|Publication number||US2680487 A|
|Publication date||Jun 8, 1954|
|Filing date||Jan 4, 1949|
|Priority date||Jan 4, 1949|
|Publication number||US 2680487 A, US 2680487A, US-A-2680487, US2680487 A, US2680487A|
|Inventors||Carpenter Paul G|
|Original Assignee||Phillips Petroleum Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (16), Referenced by (36), Classifications (21)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
June 8, 1954 INVENTOR. P. G. CARPENTER Patented June 8, 1954 METHOD AND APPA OPERATIONS EMP PEROXIDE RATUS FR WELL LOYIN G HYDROGEN Paul G. Carpenter, Bartlesville, Okla., assignor to Phillips Petroleum Company, a corporation of Delaware Application January 4, 1949, Serial No.
17 claims. (C1. 16s- 1) This invention relates to processes and apparatus for removing solid materials from a portion of a wall of a well by concentrated hydrogen its decomposition products.
In another specic aspect it relates to drilling a well bore. y In carrying out any process involving the rea point deep in the earth inside the small connes of a bore hole. Most sources of power require combustion pipes or cables to supply the power and require removal of the products of combustion or have other disadvantages of an obvious nature. Operating at the bottom of a small diameter hole aggravates all problems that would occur at the surface of the ground.
I have found that by employing concentrated to a greater depth. make use of the simple apparatus disclosed which enables me to apply the great power contained in the hydrogen peroxide in an eicient manner. The exhaust gases from the decomposing hydro- One object of the present invention is to provide an improved process and apparatus for removing solid material from a portion of a wall of a well.
Another object is to provide an improved process and apparatus for cutting pipe in two in a well.
Another object is to provide an improved process for perforating holes in a pipe in a well.
Another object is to provide an improved process and apparatus for drilling a well.
Another object is to provide suitable means for employing the power contained in hydrogen peroxide by releasing this power by contact with a suitable hydrogen lyst.
Numerous other objects and advantages will be apparent to those skilled in the art upon studying the accompanying specification claims and drawings.
Figure 1 is a cross sectional elevational view of a well containing an apparatus involving the present invention and in which well processes embodying the present invention are being carried out.
Figure 2 is a cross section View of the apparatus shown in Figure 1 taken along the line 2-2 looking in the direction indicated.
Figure 3 is a cross sectional elevational view peroxide decomposition cataa hole in a pipe.
Figure 4 is a cross third form of jet which may be substituted for the bottom of a well.
Figure 5 is an elevational view of a modified form of the apparatus shown in Figure l in which means for preventing rotation are provided and in which the jet of Figure 3 is employed.
It is the purpose of this invention to provide process and means for using concentrated hydrogen peroxide as an agent for removing solid material from the wall of a well.
I have found that when used for such purposes that hydrogen peroxide possesses approximately the same amount of energy per pound as nitroglycerin and does not cost very much more per It is impossible to release the energy of nitroglycerin at a controlled rate, as nitroglycerin detonates, whereas I have found that metal permanganates and manganese dioxide, that the energy released can be controlled by supplying the hydrogen peroxide and controlling its contact with catalysts. For a given rate of flow of the hydrogen peroxide against the catalyst, a given amount of the catalyst is released in the form of high velocity gases consisting of steam and oxygen.
I prefer to employ the most concentrated forms of hydrogen peroxide available. At present it is possible to purchase 98 per cent hydrogen perand the 98 per cent hydrogen peroxide will produce even better results and hotter gases. The
rate of decomposition is controlled closely by the rate of ejection of the hydrogen peroxide into a chamber containing the catalyst.
In Figure 1 a well generally designated as 8 contains a casing or pipe 'i' the lower end 8 of which has been cut off by the operation of the apparatus shown by the removal of solid material of the pipe in the well at 9. 9 is an annular cut through the pipe 'i into the wall of the well 6. Suspended into space i i in well is a hydrogen peroxide cutting apparatus generally designated as l2. Apparatus i2 comprises a tank i3 having a lling plug it which tank is illed up to the dotted line It with concentrated hydrogen peroxide of at least 30 per cent by weight concentration. The tank i3 above surface i6 preferably filled with an inert gas such as nitrogen or carbon dioxide and this inert gas is preferably under high pressure to provide means for forcibly ejecting the hydrogen peroxide from the tank.
