US 2678847 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 18, 1954 P. CAIRD 2,678,847
FIRE HOSE NOZZLE Filed July 16, 1952 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTQR. Perer Cm/o 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 N l W Ra WE M w & I W d & Q V QM MW h D RM V l m N W \SI n n w s kw? mmmwkkw P. CAIRD FIRE HOSE NOZZLE Patented May 18, 1954 UNITED STATES;
fNT OFF ICE FIRE HOSE NOZZLE Application July 16, 1952, Serial No. 299212 1 Claim. 1
"My present invention relates to fire hose nozzles, and more particularly to a pistol grip nozzle for small fire hose use.
The principal object of my invention is to produce an improved pistol grip controlled fire hose nozzle.
Another object is to produce an improved pistol grip control'for opening the hose nozzle and controlling the nozzle valve at the outlet end of the nozzle'by means of a trigger action.
Still another object is to produce a fire hose nozzle valve which seats tightly.
A still further object is to produce a fire hose nozzle in which the valve closes automatically by means of hydraulic pressure when the pressure on the trigger is released.
Other objects and novel features comprising the construction and operation of nozzle will be more apparent as the description of the same progresses.
In thedrawings illustrating the invention:
Fig. 1 is a side elevation, a portion of the hand grip being broken out for convenience;
Fig. 2 is a symmetrical vertical cross-section of the nozzle, portions of which are in elevation and other portions of which are broken out to better show the details;
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary vertical cross-section of the forward end, of the nozzle similar to Fig. 2 but showing the nozzle with the valve closed;
Fig. 41is a fragmentary cross-section taken on I the line 4-4 of Fig. 2;
Fig. '5 is another fragmentary cross-section taken in the line 5-5 of Fig. 2;
Fig. 6 is an exaggerated fragmentary crosssection of the valve tip showing the free floating nature of the tip;
Fig. '7 a combination side elevation and central cross-section of a regulation size fire hose nozzle which uses the same free floating valve tip and is self-closing when the eccentric cam is turned, no hand-pressure by the operator being necessary, and
Fig. 8-isa "cross-section taken on the line 8-8 of Fig. 7.
Referring more in detail to the drawings, l0 indicates the main body portion or the nozzle, the rear end of which provided with a soft rubber bumper ring II. The body portion I0 is provided with an internal chamber l2 the rear end of which is threaded at l3 to receive a male threaded end of a fire'hose, not shown. Screwed to "the front end of the body It] is a valve seat supporting member M which is provided with a recessed portion adapted to receive a rubber compression ring I5 against which the threaded for ward end of the body portion I0 is tightlycompressed in the assembly of the two parts. The valve seat supporting member I 4 is internally shouldered at [6 to receive the spider portions ll of a valve stem [8. The forward end of the body chamber l2 terminates in a reduced bore I9 in which is supported a perforated cylindrical tube 20. The forward end of the tube engages rear face of the spider portions ll. On the rear of the perforated cylinder 20 is provided a finger ring 2! to assist in removing the cylinder when desired.
The lower side of the body portion I0 is provided with a hand grip portion 22 preferably integral with the body portion and internally cored out to form a cavity 23 communicating with the body chamber l2. At the bottom of the cavity 23 is located a pipe-tap plug 24.
Fire hose nozzles of the pistol grip type are smaller than the regulation sized nozzles and are used a great deal for grass and brush fires where water mains are not available. Most of the time water must be obtained from brooks, rivers and small streams. The perforated cylinder 20 provides ascreen to prevent large particles of foreign matter from entering the valve end of the nozzle. The nozzle is easily flushed out by removing the plug 24 and flushing through the plug outlet.
