US 2680485 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 3, 1954 A. G. BoDnNE, JR 2,680,485
APPARATUS FOR AUGMENTING THE FLOW I OF OIL FROM PUMPED WELLS Filed July 23, 1948 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 #A5527 6. Boo/NE, Je.
@from/Ey Patented June 8, 1954 APPARATUS FOR AUGMENTING THE FLOW OF OIL FROM PUMPED WELLS Albert G. Bodine, Jr., Van Nuys, Calif.
Application July 23, 1948, Serial No. 50,428
(Cl. 16B-1) 17 Claims. l
rThis invention relates generally to systems for increasing the now of wells, particularly oi1 wellsI and deals more especially with a system operable in conjunction with an oil well pump for increasing the normal flow from the oil bearing strata to the pump by application to the strata of elastic waves of sonic character, i. e., waves of compression and tension travelling in the strata at the speed. of sound` The present application is a continuation-inpart of my prior application entitled Method and Apparatus for Boundary Layer Control, Serial No. 771,898, filed September 2, 1947, which application was a continuation-impart; of my prior application entitled Method and Apparatus for Pumping, Serial No. 761,456, filed July 1'7, 1947, and issued as Patent Number 2,444,912 on July 13, 194.3, The present application is also a continuation-in-part of my prior application entitled Sonic System for Augmenting the Extraction of Oil from Oil Bearing Strata, Serial No. 8799, filed February l?, i948. now Patent No, 2,667,932.
The above-mentioned parent applications, together -with n United States Patent Number ZABTAiSS, decl madly with methods and apparatus for augmenting the flow from oil bearing strata to a well application to the strata of elastic waves of sonic frequency (e. g., 2O to several thousand c. p. s.) in such a manner as to cause such waves to travel in the strata for substantial distances from the well, i. e., up to several hundred feet radially into the formation. The precise explanation of the phenomena involved has not been determined with absolute certainty to the present time. but experimental evidence re an increase in the mobility of the oil con .lined in the sandstone up to the order of 58%. By contrast, no increase is found in the rate of travel of water under the same conditions. The various factors involved appear to include heating of the petroleum fluids as a result of sound wave energy dissipation, causing increased gas pressure, as well as reduction in the viscosity of the oil, and therefore augmented oil migration through the formation. Again, it is known that oil is trapped in earthen formations by water films bridging the gaps between sand particles, or closing oi the pores in the formation. Periodic vibration of the formation by transmitting sound waves therethrough causes or permits the oil droplets to puncture these water films, and so to become freed for migration. As a further factor, it is known that oil exhibits boundary layer adhesion to the surfaces of the sandstone. which seriously impedes the now of the oil to the well.
This boundary layer condition can be materially reduced by transmitting sound waves through the sandstone, which has the effect of reducing the frictional drag of the formation on the well fluid by agitating, `breaking up and scrubbing away the boundary layers of the fluid which are otherwise bound adhesively to the formation.
The above-mentioned parent applications disclose various methods and apparatus for `generating sound Waves, and applying the same to the formation for transmission therein to accomplish the desirable ends already mentioned. In those applications there have been disclosed several embodiments of the broad invention characterized by the application of the invention to the well pump itself, and the present application is directed broadly to these applications of the invention, and contains applicants broader claims directed thereto.
A major object of the invention may therefore be stated to be to provide a method and apparatus for utilizing a deep well pump, or an auxiliary apparatus associated with a deep well pump, for radiating sound wave energy into the formation for the purpose of augmenting the rate of migration of well fluids from the formation to the well.