Tank i3 is suspended in the well Si on a suitable suspension means such as cable il, and in the form shown in Figure l it is preferred to provide a swivel connection i8 and i9 in order to allow rotation of tank i3 without twisting cable il.
The hydrogen peroxide emerges from the bottom of tank i3 through an outlet conduit 2l. rl'he iow of hydrogen peroxide through conduit 2i is controlled by time valve 22 which is opened and closed by a clock 23. 22 is a shutoi valve and in place of clock 23 to make the device a time valve, l. contemplate in some instances employing a remote control electric valve (not shown) in which a solenoid operates valve 22 and is controlled by an electric circuit including Wires running to the surface of the ground, a source of power and a switch at the surface of the ground. l also contemplate valve 22 being controlled by a linkage mechanism having a portion projecting above tank i3 adjacent cable I'i and then dropping a go-devil, such as a section of pipe threaded on cable Il, (not shown) down the well to strike the linkage mechanism (not shown) to open valve 22.
It is preferred to also control the flow of the liquid in conduit 2l by a check valve 24 which allows flow outward through the conduit but prevents backward flow. While valve 24 is not absolutely essential and the device may be operated without the same in many instances, it is a desirable safety feature as the hydrogen peroxide decomposition process may cause hydrogen peroxide to tend to back up through pipe 2li and this decomposing hydrogen peroxide may contain fragments of catalytic material. Therefore these products of decomposition should not be allowed to enter tank i3.
After passing check valve 2li the hydrogen peroxide is discharged into a turbine rotor vided with a central chamber 2l and one or more outwardly directed spiral passages 23. A portion of the wall oi chamber 2 is lined with one of the suitable hydrogen peroxide decomposition catalysts listed above in the form of an insert 25 prowhether the containing on the end of cable H and 29. In order to simplify assembly insert 29 may be a portion of a cap member 3i which can be unscrewed in order from pipe 2i. Pipe 2i is made in suitable sections fastened together at points such as 32 so that the parts disassemble.
As shown in Figure l the apparatus I2 is in place to commence the treatment of the wall 33 of well t.
As shown in Figure 2 the passages 28 in head 2t are curved and spiral outwardly so that the emerging the jets Sli will not only have an outward force but a torque producing force rotation in the direction indicated by arrow 35 as in a reaction jet turbine. The catalyst cake or plate 2S in the center of cap 3l is directly in the path of flow oi hydrogen peroxide out of outlet conduit 2i.
When it is desired to employ a steady jet at a single point in place of the revolving jet or jets of Figure l then that portion of outlet conduit 2l below connection 32 is removed and replaced by lower outlet conduit 36 of Figure 3 which has a plug 31 in which is mounted a cake of catalytic material 38 and a jet 39 in a portion of the apparatus ll which is directed at right angles from pipe 35.
When it is desired to drill with a downwardly directed jet, the device shown in Figure 4 is studied for the portions of the outlet conduit 2i below joint 32. The jet in Figure 4 consists of an upper pipe l2 and a lower pipe 43 containing an outlet jet 4d. As one means of retaining the catalyst, the catalyst may be in the form of a ring iii secured between pipes t2 and 43 and pipes 42 and t3 may be secured together by a coupling pipe A6.
When employing the directed jet il of Figure 3 it is often desirable to hold the jet at a single position. It is also often desirable to orient the direction of the jet. These two objects can be accomplished by providing tank i3' with the apparatus shown in Figure 5. Tank I3 not only has jet M but is controlled, rotated and oriented by a rigid rod or pipe ll and 4S coupled by couplings 49. In this manner by surveying the device into the hole the direction of jet di is assured. Tank I3, and jet di can be prevented from rotation by providing spring spacing elements 5l. Elements 5| center tank i3' in well and space jet il a suitable distance from pipe 'l in order to perforate holes in the same or space jet dl from wall 33 a suitable distance for the same purposes.
Springs 5I also ring when the jet act to prevent rotation occuris turned on and thereby produce a more concentrated hole in the wall of the well.
Operation Tank I3 is made of aluminum or other noncatalytic material and so are the portions of outlet conduit 2i down to the point where catalyst 29 is located. After that point it is immaterial device is catalytic or nonto make turbine head 2G Figure 4 out of materials catalytic and l prefer and jet such as d3 of resistant to stress at chrome steel alloys. that jets 26 and i3 material as they may be the jet even though they are rapidly ing in the process.
