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Publication numberUS2679070 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 25, 1954
Filing dateApr 16, 1951
Priority dateApr 16, 1951
Publication numberUS 2679070 A, US 2679070A, US-A-2679070, US2679070 A, US2679070A
InventorsHood Henry G
Original AssigneeHood Co R H
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Apparatus for producing staple fibers
US 2679070 A
Abstract  available in
Images(3)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

May 25, 1954 H, G, HOOD 2,679,070

APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING STAPLE FIBERS Filed April 16, 1951 s Sheets-Sheet 1 May 25, 1954 H. G. HOOD 2,679,070

APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING STAPLE FIBERS Filed April 16, 1951 s Sheets-Sheet 2 I 3 16 a 2 i 40 40 40 May 25, 1954 H. G. HOOD APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING STAPLE FIBERS.

Filed April l6, 1951 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 may. I f

Patented May 25, 1954 APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING STAPLE FIBERS Henry G. Hood, Philadelphia, Pa., assignor to R. H. Hood 00., Philadelphia, Pa., a corporation' of Pennsylvania Application April 16, 1951, Serial No. 221,202

8 Claims. (Cl. 19-37) The present invention relates to new and useful improvements in apparatus for producing staple fibres and more particularly to new and useful improvements in apparatus to convert a towcomposed of a multiplicity ofparallel continuous synthetic filaments, such as nylon or the like, into a sliver of controlled staple length.

In the production of a sliver of fibres from a tow composed of continuous filaments the tow is passed through drafting apparatus where a breaker weakens and deflects the filaments thus enabling them to be broken into fibres of predetermined length. Prior to the present invention the usual breaker used for this purpose comprised a pair of rotating fluted rolls placed at opposite sides of the tow so that the intermeshing flutes of the rolls operated to tension and deflect the filaments thereby weakening them. While this type of breaker is suitable for many synthetic fibres, there are certain synthetic fibres, for example nylon, which cannot be reduced to staple fibre satisfactorily by the present rotary type of breaker because it has been found that such fibres have a tendency to adhere to and wrap around the rotary breaker rolls. The results of this is that after a short period of operation the fibres build-up on the breaker rolls to such an extent that the machine must be shut down and the fibers cut away and removed from the rolls.

In addition, it is known that a certain percentage of the fibres in the tow instead of being broken into the desired staple length by the breaker device will break at the nip of the feed rolls so that some fibres are produced which have a length greater than that desired. Consequent- 1y,- it is desirable that the breaker be positioned as. closely as possible to the feed rolls in order that the length of these so-called tails will be as close as possible to the desired staple length. In the rotary breaker devices of the prior art the diameter of the rolls prevented them from being spaced as close to the feed rolls as is desirable, and the disparity between the desired staple fibre length and the length of the tails has been ob.- jectionable in the industry particularly in cases where fibres of very short staple length are produced.

With the foregoingin mind, the principal object of the present invention is to provide a novel.

sufficiently to allow the same. to be broken into fibres of predetermined length.

Another object of the present invention is to provide a novel breaker device wherein the tension and/or deflection applied to the filaments may be easily varied thereby providing a breaker which is readily adaptable for use with various types of filaments.

Another object of the present invention is to provide a novel breaker devicewhich is especially adapted for use with synthetic filaments and is constructed in a manner which prevents the fibres from adhering to and building-up on the breaker device.

A further object of the present invention is to provide a novel breaker device which may be positioned close to the feed rolls of the drafting apparatus to produce fibres of generally uniform staple length.

A still further object of the present invention is to provide a novel breaker having the advantages and characteristics set forth which is relatively easy to manufacture and is entirely efficient and effective in operation and use.

These and other objects of the present invention and the various features and details of the operation and construction thereof are hereinafter more fully set forth and described with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which: i

Fig. 1 is a schematic longitudinal sectional view of apparatus for producing staple fibres embodying the present invention;

Fig. 2 is a rear elevational view partially in section of the breaker device of the present invention;

Fig. 3 is a longitudinal sectional view taken on line 33, Fig. 2;

Fig. 4 is a sectional view taken on line 4-4, Fig. 2;

Fig. 5 is a sectional view taken on line 5-5, Fig. 1, illustrating the adjustable connection used to vary the stroke of the breaker blades;

Fig. 6 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view of the breaker blades in their operating position; and

Figs. '7 to 10, inclusive, are schematic sectional views of various modified forms of the present invention.