It is known that the flow of oil through an oil bearing formation to a well bore sunk therein depends, in the last analysisy upon the pressure differentials between points in the formation, on the one hand, and the interior of the well bore, on the other. A feature of the present invention is the radiation of sound waves deep into the formation, thus enhancing the ability of the oil to travel through the formation accordingT to the principles discussed in the foregoing, and simultaneously therewith, lowering the pressure in the well bore by operating a pump therein, thus increasing the pressure differential between the formation and the well bore. This novel process consisting in simultaneous radiation of waves from the bore into the formation, and lowering of the pressure in the well bore, thereby increasing the pressure differentials as described, estab-- lishes optimum conditions for recovery of oil, and will not only augment the flow from a satisfactorily producing well, but will enable oil recovery on an economic basis under conditions otherwise so unfavorable as would indicate abandonment of the well.
According to one major varient of the invention, there is utilized a sonic deep well pump of the general type disclosed in my aforesaid Patent Number 2,444,912, and which in a typical form is characterized by longitudinal transmission of sound energy from a wave generator at the ground` surface down the pump tubing, resulting in a vewcal oscillation of the lower end of the pump tubing ol a cheek valve carried thereby. The check valve alternately opens and closes with the oscillatory movement of the tubing, and pumps weil fluid up the tubing as fully explained in said prior patent. The lower end portion of this pump tubing is, according to the invention, so formed as to act at the same time as a generator of sound waves which are transmitted to and thence radiated into the formation.
According to another major variant oi the invention, an ordinary conventional sucker rod pump is employed, but to the lower end o the pump tubing is suspended a sound wave generator` which is driven by pressure energy bled off from the liquid column in the pump tubing. it elli be seen that in both cases, I accomplish, rst, pumping within the well, so as to lower the pressure in the lower end of the well bore and thus increase pressure differentials between points in the orination and the well bore, and at the :eine time, and simultaneously therewith, I accomplish radiation of sound wave energy ,Qi the oil bearing formation. u; additional objects and features of the inven"LA Jn will appear from the following detailed description of present illustrative embodiments thereof, reference ior this purpose being had to the accompanying drawings, in which:
Figure 1 is a view partly in longitudinal section and partly in elevation, showing an embodiment of the invention;
Figure .2 crosssection taken on line 2--2 in Figure l;
3 is a view, partly in tion and partly in elevation, embodiment ol the invention;
Figure -l is a view partly in tion and partly in elevation, embodiment of the invention;
Figure 5 is a cross-section taken on ol i 4;
Figure S is view showing another modification oi" the embodiment of Figure 4; and
Figure is view showing another modification of the embodiment of Figure 4.
Referring rst to the embodiment of the invention shcon in Figures l and 2, numeral I0 designatos generally the usual perforated casing einbedderl in production formation il. Pump tubing l2, only fragmentarily illustrated, and which will be understan to be entirely conventional in its extension to the ground surface, has mounted therein the usual plunger i3 carrying travelling valve i4 and adapted to be reciprooated by sucker rod string i5. The drawing shows only the lower portion of the well, the well equipment above and at the ground surface being understood as entirely conventional and not requiring illustration herein. Pump tubing I2 has screwed onto its lower end e tubular body i6 having a laten ally opening intake port il controlled by standing valve !B and urged against its seat by spring i8. Below valve IB is a wall pierced by a small fluid port 2l, which may discharge fluid downwardly from the pump tubing into a pipe section 22. To the lower end of the latter is coupled, as by ilexlble coupling 23, a sound wave generator which in this specific illustrative embodiment comprises a gyratory elastic tube or pipe section 25, which i'n the present instance carries at its lower end a fluid driven wave generator unit 26. The latter comprises a head 21 coupled to longitudinal sec showing another longitudinal secshowing another line 5-5 the lower end of pipe section 25 and furnished with an internal annular groove forming a race 28 for a gyrating ball 29, the latter being driven by a tangential fluid iet discharged from tan gential nor/:zie 30 communicating as indicated with the lower end of pipe section 25. The lower end of body 2l has a Huid discharge port 3i.
