 2!. An upper pin 22 is formed on the sub and is threaded into a tubular member 23 which provides a cylindrical outer housing of a well jar generally indicated at 2i and with which the present invention is particularly concerned. The upper end of the housing 23 is internally threaded to receive a pin portion 25 of an anvil head 26. The anvil head, as shown in Fig. 2, is formed with a central bore 21 through which the upper end of a tubular mandrel 28 extends. The tubular mandrel may be connected to any suitable supporting string, the details of which connection are not shown in the present drawing. A packing ring 29 fits within an annular groove 38 at the upper end of the bore 21 and forms a fluid seal for the mandrel portion 28 while permitting the mandrel to reciprocate. Formed through the mandrel is a circulating passageway 3| permitting a desirable free flow of well fluid as required. The tubular mandrel is The upper number of fingers 45 agrees with cates with the bore dinally on the mandrel formed intermediate its length with an enlarged portion 32 which is of a diameter to fit within the housing 23. Formed upon the tubular mandrel above the portion 32 are splines 33 which fit into longitudinal keyways 34 cut in the bore 27 of the anvil head 26. The lower end of the anvil head 26 provides an anvil face 35 which occurs at the end of the pin 25. The enlarge portion 32 of the mandrel 28 forms a shoulder 31 which acts as a hammer to strike the anvil 36 and impart a jarring blow, as will be hereinafter described.
The latch means for the mandrel includes a plurality of rollers 38 which are disposed in a transverse plane and are arranged tangent to a circle concentric to the center of the mandrel, as shown particularly in Fig. 13 of the drawing. Extending longitudinally of the sides of the mandrel and spaced similarly to the rollers 38 are corresponding grooves 39. These grooves accommodate relatively loose locking members 49 which extend longitudinally of the mandrel and are confined in the grooves by the tubular housing 23. ends of the members 49 may be moved to abut against the anvil face 36 of the anvil head 25. The lower ends of the members 40 have an outer tapered face 4| and an inner arcuate seat 42 which conforms to the diameter of a complementary locking roller 33. Slidably mounted on the lower end of the mandrel 28 is a latch sleeve 43. This sleeve is urged toward its uppermost position by a helical spring 44. The latch sleeve 43 reciprocates upon the intermediate portion 25' of the tubular mandrel 29 and is formed with a plurality of upwardly extending fingers 45 which are positioned in grooves 48 in the mandrel portion 28', which constitute downward continuations of grooves 39. The the number of locking members 40 and the rollers 38. The upper ends of the fingers 45 are inwardly tapered, as indicated at 47, and receive the tapered faces 4| of the locking members 40. These tapered faces also are engaged by the rollers 33. The latch fingers 45 39 (Fig. 1). As shown in Fig. 2, the rollers 38 intersect the keyways 39 so that as these rollers move upwardly with mandrel 28, they may force the locking members 49 outwardly, as will be hereinafter explained.
The mandrel 28 also has a reduced portion 28" which extends downwardly from portion 28 through a hydraulic cylinder 49. This cylinder is shown in detail in Figs. 3, 5 and 11. Here it will be seen as comprising a lower cylindrical portion 50 formed with a lower cylindrical bore 5| through which the portion 28" of the mandrel extends. An enlarged upper cylindrical bore 52 is formed within the member 49 and communi- The portion 28" of the mandrel is formed with an enlarged cylindrical portion 53 comprising a piston which is of a diameter to fit closely into the lower bore 5| when the mandrel is in its lowermost position. The hydraulic cylinder is free to float longituand is held in its lowermost position by the spring 44, which at the same time yieldably urges the latch sleeve 43 upwardly. The mandrel portion 28" forms a fluid-tight fit with and extend upwardly into keyways provided to limt the flow of hydraulic fluid from the enlarged bore 52 to the fluid storage chamber 58 which occurs above the cylinder 49 and below the latch sleeve 43. The bleed valve is provided with a threaded valve plug 59 and mounted within a threaded bore 60 formed in the head 55 of the cylinder 49. The plug 59 is formed at its lower end with a conical valve point 6| which maybe moved toward and away from a conical seat 62 formed in the valve head 55 and communicating with a duct 63. The valve plug 59 is formed with a central passageway 64 having a portion extending longitudinally through it and terminating in an end portion which extends through the conical point 6|. By the adjustment of the plug it is possible to regulate the rate of flow of the fluid from the enlarged portion of the cylinder 52 into the chamber 58 within the cylindrical housing 23. The valve head 55 is also formed to receive an intake valve structure, as indicated at 51 and illustrated in detail in Fig. 7. This stmcture comprises a cylindrical bore 65 which extends longitudinally through a portion of the head 55 in the cylinder 49. A duct 56 establishes communication between the enlarged bore 52 and the bore 65. The duct is of reduced diameter and provides a shoulder 67 upon which a helical spring 68 rests. The spring is disposed within the cylindrical bore 65 and provides a yieldable support for a valve ball 69. The valve ball 69 is held against an opening 70 in a tubular valve seat H. The valve seat 1| is threaded into a bore 12 formed at the upper end of the cylinder head 55.