'Ihe device of Figure It is not essential however be made of any particular edective in directing disintegratl is lowered into space H positioned by cable to allow removal of head 25 high temperatures such as ation before removing the device from the well. The high pressure inert gas above surface l forces the hydrogen peroxide through open valve 22 and check valve 26 against catalyst 29. The hydrogen peroxide decomposition catalyst 29 decomposes the hydrogen peroxide and forms thereby about four thousand times its volume of hot steam and oxygen. The hot steam and oxygen rushes out jet 23 causing head 2t to rotate in the direction shown by arrow 35 in Figure 2. At the same time the outwardly directed jets cut, corrode and if inflammable materials are present they also burn their way through solid material and remove the same from a portion of the wall of the Y@fell bore. For example, if positioned at point s they would cut the lower part 8 from the upper part of pipe l as shown at e.
If instead of passing through the turbine the jet is directed downwardly as shown in Figure l the jet Will dislodge material from the bottom of the hole and drill the well making the same deeper.
If the jet is held substantially stationary as jet ll in Figure 5 the jet may be directed to form a perforation in a pipe such as 'l or form a horizontal passage in the wall 33 or" well E which pasage increases the potential product of oil or other valuable material in the Well. When employed in a Well sand containing oil, the oxygen in the jet can burn the oil in the sand, heat the formation melting paraffin causing melting, spalling, expansion of gases in the formation aiding in the deepening of the horizontal hole.
While I have shown several preferred embodiments of my invention in the drawings and described the same in the speciication, this has been done for purposes of illustration as the scope of the invention is described in the following claims.
While other substances act as hydrogen peroxide decomposition catalysts and may be used in practicing this invention, I prefer to use the catalysts listed in the claims as being more eilicient. While I have shown in the drawings the use oi a caire of catalyst obviously a supply of catalyst in liquid or powdered form could be dumped into the Well before commencing operations, or duid catalyst could be supplied simultaneously or intermittently as needed by employing the apparatus shown in my oopending application Serial No. 69,212 led January 4, 1949, entitled Method and Apparatus for Well Drilling Operations Empolying Hydrogen Peroxide by substituting for the fuel 22 shown in tank i'! thereof a suitable hydrogen peroxide decomposition catalyst in fluid form. In such case the hydrogen peroxide would still be contacted with said catalyst as claimed herein.
Having described my invention, I claim:
l. The process of removing solid material from a portion of a Wall of a Well bore in the earth comprising positioning a supply of at least '70% by Weight hydrogen peroxide adjacent the point of said removal in said bore hole, ejecting said hydrogen peroxide from said supply, contacting said ejected hydrogen peroxide with a hydrogen peroxide decomposition catalyst selected from the group consisting of finely divided silver, iinely divided platinum, alkali metal and alkaline earth metal permanganates and manganese dioxide,
a annular groove through the pipe to iet normal to the and directing the volume of steam and oxygen produced by said decomposition in a jet against said solid material to remove the same.
2. The process of removing solid material from contacting a hydrogen peroxide decomposition catalyst, and directing the volume of steam and oxygen produced by said decomposition against said solid material to remove the same.
steam and oxygen produced by said decomposition against said solid material to remove the same.
6. The process of severing a pipe in a Well bore comprising positioning a supply of at least by Weight contacting said ejected hydrogen peroxide with decomposition catalyst, and of steam and oxygen produced by said decomposition in a plane normal axis of said pipe to cut an sever the same.
7. The process of severing a pipe in a well bore comprising positioning a supply of by Weight hydrogen peroxide 1n said bore hole, contacting said hydrogen peroxide with a hydrogen peroxide decomposition catalyst, and directa plane normal to the 1ongitudinal axis of said pipe to cut an annular groove through the pipe to sever the same.
3. The process of perforating a pipe in a well bore comprising positioning a supply of at least 70% by Weight hydrogen peroxide in said bore hole, ejecting said hydrogen peroxide from said supply, contacting said ejected hydrogen peroxide with a hydrogen peroxide decomposition catalyst, and directing the volume of steam and oxygen produced by said decomposition in a fixed surface of the pipe at the desired point of perforation to make a perforation in said pipe at said point.
9. The process of perforating a pipe in a well bore comprising positioning a supply of at least 70% by weight hydrogen peroxide in said bore hole, contacting said hydrogen peroxide with a hydrogen peroxide decomposition catalyst, and directing the volume of steam and ox 1gen produced by said decomposition in a fixed jet normal to the surface of the pipe at the desired point of perforation to make a perforation in said pipe at said point.