In operation, the pressure of the fluid column which exists in the pump tubing during pumping operation, just as in all conventloruil pumps of thisl type, is imposed on the fluid at nozzle 'is during each down stroke of the pump plunger I3 (the valve ball l being unseated at such time). and fluid is accordingly discharged from nozzle 2D to drive ball 2S in a. circular path at relatively high velocit-y. This gyrating ball exerts n centrifugal force against the lower end of the elastic pipe 25, causing the latter to be continuously sub jected to a rotating force vector in a transverse plane. The force vector is designed to be o suicient magnitude to bend or deflect the loaver end of the pipe in a circular path in a. transverse plane.. This circular bending derlection oi the elastic pipe 25 is propagated the length of the pipe so that each section thereof participates in the gyratory action. The nozzle may be de signed to drive the ball. under the column pres sure available, at any desired speed. usually in the range of 10 to 10G!) R. P. S. Freier-ably the frequency of rotation of the ball is made to cor respond with the fundamental resonant irequency of the pipe 25, which results in rcsonatini;
the pipe and establishing a standing wave therealong', the latter being characterized oy velocitinodes (points of minimum transverse deler-nwtion) located at 1,1%, of its length iroin each e and velocity anti-nodes (points o ina-simian transverse deiormationl at its center and ai both ends. This standing wave *he result oi elastic waves of transverse deformai on propagated lV h gltudinally up pipe 25 and 1ei'lo^f'lirom its iper end, the reflected waves int-crtL at the i r nant frequency to give the nodes and anti-nodes as described.
It should be noted that the gy story delorfuri tion of each section of the pipe may be anniv. to be the resultant of two transverse vibratie-ns occurring in directions at rightang 'to one un other, and with phase difieren-.ie between them. The generator thus combinesv the elif-et and power of two unidirectional \"hrators op rating in quadrature on direction lines riluanglcs to one another. and is therefore. in eilcct, a harmonic vibration generator. lt if; of cour f within the scope oi' the invention to substitute a generator which oscillates or vibrate-s in but one` direction. The action of the pipe 25, whether gyratory (oscillation along tufo direction lines in quadrature phase) or oscillaxiry tto and fro along a single direction line, results in transmission of elastic wave energy to and radially outward through the immediate surrounding mew dium, which is the well Iluid understood to hc present in the casing. The sound waves in the well fluid are thus transmitted to the casing, and out through the casing perforations [which may be desirably, in some cases, enlarged to augment the wave transmission) into the surrounding oil bearing formation. The sound waves arriving at the casing also set the casinginto vibration, and the casing in turn transmits the sound waves into the oil bearing formation. The sound waves thus applied to the formation are transmitted therein for substantial distances as elastic waves of tension and compression, travelling with the velocity of sound in the medium, and as already explained,
these waves augment the oil flow rate through the formation and from the formation into the well. In operation, the pumpplunger I 3 is reciprocated by means of sucker rod string I5 and the usual reciprocating mechanism at the ground surface (walkingl beam or the like) with the eiTect of raising the oil column in the tubing l2, and with the further effect of depressing the pressure within the casingr It at the bottom of the well. This lowered pressure of course results in migration of oil flow to the well from the surrounding formation, and in combination with the eifects of the radiated sound waves, there is achieved a substantially augmented production rate from the well. In many cases, marginal wells can in this manner be placed back on economic production, and in substantially all cases, enhanced production can be achieved.
Reference is next directed to the embodiment of Figure 3, which illustrates a form of the invention applied to sonic pump of the type rst disclosed in aforesaid Patent Number 2,444,912. In said figure, numeral 36 designates the perforated casing." in the wel] bore, and 3'! is an elastic steel pump tubingr suspended therein from coil type shrines 38. the upper end of said tubing delivering 'ell fluid to pipe 39. A sonic wave vibra.- tion generator @22, afterwards to be described, is mounted on the top end of the tubing, and operates to send alternating longitudinal waves of tension and compression down the tubing 37 foi` transmission to the lower end thereof. Considering the support of the pump tubing from the spring 38 in more detail, the tubing 3l has near its upper end an enlarged head or collar 4I. The tubingl 3T received in an aperture 2 formed in a horizontal top plate 43, the head 4l overhanains and bearing` downwardly on said plate around i ture l? for the support of the column. Vertical paced below top plate 3 is a horizontal boiioin or base plate dfi carried by a tubular member 5 and nge bolted to casing head flancs t?. Between base plate 44 and top plate 43 are r mural-Pty; of coil springs dS, positioned on vertifml pins set tightly into base plate 44 and proierting with a `working', slidingT nt through bores Si: in ion e 3. The weight of the tubing 3l is thus tir ired to springs 3S, and thence to the I,ine supported by the earth.