Normally the spring 44 urges the hydraulic cylinder 49 downwardly against the upper end face 13 of the sub 2| which thus acts as a stop. The lower end of the sub is formed with a pin 16 which is threaded into the upper end of a fishing tool or a connection therefor, as generally indicated at 20. The sub 2| is formed with a central cylindrical smooth bore 7'! which receives the smooth lowermost end of the lower mandrel section 18. The piston 53 limits the downward movement of the mandrel when said piston rests upon the face 13 of the sub. As previously explained, the piston 53 has a substantially tight t within the lower bore 5| of the hydraulic cylinder 49. This is particularly indicated in Fig. 5 of the drawing. In order to prevent leakage of fluid around the mandrel an annular packing ring 79 is fitted into a groove 89 cut in the wall of the upper end of the bore 71. This packing ring embraces the lowermost mandrel section 18.
In operation of the well jar the upper end of the mandrel 28 is attached to a suitable supporting string and the sub 2| is attached to a fishing tool 26 which is designed to engage an object lodged in the well and to which a jarring lifting blow is to be imparted. After the fishing tool 20 is attached to the object to be dislodged the mandrel 28 is lowered through the housing 23. When this is accomplished the lower section 18 will move downwardly through the bore 11 of the sub 2| and will move the piston 53 downwardly until it strikes the upper end face 13 of the sub. The spring 44 will thus be compressed and will tend to hold the hydraulic cylinder 49 downwardly and will at the same time tend to urge the latch sleeve 43 upwardly against the shoulder 43 of the enlarged intermediate portion 32 of the mandrel 28 (as shown in Fig. 4). The piston 53 on the upper end of the mandrel portion 18 will have moved downwardly to the lower end of the bore 5| and the liquid within the fluid storage chamber 58 will be drawn into the cylinder 49 to fill the bore and the counter bore 52 thereof. This liquid will be drawn in through the intake valve 5'! shown in Fig. '7 of the drawing, and since this valve serves the function of a check valve the liquid within the hydraulic cylinder 39 will be entrapped and can only be discharged through the bleed valve 58. The bleed valve has been previously adjusted so that the valve plug 59 will control the area of the outlet orifice. When the cylinder and the mandrel are in the positions previously described the latch sleeve it will be moved downwardly as the spring 44 is compressed. The rollers 3% will be moved downwardly with the mandrel and the locking members will be free to rest upon the rollers, as shown in Fig. e of the drawings. Attention is directed to the fact that in this .figure the length of the members so is indicated. as being short of the distance between the rollers 38 and the anvil face When a jarring blow is to be struck, the drill string to which the mandrel 28 is attached is lifted which lifts the mandrel upwardly into the position in which it is shown in Figs. 10 and 11 where further upward movement of the mandrel is halted as shown in Fig. 10 by the locking members 453 being held inwardly into engagement with rollers 33 by the latch sleeve 43 being held upwardly with substantial pressure by the spring t4. At the same time hydraulic c dinder 49 will be lifted as in Fig. ll due to the fact the entrapped fluid in bores 5i and 52 has been unable to escape through the bleed valve 56. As the fluid in bores 5i and 52 is forced out of the bleed valve 55 by the down ward thrust of spring ill the enlarged portion 53 of mandrel 28 will enter bore 52 of cylinder to. At this time the tension on spring M will he suddenly relieved enough to allow the latch member @3 and fingers $5 to retract downwardly so that the rollers 33 will force locking members it to swing outward thereby releasing the mandrel 23 and causing it to be pulled violently upward as in Fig. 2. Following each jarring action as above described, the jar may be reset to repeat this jarring action by lowering the drill string and the mandrel 23 connected thereto. As the mandrel 28 is lowered shoulder in will contact latch member 53 which will compress spring as mandrel 23 moves to its lowermost position as in 5. As the enlarged portion 53 of the mandrel. 23 enters the bore 5i of the cylinder it on its down stroke intake valve 5: shown in '7 will open and allow the bores 5! and 52 to be filled with fluid from the fluid I storage chamber 58.