The valve seat supporting member 14 is normally fixed to the body portion 10, the forward end of which is stepped down to form two shoulders 25 and 2.6 longitudinally slidable in corresponding shouldered portions in the rear end of a valve seatmcmber 21. A rubber sealing ring 28 is located in an annular groove 29 formed around the inner bore of that portion of the valve seat member 21 engaging'the shoulder portion 26 of the valve seat supporting member. On the forward portion of the valve seat member 27 is located a square thread 30 engaging in corresponding square threads in a spray sleeve 3| the forward inner bore of which is slidably engaged over the forward end of the valve seat portion 21. A rubber packing ring 32 is located in an annular groove 33 formed in the bore of the spray sleeve 3|. A soft rubber bumper ring 3la is located around the sleeve 3|. The extreme forward portion of the spray sleeve'bore is recessed at 35 for the purpose of altering the pattern. of the water spray as the sleeve 3| is advanced or backed up on the valve seat member 21. The .valve seat proper '36 is formed by beveling the end or the valve seat member, as shown.
On the forward end of the valve stem I8 is located a free floating valve tip member 3'! the rear face of which is beveled to suit the seat 36. The tip 31 is held against forward movement by means of an internal spanner collar 38 and an intermediate fibre washer 39. A free floating of the area 31a valve tip member 3'! is very important as it permits of a perfect seat between the tip and the seat at all times. The water under high pressure passing around this tip maintains the tip in a perfect central position with respect to the valve seat 36 thereby providing a perfect pattern in the water spray which is not possible if the tip and valve seat are not absolutely concentric to each other.
It should be pointed out that valve seats on standard size nozzles are several inches in diameter and in order to throw a perfect spray or fog pattern the tip and the bore of the valve seat must attain great accuracy in manufacture with respect to concentricity. If the tip center is out of concentricity with the valve seat bore a few thousandths of an inch an unbalanced spray pattern will result. If the valve tip is fixed on the valve stem and it is as accurately centered with the seat as the precision workmanship of a fine watch, the accuracy may be thrown off by the valve tip coming in contact with a foreign object in the ordinary use of the nozzle but with the free floating feature the uniform horizontal pressure of the water will compensate for any slight inaccuracy between the tip and the seat. This is a very important feature in the operation of the nozzle.
When the nozzle is in operation the water pressure may be very high, in some instances, around nine hundred pounds to the inch. The valve seat member 2! is slidable on the valve seat supporting member l4 and when no restraint is present the hydraulic pressure in the nozzle forces the valve seat member 2"? forward closing the valve seat tightly against the valve tip 31. At all times there is a cavity of greater or lesser degree between the rear end bore 85 of the valve seat portion 21 and the adjacent forward end of the bore 8| of the fixed portion 14. This cavity varies in size with the separation of the fixed portion I4 and the valve seat portion 21. This cavity or chamber is always exposed to the very high water pressure delivered from the fire hose service line. The cavity or chamber 85 is larger in diameter than the bores 88 and Bi with hydraulic pressure against the end of the valve seat portion at the chamber 8|. In addition to the hydraulic pressure exerted against the end of the valve seat portion there is also frictional influence due to water passage at high velocity and high pressure past the chamber 85 all of which is greater than any opening pressure at the outlet end. As the valve seat portion 21 moves forward toward the poppet valve portion 3'! the valve seat portion 22' accelerates very rapidly and if not held back will seat with considerable impact. To open the valve, the valve seat member 21 must be drawn back to the rearward and held by external force. To accomplish this action, I have provided a yoke member pivoted on pins 4| fixed in the side walls of the rear portion of the valve seat member 27. The yoke member is provided with a centrally fixed and rearwardly extending lever 42, the rear end of which is pivoted at 43 in the yoke end 44 of a fulcrum lever 45 comprising the trigger portion of the nozzle. Offset above the lever pivot 43 is another pivot pin 45 which pivots the yoke 44 of the lever 45. The lower portion of the lever 45 terminates in the trigger portion 45a which when compressed as shown in Fig. 2 fits into a recess 41 formed in the forward side of the hand grip portion 22.
Fig. 3 shows the valve closed and the valve seat portion 2! advanced as it is when under water pressure with the trigger member 45a. released. Fig. 1 shows the trigger released and the valve closed as shown in Fig. 3.