.rd to the lower end of the tubing is an enlarged tuhin' section or hoilow piston E2, of substantial length. preferably approximately a. quarter-ware length of the wave generated in the pump tubing by the oscillation generator im. This enlarged tubing section or piston 52 has a relatively close ilt with the casing, so as to prevent substantial liquid flow in an upward direction in the annular sp :1e between it and the casing. The lower end portion of the piston 52 has a bottom closure wall 54, furnished with perforations iii forming:` valve passages controlled by a like plurality of ball valves 55, the latter being; furnished with suitable caries 5i of any desired character. In the illustrated embodiment, thc lower end of casing 35 carries a perforated line 60. havingT a closed bottom 6.' rest-in; on the bottom of the well hole.
The vibration generator d!) may be of any desired type, but as here shown is provided with casing 62 within which are meshing oppositely rotating gears S3 carrying eccentric weights @d which balance out horizontal vibrations but causing vertical vibrations to be additive to produce a substantial resonant oscillatory force in Vertical directionA The driving pulley 65 of the sound fill (ill
wave generator, mounted on the shaft for one of the spur gears, is driven by an electric motor or any other suitable prime mover (not shown) through belt 66.
In operation, this generator transmits elastic waves of tension and compression down the pump tubing, causing the check-valved piston 52 at the lower end thereof to be longitudinally reciprocated through a short displacement distance at the frequency of operation of the generator. This action, and the preferred establishment of resonance in the tubing, are fully discussed in my Patent Number 2,444,912. Each down stroke of bottom end wall 54 with the tubing occurs at an acceleration greater than gravity, and the check valve balls accordingly unseat during such time. Fluid displaced by the downwardly travelling wall 54 therefore flows upwardly through the ports and fills the void above the wall 54 caused b5 the down stroke of the latter. On the up stroke, the check valve balls will seat, and the column of fluid thereabove is elevated. The oscillating piston 52, working with relatively close fit within the casing, functions to move a substantial quantity of well fluid, and hence furnishes a good wave transmission coupling to the iluid. Sound waves are accordingly set up in the fluid, travellingr downwardly to the lower end of the liner, where they are reflected and returned upwardly. Pressure and velocity impulses are thus created within the liquid medium, and these are transmitted to the liner and to the surrounding formation, being thus applied to the forniation and thence radiated for substantial distances in the formation as elastic waves travelling in the formation with the speed of sound.
It should be noted that of the many embodiments of pump disclosed in my aforesaid Patent No. 2,444,912, only that of Figures 5 and 6 will afford any practical degree of coupling with the liquid. In the other embodiments. sound waves would not in practice be radiated far as the oil bearing formation outside the casina. For example, the end area of the pump tubing in the embodiment of Figure 4, or the end area of any of the pistons used with the embodiment of Figure 20, would be an insulcient fraction of the cross-sectional area of the casing for any effective wave transmission coupling to the external Well fluid to be expected. The insignicant amount of fluid moved by these areas on each down stroke thereof simply escapes by moving radially out of the way and then up in the large annular space between the pump tubing and the casing, vin'th exceedingly poor coupling elliciency. By having the pumping member nearly ll the casing, however, as does the flared type of tubing end of Figures 5 and 6 of said patent, a substantial quantity of fluid is positively driven, as by a piston in a cylinder, and sufficient wave energy is transferred to the well Huid to be radiated out into the formation. Even with the embodiment of Figures 5 and 6 of said patent, however (see also Figure 6 of my application Serial No. 8,799), there is some disadvantage in that a substantial quantity of fluid is enabled to escape up or down past the flared tubing end on each of its strokes. This by-passing fluid represents loss of sound wave energy, and the improved embodiment shown in Figure 3 of the present application, characterized by the provision of a long close-fitting lower tubing section or piston 42, minimizes this loss, and assures maximum radiation of sound wave energy.