It is to be noted that when the mandrel 28 is lifted from its lowermost position shown in Figs. 4 and 5 to its intermediate position shown in Figs. 10 and 11 in which it is locked temporarily against further upward movement to permit tensioning the drill string, the cylinder $9 is freed from its engagement with the stop surface 53 on the pin 22 so that this cylinder immediately begins to respond to downward pressure thereagainst by the spring it and move downwardly relative to the piston 53 at a rate determined by the setting of the escape valve 58. lhis setting, which is performed before the tool is insorted in the well, fixes the time interval which will elapse between the lifting of the mandrel from its lowermost position and the return downwardly of the cylinder to the point where the piston 53 enters the counter bore 52 of said cylinder. Thus the operator may increase the strain upon the drill string at that rate which will result in the exact desired strain being produced on the drill string, as shown by the derrick scales, at the moment the locking members ii) are released by the arrival of the piston 53 in the counter bore 52 so as to cause a lifting blow to be struck by the jar.
This precise timing depends upon the suddenness with which the p'essure spring M against latch sleeve 53 is relaxed through the critical point in its pressure, and this, of course, depends upon the provision of bore 5i and counter bore 52 in the cylinder lil which effect a sudden releasing of the support given the spring 4:3 by this cylinder just as said critical point is reached.
While I have shown the preferred form of my invention as now known to me, it will be under stood that 1 "ions changes may be made in combination, construction and arrangement of parts by those skilled in the art, without departing from the spirit of the invention as claimed.-
Having thus described my invention, what I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. In a well jar, the combination of: a hammer element adapted to be mounted on the lower end or" a drill. string; an anvil element adapted to be connected to a fishing tool, one of said elements being tubular and slidably receiving the other element therewithin, said hammer element having a radial hammer face and said anvil element having a radial anvil face matching said hitll'llllfil face, said elements being relatively shiftable telescopically in opposite directions, the first producing a substantial separation between said faces, and the second bringing said faces together; means sealing the space between said rents at spaced points to form within, said tubular element a liquid chamber through which said inner element extends axially; a piston on inner element; a tubular cylinder surrounding said inner element and said piston, said cylinder having a head at one end which slidably fits said inner element, and a bore at the opposite end of said cylinder which slidably fits said piston when the latter is disposed therein, said cylinder also having a counter-bore between said bore and said head which loosely receives said piston so that the latter may freely shift axially when disposed therein; check: valve means allowing a relatively free one-way flow of liquid from said chamber into said cylinder counterbore, liquid escape passage means being provided allowing the slow escape of liquid from said cylinder when said piston is located in said bore and said second relative movement is started; automatically releasable pressure-responsive lock means operative, when subjected axially to more than a given amount of pressure, to halt said second relative movement between said elements with said hammer and anvil faces still spaced apart a substantial fixed distance thereby permitting said drill string to be placed under tension; and a spring compressed between and exerting an expansive axial pressure against said cylinder and said lock means said spring pressure urging said cylinder against one of said sealin means disposed in supporting relation therewith, said compression of said spring being increased to apply pressure in excess of said given amount of pressure to said lock means by th first relative telescopic movement between said elements which movement moves said piston from said counter-bore into said bore, the reverse second telescopic movement, which follows, lifting said cylinder from engagement with said sealing means, whereupon the escape of liquid aforesaid allows a slow movement of said cylinder in respons to said spring pressure, climaxed with a sudden release of said cylinder and relaxing of said spring pressure to a point well below said given amount of pressure thereby automatically releasing said lock means, when said counter-bore comes opposite said piston, whereby said lock means ceases to hold said hammer and anvil faces in spaced relation and permits the tension applied to said tool spring to bring said faces rapidly together with a jarring blow.