In the under side of the body portion ill just above the fulcrum lever 45 is located a recess 50 in alignment with another recess 5] in the top face of the lever 45. Located in the recesses 50 and 5| is a compression spring 49. The spring 43 is not for the purpose of pushing the lever 45 down but for a cushion when compressing the trigger thereby making it possible to maintain a steady firm pressure holding the valve open at any degree without fluctuations, or in other words providing a stabilizing force. Around the forward portion of the valve seat member 21 is an annular groove 52 adapted to receive the end of a set screw 53 threaded in the sleeve 3|. The set screw 53 acts as a stop member to prevent the sleeve 3| from being accidentally unscrewed too far and being disengaged from the valve seat member 21 when in use.
On the forward portion of the valve stem 3 are spider members 54 which are slidably engaged with the side walls 55 of the bore of the valve seat member 21. These spiders 54 act as supporting members maintaining the valve stem [8 in alignment in the bore of the valve seat member.
Fig. 7 shows a modified form of the structure shown in Fig. 2 with a modified means of opening the nozzle valve. The base 65 i provided with a bumper ring 6i, a chamber 62 and a threaded end portion '53. A standard size fire hose engages with the threaded end 53. In this form the forward end of the base member is shouldered at 64 and 65 to receive the corresponding recessed portions of the valve stem member 56. A spray sleeve 5'! is threaded at 68 on the valve seat member 66. A valve stem 69 having spider legs to support the valve tip 13, the details of which are the same as in Fig. 6.
The operation of the valve tip 13, valve stem 59, valve seat member 55 and the sleeve member Bl is the same as in Fig. 2, the water pressure normally closing the valve, the only difference being that the means of opening the valve employs an eccentric cam action instead of the fulcrum lever 45 used in Fig. 2. The eccentric cams T5 are journalled in the opposite sides of the rear portion of the valve seat member 66.
' The shouldered portion 64 of the forward portion of the base member 50 is provided with an annular groove 76 and adapted to receive the offset pins ll located on the cams 75. A hand lever 78 is fixed to the cams l5 and by rotating the said cams the valve seat member 66 is slid on the shoulders 64 and 65 of the base member 50 thereby opening or closing the valve of the nozzle.
The operation of the nozzle with the eccentric cam control may differ slightly according to the position of the pins ll of the cams with respect to the handle 18. When the handle is tipped all the way forward, as shown in the drawings, the valve is closed. If the pins are so located in the cams that they are horizontally parallel with respect to the major axis of the nozzle, as shown in Fig. 8, and are on the forward side of the cams, as shown in Fig. 7, the valve will close from the hydraulic pressure within the nozzle; however, the pins Ti and groove 16 may be so positioned that the movement of the valve seat member will be locked, the leverage being too great to be overcome by the water pressure.
It will thus be seen that I have designed a very simple and eificient fire hose nozzle in which the nozzle is instantly closed should it be accidentally dropped or otherwise disengaged from the operators hands. This is a very important feature as it prevents a hose frOm getting loose and thrashing around free, often causing injuries to the operators as well a other damage.
While I have shown and described my invention somewhat in detail it is to be understood that I may vary the shape and proportions within wide latitude while still remaining within the spirit of the appended claim.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new is:
A fire hose nozzle comprising in combination, a base portion adapted to receive a fire hose coupling, a pistol grip portion attached to said base portion, a chamber located in said base and pistol grip portions, a strainer located in said chamber,
a valve stem with attached spider legs anchored in said base portion, a transversely slidable valve tip located on one end of said valve stem, a valve seat portion slidably engaged on said spider legs and on said base portion, a spray sleeve threaded on said valve seat portion, a yoke member pivoted on said valve seat portion, a fulcrum pivoted on said body portion and pivoted to said yoke portion, a trigger comprising an extension on said fulcrum, said trigger extension engaging in the forward side of said pistol grip portion for the purpose of retracting said valve portion away from said tip portion, and means for closing said valve seat portion against said valve tip portion.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 898,759 Melavin Sept. 15, 1908 1,159,015 Gibbs Nov. 2, 1915 1,484,993 Lear -1 Feb. 26, 1924 2,552,445 Nielsen May 8, 1951