My prior Patent No. 2,444,912 has described four times the tubing length. Said prior patent also described the preferred establishment of standing wave resonance in the pump tubing, and described how the sound waves in the tubing cause vertical oscillation of the check-valved lower end of the tubing, and consequent pumping.
It will be evident how the closed, check-valved lower end of the enlarged tubing section or piston 52 of the present invention, oscillating vertically at the lower end of the pump tubing, will transmit longitudinal sonic waves to the liquid column l in the liner below. It is preferred, for maximum energy transmission, to establish a condition of substantial standing wave resonance in the liquid column l, and a desirable condition in accordance with the invention is a correlation between sound wave frequency and lio-uid column length establishing substantially an odd number of quarter wave lengths in the liquid column. In this connection. it will of cor .use be understood that a wave length for a given frequency will not be the same in the liquid column as in the steel pump tubing because of the differing velocities of sound in the two media. From a. practical standpoint, the standing wave in the liouid column in the liner may be between a quarter and a half wave in length, a wave length in this sense being thc length of a wave in the well fluid at the sonic freouency prevailing. A standing wave a little longer than a ouai-ter wave in length is diagrarnined in Figure 2 at s, the wave envelope indicating velocity amplitude of liquid particles of the column.
In practice, oscillator 6B is preferably operated at a frequency which will establish a longitudinal standing wave in the pump tubing, thus assuring pumping under optimum conditions. and at u frequency which will also establish a standing wave in the liquid column Within the To accomplish this last, adjustment in the of the liquid column may be made by or lowering! the pump tubing. It will b possible to readily Find an operating ire en v and a liquid column length such that :in over-tone frequency of the fundamental generate-:i will give the desired condition of standing wave resonance in the liouid column. In some cases the tubing will resonate at the fundamental, and in come it too will resonate at an overtone frequency.
Under the standing wave conditions described. liquid particles comprising the column l will oscillate at high amplitude, and high amplitude pressure waves will accordingly be created and will imninge on the walls of the casing and/or liner. causing the same to vibrate strongly against the formation and thus apply wave energy thereto. This wave energy is thereupon propagated in the formation as elastic waves o f compression and tension, travelling in the formation with the speed of sound. The resonated liquid column thus serves as a sonic wave coupling medium between the enlarged wave-generating lower end of the pump tubing and the formation.
Figure 4 shows another embodiment of the nventicn employing a sonic type of deep well pump, but having characteristics departing from those of the embodiment of Figure 3.
Numeral 1D designates the casing in the well bore, and 1I the elastic steel pump tubing, again provided at the top with sonic wave vibration generator l2 (which may be the same as the corresponding generator of the embodiment of Figure 3). The upper end of tubing 1I is provided with ow delivery pipes 13. Casing head 'H1 has a packing 15 permitting some degree of vertical oscillation of the pump with reference to the casing head and casing. The upper end of the casing is provided with gas vent 11.
In the present illustrative embodiment, the lower end ci the casing carries a perforated liner 80, cut off a predetermined distance below the lower end of the well hole, is indicated at 8 l. In the open well hole 82 below the lower end of the liner is positioned a solid rubber column B3 of some elastic rubber-like material, preferably a synthetic capable of withstanding deleterious action of the well iluids. The lower end of pump tubing 1l carries a flanged collar B4 which rests on the upper end of this solid rubber column 83, and the entire weight of the pump tubing and sound wave generator 12 is imposed on the rubber column. The pump tubing thus stands in compression on the rubber column, compressing the latter vertically and causing it to expand laterally into intimate pressural contact with the sides and bottom of the well hole.