Referring more particularly to the drawings,

Fig. 1, the particular form of the invention shown illustrates schematically drafting apparatus used to convert a tow A composed of a multiplicity of parallel continuous synthetic filaments,such as nylon or the like, into a sliver B of controlled staple length. This drafting apparatus comprisesfa set'of spreader rolls in through which the tow A passes. These spreader rolls i are driven at a relatively slow speed and operate to convert or spread the tow into a wide band of continuous parallel filaments. After the tow leaves the spreader rolls I0, it is passed through a set of feed rolls I I which are driven at a speed faster than that of the spreader rolls it so that the tow is placed under substantial tension. The feed rolls l I feed the tow to a set of delivery rolls I2 which are driven at a much greater speed than the feed rolls I I and after the fibres leave the delivery rolls they are transferred to some further fibre treating apparatus (not shown). In addition, the feed rolls II "snub the tow A, thereby preventing slippage of the same with respect to the feed rolls. Thus the tow A is drafted or drawn out between the feed rolls II and delivery rolls I2 and is converted into a sliver B composed of parallel fibres. The feed rolls II are adjustably mounted on a horizontal frame 16a to permit adjustment of the same with respect to the delivery rolls 12 so that the feed rolls may be positioned at all times as close as possible to the breaker regardless of its spacing from the delivery rolls.

Positioned intermediate of the feed rolls I i and delivery rolls I2 is a breaker I3 which operates to intermittently tension the filaments transversely of their direction of movement and deflect them abruptly out of their normal path of travel between the feed rolls i I and delivery rolls I2. This intermittent tensioning of the filaments causes them to be weakened and break at the point of deflection. Thus the filaments are broken into fibres equal in length to the distance between the breaker l 3 and the delivery rolls I2.

It is important in the production of a sliver composed of synthetic fibres, such as nylon or the like, to prevent the fibres -from adhering to the breaker device and also to maintain the breaker as close to the feed roll as possible. To this end, there are provided between the feed and delivery rolls, a pair of vertically reciprocable lower breaker blades 14 and a vertically reciproca'ble upper breaker blade 15 positioned inter mediate of the paths-of travel of the lower breaker blades H, as illustrated Figs. 1 and -6. lower and upper blades I4 and I5, respectively, reciprocate in opposite directions very rapidly and thus intermittently deflect and exert tension on the filaments. 'In addition, the stroke of the blades I' l and 15, and the distance between the lower blades I I is adjustable, as more fully described hereinafter, so that the necessary defiec-tion and tension of the filaments may be readily obtained.

With reference to Figs. 2 and -3 'of the drawings, in the illustrated embodiment of the invention the breaker i 3 comprises a pair of stationary vertical frame members I6, f6 positioned in spaced parallel relationship with each other at opposite'sides of the tow A. Extending between the frame members I'B are horizontal lower and upper crossheads IT and I8, respectively. Both of The The, upper breaker blade I5 is receive one end "of the connecting link 73 5.

and 6 while the lower breaker blades I4 are carried by the crosshead H.

In accordance with the present invention, the lower breaker blades I4 are mounted for adjustment horizontally with respect to each other and the upper blade I5 to efiect variation in the degree of deflection produced in the filaments by the breaker I3. To this end, the breaker blades I4, I4 are secured to forward and rear slide members 25 and 26, respectively, which in turn are slidably mounted on a way 21 extending transversely of the crosshead I1. Horizontal movement is imparted to the slides 25 and 26 by a reversely threaded adjusting screw 28 which has its oppositely threaded end portions threaded into the slides "25 and 2'6. Lateral movement of the adjusting screw 28 is prevented by an enlarged portion 29 thereon adapted to be engaged in a slot 3% in the lower crosshead IT. The extreme end portion of the adjusting screw is formed to permit engagement of the adjusting screw by a wrench or similar tool and allow the screw to be easily rotated thereby varying the distance between the breaker blades 14, I4.