10. The process of drilling a well bore hole comprising positioning a supply oi at least 79% by weight hydrogen peroxide in said bore hole, ejecting said hydrogen peroxide from said supply, contacting said eiected hydrogen peroxide with a hydrogen peroxide decomposition catalyst, and directing the volume oi steam and oxygen produced by said decomposition in a jet downward 2 against the bottom oi' sald bore hole to deepen the same.
11. The process of drilling a well bore hole comprising positioning a supply of at least 70% by weight hydrogen peroxide in said bore hole, contacting said hydrogen peroxide with a hydrogen peroxide decomposition catalyst, and directing the volume of steam and oxygen produced by said decomposition in a jet downward against the bottom of said bore hole to deepen the Same.
12. Apparatus for producing a jet oi hydrogen peroxide decomposition products comprising in combination a tank for said hydrogen peroxide, means to position said tank in a well, means to supply gas pressure to said tank to eject said hydrogen peroxide, an outlet conduit comprising a rotatable reaction jet turbine, a hydrogen peroxide decomposition catalyst secured in position in said outlet, a check valve in said outlet preventing hack iow therethrough, a shutoff valve in said outlet, and means to open said shutoff valve comprising a clock control.
13. Apparatus for producing a jet oi hydrogen peroxide decomposition products comprising in combination a means to position said tank in a well, means to supply gas pressure to said tank to eject said hydrogen peroxide, an outlet conduit, a hydrogen peroxide decomposition catalyst secured in position in said preventing back ow therethrough, a shutoff valve in said outlet, and means to open said shutofi valve comprising a clock control.
le. Apparatus ior producing a jet of hydrogen peroxide decomposition products comprising in combination a tank for said hydrogen peroxide, means to position said tank in a well, means to supply gas pressure to said tank to eject said tank for said hydrogen peroxide,
outlet, a check valve in said outlet eli) hydrogen peroxide, an outlet conduit, a hydrogen peroxide decomposition catalyst secured in position in said outlet, a check valve in said outlet preventing back flow therethrough, a shutoii valve in said outlet, and means to open said shutoi valve.
15. Apparatus for producing a jet of hydrogen peroxide decomposition products comprising in combination a tank for said hydrogen peroxide, means to position said tank in a well, means to eject said hydrogen peroxide, an outlet conduit, a hydrogen peroxide decomposition catalyst secured in position in said outlet, a check valve in said outlet preventing back iiow therethrough, a shutoi valve in said outlet, and means to open said shutoff valve.
16. Apparatus for producing a jet of hydrogen peroxide decomposition products comprising in combination a tank for said hydrogen peroxide, means to position said tank in a well, means to eject said hydrogen peroxide, an outlet conduit, a hydrogen peroxide decomposition catalyst secured in position in said outlet, a shutoir valve in said outlet, and means to open said shuto valve.
17. The combination of claim 16 in which the discharge conduits comprise a rotatable reaction turbine.
References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,433,946 rli'hacher Oct. 211, 1922 1,582,184 Minis Apr. 27, 1926 1,639,068 Shannon et al. Aug. 16, 1927 1,692,924 Brown Nov. 27, 1928 2,1%,208 Van Meter Jan. 17, 1939 2,181,095 Ness Nov. 21, 1939 2,259,419 Heey et al Oct. 14, 1941 2,261,292 Salnikoy Nov. ll, 1941 2,266,208 Jones Dec. 16, 1941 2,283,510 Potter May 19, 1942 2,315,496 Boynton Apr. 6, 1943 2,327,498 Burch Aug. 24, 1943 2,327,508 Craig Aug. 2e, 1943 2,436,036 Defenbaugh Feb. 17, 1948 2,525,391 Bates Oct. 10, 1950 2,571,636 Watkins Oct. 16, 1951 OTHER REFERENCES Little, Industrial Bulletin, No. 220, April 1946, page 23.
Coast Artillery 1948, page 28.
Smith, A., General Chemistry for Colleges, 2nd edition, pages 223-224. The Century Co., New York, 1916.
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|U.S. Classification||175/14, 166/223, 166/59, 175/93, 175/64, 166/64, 148/204, 175/15, 166/55.1, 166/297, 175/12|
|International Classification||E21B29/00, E21B43/114, E21B7/14, E21B43/11|
|Cooperative Classification||E21B29/00, E21B43/114, E21B7/14|
|European Classification||E21B29/00, E21B43/114, E21B7/14|