The tubing ai has a section lio opposite perforated liner Btl which is provided with fluid inlet holes S6. and a short distance thereabove the tubing is provided with a check valve unit 8l, comprising seat ri 8E), valve ball SG, and cage 9 l. Additional check valve units of a similar nature may be provided, if desired, at vertically spaced points in the pump tubing, at such spaeings and for purposes. clearly discussed in my aforesaid prior Patent No. 2,444,912.
To center the pump tubing in the casing, and to prevent engagement between the tubing and casing such as would result in loss of vibration energy into the casing, I preferably utilize on the casing a plurality of rubber spools secured in place with a cable Si which passes through the spools and encircles the tubing, as clearly indicated in Figures 4 and 5. Each such spool 90 is similar in shape to a segment of a doughnut. These spools have radii 5E and 93 conforming with the radii of the pump tubing and casing, respectively. A number oi' these rubber spool units may be used on the tubing at suitably spaced vertical intervals.
In operation, the vibration generator 12 launches longitudinal waves of tension and cornpression down the pump tubing, these waves travelling to the lower end of the tubing. and there being reflected bacia up the tubing as fully described in my pump Patent Number 2,444,912.
Portions of the tubing are thus set into vertical oscillatory movement as a result of the passage of these waves, and the described check valves in the tubing therefore oscillate vertically, causing well fluid entering the tubing by way of ports 86 to be pumped up the tubing to the delivery pipe 'i3 at the top. It will oe evident that the pump tubing may have sorne vertical oscillatory movement with reference to the casing head 14 at the top, but this is accommodated by the packing 15.
The particular novel characteristic of the embodiment of Figure 4 is the resting of the lower end of the pump tubing on the solid rubber co1- umn 83, the tubing thus standing in compression, and placing the rubber column under compression, so that it expands laterally into intimate pump, to sustain continuing oil bearing formation around actual pumping of the well.
A number of present embodiments of the invention have been disclosed for lillustrative purposes only, and it will be understood that various changes in design, structure and arrangement may be made in these illustrative embodiments without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined in the appended claims.
l. In an oil well, the combination of; a well pump operable within the well bore, said pump including a pump tubing and a check-valved plunger rcciprocable therein, and a sound wave generator in the well bore below said pump tubing operable by the hydrostatic pressure head of well nuid in said pump tubing to generate sound waves and to radiate said waves into the surrounding oil bearing formation.
2. Apparatus or pumping a well and for simultaneously augmenting the now of well fluids from the surrounding formation 'to the Well bore, that comprises: an elastic tubing positioned in said weil bore and reaching from the ground surface to the region of the oil bearing formation, a laterali-t enlarged piston element on the lower portion ol sind tubing in the Space between the tubing and the wall o1' the well bore, a check valve at the lower end portion of said tubing. and a generator o elastic waves at the ground surface driviiigly coupled to said elastic tubing to send alternating longitudinal deformation Waves oi" tension and compression down the same whereby to verticali-J- oscillate the lower end portion of said tubing and said check valve and piston element 3. Apparatus for augmenting the fluid flow through ii porous fluid bearing earthen forma tion surrounding a well bore sunl: therein, that comprises; un elastic tubing positioned in said well bore und reaching from the ground surface to the region of the oil bearing formation, resilient means supporting said tubing near the upper end thereof, whereby said tubing is suspended in tension, s. laterally enlarged piston element on the loire; portion of said tubing in the space between the tubing and the wall of the Well bore, and a generator of elastic waves at the ground surface drivingly coupled to said elastic tubing to send alternating longitudinal deformation waves oi tension and compression down the same whereby to vertically oscillate the lower end prtion oi said tubing :ind said piston element.
fi. Apparatus for augmenting the fluid flow through a porous lluid bearing earthen formation surrounding a well bore sunk therein, that comprises: an elastic tubing positioned in said Well bore and reaching from the ground surface to the region of the oil bearing formation, a resilient column lodged in the lower end of the well bore in engagement with the wall surfaces of said bore, the lower end of said tubing resting on said column, and said tubing standing in compression on said column, and a generator of elastic waves at the ground surface drivingly coupled to said elastic tubing to send alternating longitudinal deformation waves of tension and compression down the samewhereby to vertically oscillate` the lower end portion of said tubing and saidh resilient column, whereby said column is cyclically deformed and exerts corresponding periodic deformation forces on the wall surfaces of said bore causing elastic waves of compression elastic waves in the the well bore during l'Z and tension to be set up and propagated in the formation.
5. A combination as defined in claim 4, wherein said resilient column comprises a solid body of rubber-like material in intimate engagement with the adjacent sides and bottom of the well bore.
6. Apparatus for pumping a well and ior simultaneously augmenting the flow of well nuids from the surrounding formation to the Well bore, that comprises: an elastic tubing positioned in said Well bore and reaching from the ground surface to the region of the oil bearing formation, an oil inlet opening in the side of said tubing near the lower end thereof, a check valve in the lower portion of said tubing above said inlet opening, a solid body of resilient, rubber-like material lodged in the lower end portion of the well bore in intimate engagement with the adjacent sides and bottom of the well bore, the lower end of said tubing resting on said body. and the tubing standing in compression thereon, and a generator of elastic waves at the ground surface drivingly coupled to said elastic tubing to send alternating longitudinal deformation waves of tension and compression down the same whereby to vertically oscillate the lower end portion of said tubing and said cliecl; valve and resilient body, whereby said check-valve cyclically lifts Well fluids in said tubing, and whereby said resilient body is cyclically deformed and exerts corresponding periodic deformation forces on the wal surfaces of said bore causing elastic waves oi compression and tension to be set up and propagated in the formation.
7. Apparatus for augmenting the huid flow through a porous uid bearing earthen iorina tion surrounding a well bore sunk tliei in, that comprises: an elastic tubing positioned in said well bore and reaching from the ground surface to the region of the oil bearing formation, a resilient body supported in the lower end ci said bore in pressure Wave transmitting relation with said earthen formation, the lower end oi' said tubing supported on said body. and said tubing standing in compression supported by said body. and a generator of elastic waves at the ground surface drivingly coupled to said elastic tubing to send alternating longitudinal deformation waves of tension and compression down the same whereby to vertically oscillate the lower end portion of said tubing and said resilient body, Whereby said body is cyclically deformed. and transmits corresponding periodic compressive forces on said earthen formation causing elastic waves of compression and tension to be set up ano' propagated in the formation.
8. Apparatus for augmenting the fluid flow through a porous uid bearing earthen i`orniation surrounding a Well bore sunk therein, that comprises; an elastic tubing positioned in said well bore and reaching from thc ground surface to the region of the oil bearing formation, a resilient body supported in the lower end of said bore and coupled to said formation to transmit pressure impulses thereto by virtue oi' periodic deformation of said body, the lower end of said tubing supported on said body, and said tubing standing in compression supported by said body, and a generator of elastic waves at the ground surface drivingly coupled to said elastic tubing to send alternating longitudinal deformation waves of tension and compression down the same whereby to vertically oscillate the lower end portion of said tubing and said resilient body, where- 13 by said body7 is cyclicallg' deformed and transinits corresponding periodic compressive forces on said earthen formation causing elastic waves of compression and tension to be set up and propagated in the formation,
t'. Apparatus for pumping a Well and for si multanecufn augmenting the flow of Well fiuids from the surrounding formation to the Well bore, that comprise.: an elastic tubing positioned in said well bore and reaching from the ground surface to the region of the oil bearing forma tion, a check valve at the lower end portion of said tubing, a generator of elastic waves at the ground. surface drivingly coupled to said elastic tubing to send alternating longitudinal deformation waves of tension and compression down the same whereby to vertically oscillate the lower end portion of seid tubing and said check valve, and radiating means on said lower end portion of said tubing for radiating vibrations into the surrounding well fluids and formation.
10. For use in reducing the clogging of oil flow passages in a production oil well having a pump tubing and pump means connected thereto, an elastic sound wave generator with an output characteristic adapted to generate elastic sound waves for liquid and solid media having the resistance of petroleum containing media to sound wave vibration at the frequency of said generator, .an elastic sound Wave transmitting means operatively combined with said generator and adapted to couple said generator to a liquid or solid wave energy receiving meda in said well, said transmitting means having an Piment fo:l` mounting it on the pump tubing' of said well and near the inlet of said pump, so as to position said transmitting means in the producing region of said Well, and a power connection means for connecting said generator to a power source in said production field, Whereby a sufficient average rate of power delivery may be conducted from said power source to said transmitter and radiated therefrom as elastic sound wave energy which is thereafter transmitted into said producing field so as to reduce the clogging of the oil flow passages and thereby icrease the average production rate for said production well.
il. A ooinbiiiat' in the said .1', said productie so to generate vibraticas therein, and wher-ein said Wave transmitting Ud to said tubing so as to receive means conne vibrations 12, A coinbin tion as defined in claim l0 wherein said wave nsmittifig means has an enlarged surface for Contact with well fluid.
13. For use in reducing the clogging of oil flow passages in u production oil well having,r a production tubing and pump means connected thereto, an elastic sound wave generator with a coupling means for connecting to the production tubing of said well and having an output characteristic adapted to generate elastic waves of tension and compression in said tubing at the frequency of said generator, an elastic sound wave transmitting means adapted to couple said tubing to a liquid or solid wave energy receiving media in said well, said transmitting means having an attachment lli for mounting lt on said production tubing of said well so as to be vibrated in response to seid waves in said tubing, and a power connection means for connecting said generator to a power source ,in said production field, whereby a sufficient average rate of power delivery may be conducted from said power source to said transmitter and radiated therefrom as elastic sound wave energy which is thereafter transmitted into said producing field so as to reduce the clogging' of the oil flow passages and thereby increase the aver-.ig production rate for said production well.
14, Apparatus for augmenting the fluid new through a porous oil bearing e rthen formation surrounding a Well bore sunk tueren, comprising; a casing lining the well bore, a perforated liner at the lower end portion of said casing, elastic tubing positioned in the welt bore and leaching from the ground surface to the region of the oil bearing formation, said tubing being adapted at its lower end portion for rm engagement with said liner, and a generator of elastic waves at the ground surface drivingly coupled to said elastic tubing to send alternating longitudinal deformation waves of tension and compression down the same whereby to vertically oscillate the lower end portion of said tubing and said liner.
l5. A combination as donned in claim 14, wherein the casing and liner have overlapped oppositely facing shoulders, and a resilient element is positioned between said shoulders to provide a resilient support of the liner on the casing.
16. For use ith vibratory sonic pumps in an earthen Well. an acoustic coupler for radiating elastic waves into said well, said coupler being constructed and arranged for mounting on said pump adjacent the pump inlet and so as to be vibrated by the pump, said coupler also having a wave transmitting surface for contact with liquid or solid media in said well when said coupler is mounted on said pump, and said coupler having a Wave transmitting response when vibrated at the frequency of vibration of said pump.
17. In oil well producing apparatus, the combination of: a, deep Well pump operable Within a Well bore, said pump having a pump tubing, a sound wave radiator mounted near the lower end portion of said tubing and positioned opposite the production formation and adjacent the pump inlet, said radiator being acoustically coupled to the surrounding well fluids and solid formation, and a sound wave generator coupled to said radiator so that said radiator radiates sound waves into the formation while said pump creates pressure diierentials between the formation and said Well bore.
References Cited ln the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 2,056,513 Cambarini Oct. 6, 1936 2,444,912 Bodine July 13, 1948 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 472,864 Germany Feb. 14, 1929