In the present instance, reciprocating i novement is imparted to the breaker blades It and #5 by an eccentric -32 which is'secu'red 'to an arcuate lever 33 mounted for-oscillatingmovemen t about its pivot point 34. The lever 33 in turn is interconnected with the lower crosshead I? by an adjustable link 3-5. Thus, rotation of the eccentric 32 causes vertical reciprocatory motion of the crosshead I'I.

Extending upwardly from the rear surface of I the crosshead I! is a pair or racks 31, 3-1 which are adapted to engage and rotate pinions 38, 33 pivotally mounted to each of the frame memhers I 6, it as indicated at 39, 39. Guide blocks 30 secured to the upper crosshead I6 serve to maintain the racks 37 in engagement with the pinions 38. In a like manner, a pair of racks H, H depending downwardly from the forward surface of the upper crosshead F8 are "held in engagement with the pinions 38 by guide blocks 42, 4 2 secured to the lower crosshead 17. Thus, upward movement of the lower crosshead I"? and 'r acks '3 causes counterclockwise rotation of the 'pinions 38, with reference to Fig. 3, which in turn causes movement of the racks 4i and the upper c'ro'sshead !8. Similarly, downward movement of the lower crosshead I rotates the pinion's 38 in the clockwise direction and causes the upper crosshead I8 to be raised.

In accordance with the present invention, the stroke of the crossheads l 1 8 is adjustable to allow the tension exerted on the filaments by the breaker I8 to be varied. To this end,-'-an arcuate slot M is pro-v ided along the longitudinal axis of the lever 33 and is -:aclapted to p-ivot'al-ly The connection between the link 35 and the lever 33 is adjustable along the length of the slot to allow variation in the stroke of the crossheads. For example, when the connecting link- :35 is secured near the right hand end of the slot I I, very little reciprocatory motion will be imparted to the crossheads and, conversely, securing the link 35 near the left end of the slot 44 will cause a relatively large amount or movement of the crossheads.

In the illustrated embodiment of the. present invention, the adjustable connection between the link :35 andleve'r 34 is accomplished by la-bol t 4 5 which extends through both 'silies 0f the 35 and the slot 44 as illus'trated in Fig-2. 'rne bolt: 45 carries apair of adjusting blocks 46, 43; having shoulders 41 thereon adapted to bear against opposite sides of the lever 33. Tightening the nut 45a on the bolt 45 forces a bushing 48 against each of the adjusting blocks 45 and causes the shoulder 41 to bear against the lever 33, thereby locking the link 35 in position on the lever 33. The bushings 43, aside from forcing and adjusting blocks 46 against opposite sides of the lever 33, also pivotally mount the link 35 on the bolt 45.

'TheTrelative vertical positions of the lower and upper blades [4 and [5, respectively, with respectto the plane of travel of the tow is adjustableto provide a further method of varying the degree of deflection and amount of tension applied to the filaments. To this end the link 35 connecting'the lever 33 and the lower crosshead 11 is provided with a reversely threaded adjusting nut 49 which permits adjustment of the length of the link 35. The adjusting nut 49 has its oppositely threaded end portions threaded onto upper and lower bolt portions of the link 35 as'illustrated in Figs. 1, 2 and 3, and rotation of the adjusting bolt 49 will vary the length of the link 35. Thus, when the link 35 is shortened the lower and upper crossheads I! and I8 are lowered and raised respectively thereby moving the extreme retracted limit positions of the blades further away from the plane of travel of the tow. In a like manner, lengthening the link 35 will move the extreme retracted limit positions of the blades closer to the plane of travel of the tow.

In lieu of the described construction and arrangement of the present invention wherein both the lower and upper blades l4 and I5, respectively, are reciprocably actuated with respect to one another, equally good results are obtained by an installation such as that shown in Fig. '7 wherein the lower blades [4a are stationary and only the upper blade [5a is reciprocably actuated, for example, by an adjustable crank 50a connected to the upper blade a by an adjusting link a. Conversely, an installation such as shown in the embodiment illustrated in Fig. 8 may be used to obtain the desired results. In this instance the upper blade l5b is stationary and only the lower blades I4b are reciprocably actuated by means of the adjustable'crank b and connecting link 35b. Likewise, equally satisfactory results may be obtained by the arrangement illustrated in Fig. 9 wherein a single lower blade Me is reciprocably actuated with respect to a pair of stationary upper blades I50 by means of an adjustable crank 50c and connecting link 350. In certain other instances it may be desirable to have a plurality of blades both above and below the tow arranged alternately and relatively reciprocable with respect to one another and the tow.

Fig. 10 illustrates an embodiment which clearly points out the advantages of a breaker made in accordance with the present invention particularly the close spacing of the feed rolls to the breaker and the latter to the delivery rolls. In this instance a single lower blade Md is reciprogably actuated with respect to a single stationa y upper blade l5d by means of an adjustable crank 50d and connecting link 35d. The present embodiment is arranged to form fibres having a short staple length and the delivery rolls [2 are positioned close to the breaker blades. In addi-- tion the present invention enables the feed rolls H to be positioned closely adjacent the breaker 6. blades 14d and [5d so that the longer fibres or tails which invariably are produced have a length which is not disproportional to the desired staple length.

From the foregoing, it will be observed that the present invention provides a novel breaker device whereby filaments passing therethrough may be rapidly stressed and deflected to allow the same to be easily broken into fibres of predetermined length and wherein the tension and/or the deflection applied to filaments passing therethrough may be readily varied to permit quick adaptability of the device to diiferenttypes of materials. In addition, the present invention provides a novel breaker device especially adapted for use with synthetic fibres such as nylon wherein the fibres are prevented from adhering to the breaker blades and furthermore, the present invention provides a breaker device embodying novel features of construction whereby the breaker edges may be positioned closely adjacent to the feed rolls of the drafting apparatus so that all of the fibres have substantially the same staple length.

While particular embodiments of the present invention have been illustrated and described herein, it is not intended to limit the invention to such disclosures, and changes and modifications may be incorporated and embodied therein within the scope or" the following claims. I

I claim:

1. In apparatus for converting elongated fila-' ments into a sliver of staple fibres comprising.

sets of feed and delivery rolls operable respectively to feed the filaments to a reducing zone and to withdraw the same from said zone at an increased speed, a breaker device comprising a plurality of breaker edges arranged in said zone at respectively opposite sides of the sliver and relatively reciprocable with respect to one another and the sliver in a direction substantially perpendicular to the path of travel of said sliver to' engage and deflect the same from said path at a sharp angle to break the tensioned filaments at the points of deflection, said breaker edges on at least one side of the sliver being adjustable relative to one another along the length of the filaments to vary the amount of defiec-,

tion imparted thereto.

, 2. In apparatus for converting elongated filaments into a sliver of staple fibres comprising sets of feed and delivery rolls operable respectively to feed the filaments to a reducing zone and to withdraw the same from said zone at an increased speed, a breaker device comprising breaker edges arranged in said zone at respectively opposite sides of the sliver, means operable to vary the distance between the breaker edges on one side of the sliver, and mechanism to relatively reciprocate said breaker edges with respect to one another and the sliver in a direction normal to the path of travel thereof to engage and deflect said sliver from said path to break the tensioned filaments at the points of deflection.

3. In apparatus for converting elongated filaments into a sliver of stap1e fibres comprising sets of feed and delivery rolls operable respectively to feed the filaments to a reducing zone and to withdraw the same from said zone at an increased speed, a transversely extending continuous breaker device comprising a pair of breaker edges at one side of said sliver and a single transversely extending continuous breaker edge at the other side thereof positioned intermediate said pair of 7 breaker edges, said breaker edges being relatively reciprocable with respect to one another and the sliver in a direction normal to the path of travel thereof to engage and deflect said sliver from said path to break the tensioned filament at the point of deflection.

4. In apparatus for converting elongated filaments into a sliver of staple fibres comprisin sets of feed and delivery rolls operable respectively to feed the filaments to-a reducing zone and to withdraw the same from said zone to an increased speed, a, breaker device comprising a pair of breaker edges at one side of said sliver and a single breaker edge at the other side thereof positioned intermediate said pair of breaker edges, said breaker edges being relatively reciprocable with respect to one another and the sliver in a direction normal to the path of travel thereof to engage and deflect said sliver from said path to break the tensioned filaments at the point of deflection, and mechanism operable to vary the distance between the single breaker edge and the pair of breaker edges and thus the amount of deflection imparted to thefilaments.

5. In apparatus for converting elongated filaments into a sliver of staple fibres comprising sets of feed and delivery rolls operable respectively to feed the filaments to a reducing zone and to withdraw the same from said zone at an increased speed, -a breaker device comprising a pair of breaker edges at one side of said sliver and a single breaker edge at the other side thereof positioned intermediate said pair of breaker edges, means to vary the-relative distance between said pair of breaker edges, and drive mechanism to relatively reciprocate said breaker edges with respect to one another and the sliver in a direction normal to the path of travel thereof to enage and deflect said sliver from said path to break the tensioned filaments at the points of deflection.

6. In apparatus for converting elongated filaments into a sliver of staple fibres comprising sets of feed and delivery rolls operable respectively to feed the filaments to a reducing zone and to withdraw the same from said zone at an increased speed, a breaker device comprising a pair of breaker edges at one side of said sliver and a single breaker edge at the other side thereof Cit positioned intermediate said pair of breaker 50 edges, means to vary the relative distance between said pair of breaker edges, drive mechanism to relatively reciprocate said breaker edges with respect to one another and the sliver in a, direction normal to the path of travel thereof to engage and deflect said sliver from said path to break the tensioned filaments at the points of deflection, and means to vary the relative reciprocating movement imparted to the breaker edges.

7. in apparatus for converting elongated filaments into a sliver of staple fibres including sets of feed and delivery rolls operable respectively to feed the filaments to a reducing zone and to withdraw the same from said zone at an increased speed, breaker means in said zone comprising at least one breaker edge of abrasive material ex tending continuously transversely of the sliver at each side of the sliver and relatively reciprocable with respect to each other and the sliver in a direction substantially perpendicular to the path of travel of said sliver to engage and deflect the same from said path to break the tensioned filaments at the point of deflection.

8. In apparatus for converting elongated filaments into a sliver of staple fibres including sets of feed and delivery rolls operable respectively to feed the filaments to a reducing zone and to Withdraw the same fromsaid zone at an increased speed, breaker means in said zone comprising at least one breaker edge .of abrasive material extending continuously transversely of the sliver at eacn side of the sliver, means mountin the breaker edge at one side of the sliverfor relative reciprocation with respect to the other breaker edge and the sliver in a direction substantially perpendicular to the path of travel of said sliver to engage and deflect the same from said path to break the tensioned filaments at the point of vdeflection, and mechanism to reciprocably actuate said breaker at one side of the sliver.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name 'Date 2,180,172 Schmitt Nov. 14, 1939 2,219,356 Dreyfus et a1 Oct. 29, 1940 2,323,300 Abbott July 6, 1943 2,419,320 Lohrke Apr. 22, 1947 FGREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 511,682 Great Britain Aug. 23, 193-9

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2180572 *May 5, 1938Nov 21, 1939North American Holding CorpTool kit
US2219356 *Jul 23, 1937Oct 29, 1940Celanese CorpManufacture of staple fiber products from continuous filaments
US2323300 *Apr 17, 1937Jul 6, 1943Abbott Machine CoTextile manufacture
US2419320 *May 8, 1943Apr 22, 1947Louis Lohrke JamesProcess and apparatus for producing staple fibers
GB511682A * Title not available
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3377663 *Oct 13, 1965Apr 16, 1968Om LtdMethod of producing slivers from synthetic fiber tows
US4389751 *Jul 5, 1980Jun 28, 1983Rieter Machine Works LimitedApparatus for severing a fibre layer of staple fibres
Classifications
U.S. Classification19/.37
International ClassificationD01G1/08, D01G1/00
Cooperative ClassificationD01G1/081
European ClassificationD01G1/08A