2. A combination as in claim 1 in which an adjustable liquid escape valve is provided in said cylinder, by th setting of which the operator may predetermine the period of time which will elapse between the initial lifting of said drill string and the automatic subsequent releasing of said lock means to cause said jarring blow.
3. A combination as in claim 1 in which said anvil element comprises a tubular housing and said hammer element comprises a mandrel which is slidably received therein; upper and lower heads embodying said sealing means and closing corresponding ends of said housing, said heads being axially apertured to slidably receive upper and lower portions respectively of said mandrel; an enlarged section formed on said mandrel and comprising the hammer of said jar, said hammer having a hammer face formed on its upper end and said upper housing head having an anvil face formed on its lower end, said hammer being provided with longitudinal grooves formed in the outer surface thereof; cylindrical pins mounted on said hammer on horizontal axes and extending outwardly broadside into said grooves; locking members confined in said grooves, inner lower edges of said locking members having arcuate hollows which substantially fit the cylindrical contour of said pins; and a latch member having wedge faces, and being slidably mounted on said mandrel for longitudinal movement to bring said wedge faces into engagement with lower outer edges of said locking members to hold the latter inwardly with said hollows conforming to said pins, whereby said pins and said locking members unite to form said locking means thus rendered operative by said latch member tohold said hammer and anvil faces in spaced relation while said drill string is tensioned.
4. In a well jar, the combination of: a hammer mandrel having a hammer face and adapted to be mounted on th lower end of a tool string; an anvil tube; upper and lower axially apertured heads on said tube, said upper head having an anvil face and said lower head being adapted to be secured to a fishing tool, said tube and heads receiving said mandrel with a sliding liquid-tight fit between said heads and said mandrel to en close a liquid chamber within said tube; a piston on said mandrel which engages the lower of said heads to provide a lower limit to downward movement of said mandrel, upward movement of the mandrel having an upper limit when said hammer face engages said anvil face; lock means adapted when operative, to halt said upward movement at an intermediate position of said mandrel; a latch member mounted on said mandrel and responsive to upward pressure thereagainst, to render said lock means operative; a hydraulic cylinder slida-ble on said mandrel within said chamber and normally resting on said lower head, the chamber of said cylinder having a bore section closely fitting said piston and an upwardly adjacent counterbore section within which said piston is free to idle, said cylinder having an upper head which slidably fits said mandrel while permitting a limited passage of liquid from said cylinder; check valve means allowing a relatively free one-way flow of liquid from said chamber into said cylinder counterbore; and an expansion spring between said latch member and said cylinder which is compressed, by the lowering of said mandrel to its lower most position, to cause said member to render said lock means operative, the lifting of said mandrel which follows being halted with the same in said intermediate position, while said drill string is being tensioned, until the escape of liquid from said cylinder under pressure from said spring has lowered said cylinder to bring said piston into said counterbore, thereby causing a sudden acceleration in the lowering of said cylinder and in the relaxing of the spring pressure against said member whereby said lock means is rendered inoperative thereby releasing said mandrel and causing this to rise under the tension of the drill string and deliver a jarring upward blow against said anvil tube.
5. A combination as in claim 4 in which an adjustable liquid escape valve is provided in said cylinder head, by the setting of which the operator may predetermine the period of time which will elapse between the lifting of said mandrel, to raise said cylinder above said lower head and start tensioning said drill string, and the automatic subsequent releasing of said lock means to cause said jarring blow.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS